Skip to main content

Full text of "Isis unveiled : a master-key to the mysteries of ancient and modern science and theology"

See other formats




THIS    BOOK   IS    ONE    OF   A 



I    Cornell  University 
f    Library 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 



Mysteries   of  Ancient  and  Mo-dern 


H.   P.    BLAVATSKY, 


''Cecy  est  un  livre  de  bonne  Foy." — Montaigne. 

Vol.    \l.— theology. 


J.    W.    BOUTON,    706    BROADWAY. 



Copyright,  by 
J.    "W.    BOTJTON. 


Printing  and  Bookdinding  Co., 


205-213  Kast  \ith  St., 

NEW    VORiC, 



Mrs.  Elizabetli  Thompson  and  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts. 



THE    CHURCH  :     WHERE    IS    IT  ? 

Church  statistics I 

Catholic  "  miracles"  and  spiritualistic  "phenomena" 4 

Christian  and  Pagan  beliefs  compared lo 

Magic  and  sorcery  practised  by  Christian  clergy 20 

Comparative  theology  a  new  science , 25 

Eastern  traditions  as  to  Alexandrian  Library 27 

Roman  pontiffs  imitators  of  the  Hindu  Brahm-atma 30 

Christian  dogmas  derived  from  Iieathen  philosophy 33 

Doctrine  of  the  Trinity  of  Pagan  origin 45 

Disputes  between  Gnostics  and  Church  Fathers SI 

Bloody  records  of  Christianity S3 



Sorceries  of  Catherine  of  Medicis S5 

Occult  arts  practised  by  the  clergy 59 

Witch-burnings  and  auto-da-fe  of  little  children 62 

Lying  Catholic  saints 74 

Pretensions  of  missionaries  in  India  and  China 79 

Sacrilegious  tricks  of  Catholic  clergy 82 

Paul  a  kabalist 91 

Petsr  not  the  founder  of  Roman  church 91 

Strict  lives  of  Pagan  hierophants 98 

High  character  of  ancient  "mysteries" ■ lOI 



Jacolliot'  s  account  of  Hindu  fakirs 

Cliristian  symbolism  derived  from  Pliallic  worship " 

Hindu  doctrine  of  the  Pitris 

Brahminic  spirit -communion 

Dangers  of  untrained  mediumsliip 



Resemblance  between  early  Christianity  and  Buddhism 123 

Peter  never  in  Rome 4 

Meanings  of  "  Nazar  "  and  "  Nazarene  " 129 

Baptism  a  derived  right ^ ' '34 

Is  Zoroaster  a  generic  name  ? 14' 

Pythagorean  teachings  of  Jesus '47 

The  Apocalypse  kabalistic '47 

Jesus  considered  an  adept  by  some  Pagan  philosophers  and  early  Christians 150 

Doctrine  of  permutation 'S^ 

The  meaning  of  God-Incarnate '53 

Dogmas  of  the  Gnostics I5S 

Ideas  of  Marcion,  the  "heresiarch" I59 

Precepts  of  Manu '"3 

Jehovah  identical  with  Bacchus 165 



Discrepancies  in  the  Pentateuch 167 

Indian,  Chaldean  and  Ophite  systems  compared 17° 

Who  were  the  first  Christians?    17^ 

Christos  and  Sophia- Achamoth I  S3 

Secret  doctrine  taught  by  Jesus 191 

Jesus  never  claimed  to  be  God 1 93 

New  Testament  narratives  and  Hindu  legends 199 

Antiquity  of  the  "  Logos ' '  and  "  Christ  " 205 

Comparative  Virgin-worship 209 



En-Soph  and  the  Sephiroth 212 

The  primitive  wisdom-religion 2i6 

The  book  of  Genesis  a  compilation  of  Old  Wo-  Id  legends 217 

The  Trinity  of  the  Kabala ,  22a 



Gnostic  and  Nazarene  systems  contrasted  mth  Hindu  myths 225 

Kabalism  in  the  book  of  Ezekiel * 232 

Story  of  the  resurrection  of  Jairus's  daughter  found  in  the  history  of  Christna 241 

Untrustworthy  teachings  of  the  eai'Iy  Fathers 248 

Their  persecuting  spirit 249 



Decisions  of  Nicean  Council,  how  arrived  at 251 

Murder  of  Hypatia 252 

Origm  of  the  fish-symbol  of  Vishnu 256 

Kabalistic  doctrine  of  the  Cosmogony 264 

Diagrams  of  Hindu  and  Chaldeo- Jewish  systems 265 

Ten  mythical  Avatars  of  Vishnu 274 

Trinity  of  man  taught  by  Paul   281 

Socrates  and  Plato  on  soul  and  spirit 283 

True  Buddhism,  what  it  is 288 



Nazareans,  Ophites,  and  modern  Druzes 291 

Etymology  of  TAG 29S 

"  Hermetic  Brothers  "of  Egypt 307 

True  meaning  of  Nirvana 319 

The  Jai'na  sect 321 

Christians  and  Christians 323 

The  Gnostics  and  their  detractors 325 

Buddha,  Jesus,  and  ApoUonius  of  Tyana 341 



The  Sohar  and  Rabbi  Simeon 348 

The  Order  of  Jesuits  and  its  relation  to  some  of  the  Masonic  orders 352 

Crimes  permitted  to  its  members 355 

Principles  of  Jesuitry  compared  with  those  of  Pagan  moralists 364 

Trinity  of  man  in  Egyptian  Book  of  the  Dead 367 

Freemasonry  no  longer  esoteric 372 

Persecution  of  Templars  by  the  Church 381 

Secret  Masonic  ciphers ^. 39S 

Jehovah  not  the  "  Ineffable  Name  " 398 


'  PAGE 

Nearly  eveiy  my th  based  on  some  gi'eat  truth 4°S 

Whence  the  Christian  Sabbath 4o6 

Antiquity  of  the  Vedas 4'° 

Pythagorean  doctrine  of  the  potentialities  of  numbers 4^7 

"  Days"  of  Genesis  and  "  Days  "  of  Brahma 422 

Fall  of  man  and  the  Deluge  in  the  Hindu  books 425 

Antiquity  of  the  Mahabharata 429 

Were  the  ancient  Egyptians  of  the  Aryan  race  ? 434 

Samuel,  David,  and  Solomon  mythical  personages 439 

Symbolism  of  Noah's  Ark 447 

The  Patriarchs  identical  with  zodiacal  signs , 459 

All  Bible  legends  belong  to  universal  history 469 



The  devil  officially  recognized  by  tha  Church x.77 

Satan  the  mainstay  of  sacerdotalism , .gg 

Identity  of  Satan  with  the  Egyptian  Typhon -g. 

His  relation  to  serpent-worship .gq 

The  Book  of  Job  and  the  Book  of  the  Dead ,g. 

The  Hindu  devil  a  metaphysical  abstraction coi 

Satan  and  the  Prince  of  Hell  in  the  Gospel  of  Nicodemus 515 



The  age  of  philosophy  produced  no  atheists c,g 

The  legends  of  three  Saviours .,_ 

Christian  doctrine  of  the  Atonement  illogical p  . , 

Cause  of  the  failure  of  missionaries  to  convert  Buddhists  and  Brahmanists cc-j 

Neither  Buddha  nor  Jesus  left  written  records -ro 

The  grandest  mysteries  of  religion  in  the  Bagaved-gita rg. 

The  meaning  of  regeneration  explained  in  the  Satapa-Brahmana rgr 

The  sacrifice  of  blood  interpreted <-^ 

Demoralization  of  British  India  by  Christla-n  missionaries 

The  Bible  less  authenticated  than  any  other  sacred  book 

Knowledge  of  chemistry  and  physics  displayed  by  Indian  jugglers.  .  . .  cgi 



Recapitulation  of  fundamental  propositions 

Seership  of  the  soul  and  of  the  spirit 

^  S90 



The  phenomenon  of  the  so-called  spirit-hand 594 

Difference  between  mediums  and  adepts •. 595 

Interview  of  an  English  ambassador  with  a  reincarnated  Buddha 598 

Flight  of  a  lama's  astral  body  related  by  Abbe  Hue 604 

Schools  of  magic  in  Buddhist  lamaseries 609 

The  unknown  race  of  Hindu  Todas 613 

Will-power  of  fakirs  and  yogis 617 

Taming  of  wild  beasts  by  fakirs 622 

Evocation  of  a  living  spirit  by  a  Shaman,  witnessed  by  the  writer 626 

Sorcery  by  the  breath  of  a  Jesuit  Father 633 

Why  the  study  of  magic  is  almost  impracticable  in  Europe 635 

Conclusion 635 


WERE  it  possible,  we  would  keep  this  work  out  of  the  hands  of 
many  Christians  whom  its  perusal  would  not  benefit,  and  for 
whom  it  was  not  written.  We  allude  to  those  whose  faith  in  their  respec- 
tive churches  is  pure  and  sincere,  and  those  whose  sinless  lives  reflect  the 
glorious  example  of  that  Prophet  of  Nazareth,  by  whose  mouth  the  spirit 
of  truth  spake  loudly  to  humanity.  Such  there  have  been  at  all  times. 
History  preserves  the  names  of  many  as  heroes,  philosophers,  philan- 
thropists, martyrs,  and  holy  men  and  women  ;  but  how  many  more  have 
lived  and  died,  unknown  but  to  their  intimate  acquaintance,  unblessed 
but  by  their  humble  beneficiaries  !  These  have  ennobled  Christianit)', 
but  would  have  shed  the  same  lustre  upon  any  other  faith  they  might  have 
professed — for  they  were  higher  than  their  creed.  The  benevolence  of 
Peter  Cooper  and  Elizabeth  Thompson,  of  America,  who  are  not  ortho- 
dox Christians,  is  no  less  Christ-like  than  that  of  the  Baroness  Angela 
Burdett-Coutts,  of  England,  who  is  one.  And  yet,  in  comparison  with 
the  milhons  who  have  been  accounted  Christians,  such  have  always 
formed  a  small  minority.  They  are  to  be  found  at  this  day,  in  pul- 
pit and  pew,  in  palace  and  cottage  ;  but  the  increasing  materialism, 
worldliness  and  hypocrisy  are  fast  diminishing  their  proportionate  num- 
ber. Their  charity,  and  simple,  child-like  faith  in  the  infallibiUty  of  their 
Bible,  their  dogmas,  and  their  clergy,  bring  into  full  activity  all  the  virtues 


that  are  implanted  in  our  common  nature.  We  have  personally  known 
such  God-fearing  priests  and  clergymen,  and  we  have  always  avoided 
debate  with  them,  lest  we  might  be  guilty  of  the  cruelty  of  hurting  their 
feelings;  nor  would  we  rob  a  single  layman  of  his  blind  confidence,  if  it 
alone  made  possible  for  him  holy  living  and  serene  dying. 

An  analysis  of  religious  beliefs  in  general,  this  volume  is  in  particu- 
lar, directed  against  theological  Christianity,  the  chief  opponent  of  free 
thought.  It  contains  not  one  word  against  the  pure  teachings  of  Jesus, 
but  unsparingly  denounces  their  debasement  into  pernicious  ecclesiasti- 
cal systems  that  are  ruinous  to  man's  faith  in  his  immortality  and  his 
God,  and  subversive  of  all  moral  restraint. 

We  cast  our  gauntlet  at  the  dogmatic  theologians  who  would  enslave 
both  history  and  science ;  and  especially  at  the  Vatican,  whose  despotic 
pretensions  have  become  hateful  to  the  greater  portion  of  enlightened 
Christendom.  The  clergy  apart,  none  but  the  logician,  the  investigator, 
the  dauntless  explorer  should  meddle  with  books  like  this.  Such  delv- 
ers  after  truth  have  the  courage  of  their  opinions. 





"  Yea,  the  time  cometh,  that  whomsoever  killeth  you,  will  think  that  he  doeth  God  service." — Gospel 
accordi7ig  to  Joh7t^  xvi.  2. 

"  Let  him  be  Anathema  .  .  .  who  shall  say  that  human  Sciences  ought  to  be  pursued  In  such  a 
spirit  of  freedom  that  one  may  be  allowed  to  hold  as  true  their  assertions  even  when  opposed  to  revealed 
doctrines." — CEcununical  Council  of  1870. 

"  Glouc— The  Church  !    Where  is  \f>"—King- He?iry  VI.,  Act  i.,  Sc.  i. 

IN  the  United  States  of  America,  sixty  thousand  {60,428)  men  are  paid 
salaries  to  teach  the  Science  of  God  and  His  relations  to  His  crea- 

These  men  contract  to  impart  to  us  the  knowledge  which  treats  of 
the  existence,  character,  and  attributes  of  our  Creator ;  His  laws  and 
government ;  the  doctrines  we  are  to  believe  and  the  duties  we  are  to 
practice.  Five  thousand  (5,141)  of  them,*  with  the  prospect  of  1273 
theological  students  to  help  them  in  time,  teach  this  science  according 
to  a  formula  prescribed  by  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  to  five  million  people. 
Fifty-five  thousand  (55,287)  local  and  travelling  ministers,  representing 
fifteen  different  denominations,  f  each  contradicting  the  other  upon  more 
or  less  vital  theological  questions,  instnict,  in  their  respective  doctrines, 
thirty-three  million  (33,500,000)  other  persons.  Many  of  these  teach  ac- 
cording to  the  canons  of  the  cis-Atlantic  branch  of  an  establishment 
which  acknowledges  a  daughter  of  the  late  Duke  of  Kent  as  its  spiritual 

*  These  figures  are  copied  from  the  "  Religious  Statistics  of  the  United  States  for  tin, 
year  1871." 

\  These  are  :  The  Baptists,  Congregationalists,  Episcopalians,  Northern  Method- 
ists, Southern  Methodists,  Methodists  various.  Northern  Presbyterians,  Southern  Pres- 
byterians, United  Presbyterians,  United  Brethren,  Brethren  in  Christ,  Reformed 
Dutch.,  Reformed  German,  Reformed  Presbyterians,  Cumberland  Presbyterians. 


head.  There  are  many  hundred  thousand  Jews;  some  thousands  of 
Orientals  of  all  kinds  ;  and  a  very  few  who  belong  to  the  Greek  Church. 
A  man  at  Salt  Lake  City,  with  nineteen  wives  and  more  than  one  hun- 
dred children  and  grandchildren,  is  the  supreme  spiritual  ruler  over 
ninety  thousand  people,  who  believe  that  he  is  in  frequent  mtercourse 
with  the  gods — for  the  Mormons  are  Polytheists  as  well  as  Polygamists, 
and  their  chief  god  is  represented  as  living  in  a  planet  they  call  Colob. 

The  God  of  the  Unitarians  is  a  bachelor;  the  Deity  of  the  Presby- 
terians, Methodists,  Congregationalists,  and  the  other  orthodox  Protestant 
sects  a  spouseless  Father  with  one  Son,  who  is  identical  with  Himself. 
In  the  attempt  to  outvie  each  other  in  the  erection  of  their  sixty-two 
thousand  and  odd  churches,  prayer-houses,  and  meeting-halls,  in  which 
to  teach  these  conflicting  theological  doctrines,  $354,  485,  581  have  been 
spent.  The  value  of  the  Protestant  parsonages  alone,  in  which  are 
sheltered  the  disputants  and  their  families,  is  roughly  calculated  to 
approximate  $54,115,297.  Sixteen  million  (16,179,387)  dollars,  are, 
morever,  contributed  every  year  for  current  expenses  of  the  Protestant 
denominations  only.  One  Presbyterian  church  in  New  York  cost  a  round 
million  ;  a  Catholic  altar  alone,  one-fourth  as  much  ! 

We  will  not  mention  the  multitude  of  smaller  sects,  communities,  and 
extravagantly  original  little  heresies  in  this  country  which  spring  up  one 
year  to  die  out  the  next,  like  so  many  spores  of  fungi  after  a  rainy  day. 
We  will  not  even  stop  to  consider  the  alleged  millions  of  Spiritualists ; 
for  the  majority  lack  the  courage  to  break  away  from  their  respective  re- 
ligious denominations.     These  are  the  back-door  Nicodemuses. 

And  now,  with  Pilate,  let  us  inquire.  What  is  truth  ?  Where  is  it  to  be 
searched  for  amid  this  multitude  of  warring  sects  ?  Each  claims  to  be 
based  upon  divine  revelation,  and  each  to  have  the  keys  of  the  celestial 
gates.  Is  either  in  possession  of  this  rare  truth  ?  Or,  must  we  exclaim 
with  the  Buddhist  philosopher,  "  There  is  but  one  truth  on  earth,  and  it 
is  unchangeable  :  and  this  is — that  there  is  no  truth  on  it  !  " 

Though  we  have  no  disposition  whatever  to  trench  upon  the  ground 
that  has  been  so  exhaustively  gleaned  by  those  learned  scholars  who  have 
shown  that  every  Christian  dogma  has  its  origin  in  a  heathen  rite,  still  the 
facts  which  they  have  exhumed,  since  the  enfranchisement  of  science,  will 
lose  nothing  by  repetition.  Besides,  we  propose  to  examine  these  facts 
from  a  different  and  perhaps  rather  novel  point  of  view  :  that  of  the  old 
philosophies  as  esoterically  understood.  These  we  have  barely  glanced 
at  in  our  first  volume.  We  will  use  them  as  the  standard  by  which  to 
compare  Christian  dogmas  and  miracles  with  the  doctrines  and  pheno- 
mena of  ancient  magic,  and  the  modern  "  New  Dispensation,"  as  Spirit- 
ualism is  called  by  its  votaries.     Since  the  materialists  deny  the  phenom- 

"THE  church!    where   IS   IT?"  3 

ena  without  investigation,  and  since  the  theologians  in  admitting  them 
offer  us  the  poor  choice  of  two  palpable  absurdities — the  Devil  and  mira- 
cles— we  can  lose  httle  by  applying  to  the  theurgists,  and  tbey  may  actu- 
ally help  us  to  throw  a  great  hght  upon  a  very  dark  subject. 

Professor  A.  Butlerof,  of  the  Imperial  University  of  St.  Petersburg, 
remarks  in  a  recent  pamphlet,  entitled  Mediuviistic  Manifestations,  as 
follows  :  "  Let  the  facts  (of  modern  spiritualism)  belong  if  you  will  to  the 
number  of  those  which  were  more  or  less  known  by  the  ancients  ;  let 
them  be  identical  with  those  which  in  the  dark  ages  gave  importance  to 
the  office  of  Egyptian  priest  or  Roman  augur  ;  let  them  even  furnish  the 
basis  of  the  sorcery  of  our  Siberian  Shaman  ;  ...  let  them  be  all  these, 
and,  if  they  are  real  facts,  it  is  no  business  of  ours.  All  the  facts  in 
nature  belong  to  science,  and  every  addition  to  the  store  of  science  en- 
riches instead  of  impoverishing  her.  If  humanity  has  once  admitted  a 
trutii,  and  then  in  the  blindness  of  self-conceit  denied  it,  to  return  to  its 
realization  is  a  step  forward  and  not  backward." 

Since  the  day  that  modern  science  gave  what  may  be  considered  the 
death-blow  to  dogmatic  theology,  by  assuming  the  ground  that  religion 
was  full  of  mysterjf,  and  mystery  is  unscientific,  the  mental  state  of 
the  educated  class  has  presented  a  curious  aspect.  Society  seems  from 
that  time  to  have  been  ever  balancing  itself  upon  one  leg,  on  an  unseen 
tight-rope  stretched  from  our  visible  universe  into  the  invisible  one  ;  un- 
certain whether  the  end  hooked  on  faith  in  the  latter  might  not  suddenly 
break,  and  hurl  it  into  final  annihilation. 

The  great  body  of  nominal  Christians  may  be  divided  into  three 
unequal  portions  :  materialists,  spiritualists,  and  Christians  proper.  The 
materialists  and  spiritualists  make  common  cause  against  the  hierarchical 
pretensions  of  the  clergy  ;  wl>o,  in  retaliation,  denounce  both  with  equal 
acerbity.  The  materialists  are  as  little  in  harmony  as  the  Christian  sects 
themselves — the  Comtists,  or,  as  they  call  themselves,  the  positivists, 
being  despised  and  hated  to  the  last  degree  by  the  schools  of  thinkers, 
one  of  which  Maudsley  honorably  represents  in  England.  Positivism,  be 
it  remembered,  is  that  "  religion  "  of  the  future  about  whose  founder  even 
Huxley  has  made  himself  wrathful  in  his  famous  lecture.  The  Physical 
Basis  of  Life ;  and  Maudsley  felt  obhged,  in  behalf  of  modern  science, 
to  express  himself  thus  :  "It  is  no  wonder  that  scientific  men  should  be 
anxious  to  disclaim  Comte  as  their  law-giver,  and  to  protest  against  such 
a  king  being  set  up  to  reign  over  them.  Not  conscious  of  any  personal 
obligation  to  his  writings — conscious  how  much,  in  some  respects,  he  has 
misrepresented  the  spirit  and  pretensions  of  science — they  repudiate  the 
allegiance  which  his  enthusiastic  disciples  would  force  upon  them,  and 
which  popular  opinion  is  fast  coming  to  think  a  natural  one.     They  do 


well  in  thus  making  a  timely  assertion  of  independence  ;  for  if  it  be  not 
done  soon,  it  will  soon  be  too  late  to  be  done  well."  *  When  a  mate- 
rialistic doctrine  is  repudiated  so  strongly  by  two  such  materialists  as 
Huxley  and   Maudsley,  then  we   must   think   indeed  that  it  is  absurdity 


Among  Christians  there  is  nothing  but  dissension.  Their  various 
churches  represent  every  degree  of  religious  belief,  from  the  omnivorous 
credulity  of  blind  faith  to  a  condescending  and  high-toned  deference  to 
the  Deity  which  thinly  masks  an  evident  conviction  of  their  own  deific 
wisdom.  All  these  sects  believe  more  or  less  in  the  immortality  of  the 
soul.  Some  admit  the  intercourse  between  the  two  worlds  as  a  fact ; 
some  entertain  the  opinion  as  a  sentiment  ;  some  positively  deny  it ;  and 
only  a  few  maintain  an  attitude  of  attention  and  expectancy. 

Impatient  of  restraint,  longing  for  the  return  of  the  dark  ages,  the 
Romish  Church  frowns  at  the  diabolical  manifestations,  and  indicates 
what  she  would  do  to  their  champions  had  she  but  the  power  of  old. 
Were  it  not  for  the  self-evident  fact  that  she  herself  is  placed  by  science 
on  trial,  and  that  she  is  handcuffed,  she  would  be  ready  at  a  moment's 
notice  to  repeat  in  the  nineteenth  century  the  revolting  scenes  of  former 
days.  As  to  the  Protestant  clergy,  so  furious  is  their  common  hatred 
toward  spiritualism,  that  as  a  secular  paper  very  truly  remarks  :  "  They 
seem  willing  to  undermine  the  public  faith  in  all  the  spiritual  pheno- 
mena of  the  past,  as  recorded  in  the  Bible,  if  they  can  only  see  the  pes- 
tilent modern  heresy  stabbed  to  the  heart."  f 

Summoning  back  the  long-forgotten  memories  of  the  Mosaic  laws, 
the  Romish  Church  claims  the  monopoly  of  miracles,  and  of  the  right 
to  sit  in  judgment  over  them,  as  being  the  sole  heir  thereto  by  di- 
rect inheritance.  The  Old  Testaynent,  exiled  by  Colenso,  his  prede- 
cessors and  contemporaries,  is  recalled  from  its  banishment.  The  proph- 
ets, whom  his  Holiness  the  Pope  condescends  at  last  to  place,  if  not  on 
the  same  level  with  himself,  at  least  at  a  less  respectful  distance,  J  are 
dusted  and  cleaned.  The  memory  of  all  the  diabolical  abracadabra  is 
evoked  anew.     The  blasphemous  horrors  perpetrated  by  Paganism,  its 

*  H.  Maudsley  :   "  Body  and  Mind." 

f  "  Boston  Sunday  Herald,"  November  5,  1876. 

\  See  the  self-glorification  of  the  present  Pope  in  the  work  entitled,  "  Speeches  of 
Pope  Pius  IX."  by  Don  Pascale  de  Franciscis  ;  and  the  famous  pamphlet  of  that  name 
by  the  Rt .  Hon.  W.  E.  Gladstone.  The  latter  quotes  from  the  work  named  the  fol- 
lowing sentence  pronounced  by  the  Pope;  "  My  wish  is  that  all  governments  should 
know  that  I  am  speaking  in  this  strain.  .  .  .  And  I  have  the  right  to  speak  even 
more  than  Nathan  the  prophet  to  David  the  king,  and  a  great  deal  more  than  St. 
Ambrose  had  to  Theodosins  1 1 " 


phallic  worship,  thaumaturgical  wonders  wrought  by  Satan,  human  sacri- 
fices, incantations,  witchcraft,  magic,  and  sorcery  are  recalled  and 
DEMONISM  is  confronted  with  spiritualism  for  mutual  recognition  and 
identification.  Our  modern  demonologists  conveniently  overlook  a  few 
insignificant  details,  among  which  is  the  undeniable  presence  of  heathen 
phallism  in  the  Christian  symbols.  A  strong  spiritual  element  of  this 
worship  may  be  easily  demonstrated  in  the  dogma  of  the  Immaculate 
Conception  of  the  Virgin  Mother  of  God ;  and  a  physical  element 
equally  proved  in  the  fetish-worship  of  the  holy  limbs  of  Sts.  Cosmo  and 
Damiano,  at  Isernia,  near  Naples  ;  a  successful  traffic  in  which  ex-voto 
in  wax  was  carried  on  by  the  clergy,  annually,  until  barely  a  half  centurj' 
ago.  * 

We  find  it  rather  unwise  on  the  part  of  Catholic  writers  to  pour  out 
their  vials  of  wrath  in  such  sentences  as  these  :  "  In  a  multitude  of 
pagodas,  the  phallic  stone,  ever  and  always  assuming,  like  the  Grecian 
batylos,  the  brutally  indecent  form  of  the  lingham  .  .  .  the  Maha 
Deva."  I  Before  casting  slurs  on  a  symbol  whose  profound  metaphysi- 
cal meaning  is  too  much  for  the  modern  champions  of  that  religion  of 
sensualism  far  excellence,  Roman  Catholicism,  to  grasp,  they  are  in  duty 
bound  to  destroy  their  oldest  churches,  and  change  the  form  of  the  cupolas 
of  their  own  temples.  The  Mahody  of  Elephanta,  the  Round  Tower  of 
Bhangulpore,  the  minarets  of  Islam — either  rounded  or  pointed — are  the 
originals  of  the  Campanile  column  of  San  Marco,  at  Venice,  of  the  Roch- 
ester Cathedral,  and  of  the  modern  Duorao  of  Milan.  All  of  these  steeples, 
turrets,  domes,  and  Christian  temples,  are  the  reproductions  of  the  primitive 
idea  of  the  litJios,  the  upright  phallus.  "The  western  tower  of  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral,  London,"  says  the  author  of  The  Hosicrucians,  "is  one  of  the 
double  liihoi  placed  always  in  front  of  every  temple,  Cliristian  as  well  as 
heathen."  \  Moreover,  in  all  Christian  Churches,  "  particularly  in  Prot- 
estant churches,  where  they  figure  most  conspicuously,  the  two  tables  of 
stone  of  the  Mosaic  Dispensation  are  placed  over  the  altar,  side  by  side, 
as  a  united  stone,  the  tops  of  which  are  rounded.  .  .  .  The  right  stone  is 
masculine,  the  left  feminine."  Therefore  neither  CathoUcs  nor  Protest- 
ants have  a  right  to  talk  of  the  "indecent  forms  "  of  heathen  monuments 
so  long  as  they  ornament  their  own  churches  with  the  symbols  of  the 
Lingham  and  Yoni,  and  even  write  the  laws  of  their  God  upon  them. 

Another  detail  not  redounding  very  particularly  to  the  honor  of  the 
Christian  clergy  might  be  recalled  in  the  word  Inquisition.     The  torrents 

*  See  King's  "Gnostics,"  and  other  works. 

\  Des  Mousseaux  ;    "  La  Magie  au  XlXme  Siecle,"  chap.  i. 

X  Hargrave  Jennings:     "  The  Rosicrucians,"  pp.  228-241. 


of  human  blood  shed  by  this  Christian  institution,  and  the  number  of 
its  human  sacrifices,  are  unparalleled  in  the  annals  of  Paganism.  Another 
still  more  prominent  feature  in  which  the  clergy  surpassed  their  "'^^'^"' 
the  "heathen,"  is  sorcery.  Certainly  in  no  Pagan  temple  was  black 
magic,  in  its  real  and  true  sense,  more  practiced  than  in  the  Vatican. 
While  strongly  supporting  exorcism  as  an  important  source  of  revenue, 
they  neglected  magic  as  little  as  the  ancient  heathen.  It  is  easy  to  prove 
that  the  sortilegium,  or  sorcery,  was  widely  practiced  among  the  clergy 
and  monks  so  late  as  the  last  century,  and  is  practiced  occasionally  even 

Anathematizing  every  manifestation  of  occult  nature  outside  the  pre- 
cincts of  the  Church,  the  clergy— notwithstanding  proofs  to  the  contrary 
—call  it  "  the  work  of  Satan,"  "  the  snares  of  the  fallen  angels,"  who 
"  rush  in  and  out  from  the  bottomless  pit,"  mentioned  by  John  in  his 
kabalistic  Revelation,  "  from  whence  arises  a  smoke  as  the  smoke  of  a 
great  furnace. "  "  Intoxicated  by  its  fumes,  around  this  pit  are  daily  gather- 
ing  millions  of  Spiritualists,  to  worship  at  ''the  Abyss  of  Baal:'  * 

More  than  ever  arrogant,  stubborn,  and  despotic,  now  that  she  has 
been  nearly  upset  by  modern  research,  not  daring  to  interfere  with  the 
powerful  champions  of  science,  the  Latin  Church  revenges  herself  upon 
the  unpopular  phenomena.  A  despot  without  a  victim,  is  a  word 
void  of  sense  ;  a  power  which  neglects  to  assert  itself  through  outward, 
well-calculated  effects,  risks  being  doubted  in  the  end.  The  Church  has 
no  intention  to  fall  into  the  oblivion  of  the  ancient  myths,  or  to  suffer  her 
authority  to  be  too  closely  questioned.  Hence  she  pursues,  as  well  as 
the  times  permit,  her  traditional  policy.  Lamenting  the  enforced  extinc- 
tion of  her  ally,  the  Holy  Inquisition,  she  makes  a  virtue  of  necessity. 
The  only  victims  now  within  reach  are  the  Spiritists  of  France.  Recent 
events  have  shown  that  the  meek  spouse  of  Christ  never  disdains  to 
retaliate  on  helpless  victims. 

Having  successfully  performed  her  part  of  Deus-ex-Machina  from 
behind  the  French  Bench,  which  has  not  scrupled  to  disgrace  itself  for 
her,  the  Church  of  Rome  sets  to  work  and  shows  in  the  year  1876  what 
she  can  do.  From  the  whirling  tables  and  dancing  pencils  of  profane 
Spiritualism,  the  Christian  world  is  warned  to  turn  to  the  divine  "  mira- 
cles "  of  Lourdes.  Meanwhile,  the  ecclesiastical  authorities  utilize  their 
time  in  arranging  for  other  more  easy  triumphs,  calculated  to  scare  the 
superstitious  out  of  their  senses.  So,  acting  under  orders,  the  clergy 
hurl  dramatic,  if  not  very  impressive  anathemas  from  every  Catliolic 
diocese  ;     threaten   right   and  left ;     excommunicate    and    curse.       Per- 

*  Des  Mousseaux  :     "  Hauls  Phenomenes  de  la  Magie." 


ceiving,  finally,  that  her  thunderbolts  dhected  even  against  crowned 
heads  fall  about  as  harmlessly  as  the  Jupiterean  lightnings  of  Offenbach's 
Calchas,  Rome  turns  about  in  powerless  fury  against  the  vLctimized  pro- 
teges of  the  Emperor  of  Russia — the  unfortunate  Bulgarians  and  Ser- 
vians. Undisturbed  by  evidence  and  sarcasm,  unbaffled  by  proof,  "  the 
lamb  of  the  Vatican  "  impartially  divides  his  wrath  between  the  liberals 
of  Italy,  "  the  impious  whose  breath  has  the  stench  of  the  sepulchre,"  * 
the  "  schismatic  Russian  Sarmates"  and  the  heretics  and  spiritualists, 
"who  worship  at  the  bottomless  pit  where  the  great  Dragon  lies  in 

Mr.  Gladstone  went  to  the  trouble  of  making  a  catalogue  of  what  he 
terms  the  "  flowers  of  speech,"  disseminated  through  these  Papal  dis- 
courses. Let  us  cull  a  few  of  the  chosen  terms  used  by  this  vicegerent  of 
Him  who  said  that,  "  whosoever  shall  say  Thou  fool,  shall  be  in  danger  of 
hell-fire."  They  are  selected  from  authentic  discourses.  Those  who 
oppose  the  Pope  are  "  wolves,  Pharisees,  thieves,  liars,  hypocrites,  drop- 
sical children  of  Satan,  sons  of  perdition,  of  sin,  and  corruption,  satellites 
of  Satan  in  human  flesh,  monsters  of  hell,  demons  incarnate,  stinking 
corpses,  men  issued  from  the  pits  of  hell,  traitors  and  Judases  led  by  the 
spirit  of  hell ;  children  of  the  deepest  pits  of  hell,"  etc.,  etc  ;  the  whole 
piously  collected  and  published  by  Don  Pasquale  di  Franciscis,  whom 
Gladstone  has,  with  perfect  propriety,  termed,  "  an  accomplished  profes- 
sor oiflunkeyistn  in  things  spiritual."  f 

Since  his  Holiness  the  Pope  has  such  a  rich  vocabulary  of  invectives 
at  his  command,  why  wonder  that  the  Bishop  of  Toulouse  did  not  scruple 
to  utter  the  most  undignified  falsehoods  about  the  Protestants  and  Spirit- 
ualists of  America — people  doubly  odious  to  a  Catholic — in  his  address 
to  his  diocese  :  "  Nothing,"  he  remarks,  "  is  more  common  in  an  era  of 
unbelief  than  to  see  a  false  revelation  substitute  itself  for  the  true  o?ie, 
and  minds  neglect  the  teachings  of  the  Holy  Church,  to  devote  them- 
selves to  the  study  of  divination  and  the  occult  sciences."  With  a  fine 
episcopal  contempt  for  statistics,  and  strangely  confounding  in  his  mem- 
ory the  audiences  of  the  revivalists,  Moody  and  Sankey,  and  the  patrons 
of  darkened  seance-rooms,  he  utters  the  unwarranted  and  fallacious  as- 
sertion that  "  it  has  been  proven  that  Spiritualism,  in  the  United  States, 
has  caused  one-sixth  of  all  the  cases  of  suicide  and  insanity."  He  says 
that  it  is  not  possible  that  the  spirits  ' '  teach  either  an  exact  science, 
because  they  are  lying  demons,  or  a  usefiil  science,  because  the  character 

*  Don  Pasquale  di  Franciscis :    "  Discorsi  del  Sommo  Pontefice  Pio  IX.,"  Part  i., 

P-  34°- 

f  "Speeches  of  Pius  IX.,"  p.  14.     Am.  Edition. 


of  the  word  of  Satan,  like  Satan  himself,  Is  sterile."  He  warns  his  dear 
collaborateurs,  that  "  the  writings  In  favor  of  Spiritualism  are  under_  e 
ban ;  "  and  he  advises  them  to  let  It  be  known  that  "  to  frequent  spiritual 
circles  with  the  Intention  of  accepting  the  doctrine,  is  to  apostatize  trom 
the  Holy  Church,  and  assume  the  risk  of  excommunication  ;  hnally 
says  he,  "Publish  the  fact  that  the  teaching  of  no  spirit  should  prevail 
against  that  of  the  pulpit  of  Peter,  which  is  the  teaching  of  the  Spirit  of 
God  Himself!!" 

Aware  of  the  many  false  teachings  attributed  by  the  Roman  Church 
to  the  Creator,  we  prefer  disbeUeving  the  latter  assertion.  The  famous 
Catholic  theologian,  Tlllemont,  assures  us  in  his  work  that  "  all  the  illus- 
trious Pagans  are  condemned  to  the  eternal  torments  of  hell,  because 
they  hved  before  the  time  of  Jesus,  and,  therefore,  could  not  be  benefited 
by  the  redemption  I  !  "  He  also  assures  us  that  the  Virgin  Mary  person- 
ally testified  to  this  truth  over  her  own  signature  in  a  letter  to  a  saint. 
Therefore,  this  is  also  a  revelation — "  the  Spirit  of  God  Himself"  teaching 
such  charitable  doctrines. 

We  have  also  read  with  great  advantage  the  topographical  descrip- 
tions of  Hell  and  Purgatory  in  the  celebrated  treatise  under  that  name 
by  a  Jesuit,  the  Cardinal  Bellarmin.  A  critic  found  that  the  author,  who 
gives  the  description  from  a  divine  vision  with  which  he  was  favored, 
"  appears  to  possess  all  the  knowledge  of  a  land-measurer  "  about  the 
secret  tracts  and  formidable  divisions  of  the  "bottomless  pit."  Justin 
Martyr  having  actually  committed  to  paper  the  heretical  thought  that 
after  all  Socrates  might  not  be  altogether  fixed  in  hell,  his  Benedictine 
editor  criticises  this  too  benevolent  father  very  severely.  Whoever 
doubts  the  Christian  charity  of  the  Church  of  Rome  in  this  direction  is 
invited  to  peruse  the  Censure  of  the  Sorbonne,  on  Marmontel's  Belisa- 
rius.  The  odium  theologicum  blazes  in  it  on  the  dark  sky  of  orthodox 
theology  like  an  aurora  borealis — the  precursor  of  God's  wrath,  accord- 
ing to  the  teaching  of  certain  mediaeval  divines. 

We  have  attempted  in  the  first  part  of  this  work  to  show,  by  histori- 
cal examples,  how  completely  men  of  science  have  deserved  the  sting- 
ing sarcasm  of  the  late  Professor  de  Morgan,  who  remarked  of  them 
that  "they  wear  the  priest's  cast-off  garb,  dyed  to  escape  detection." 
The  Christian  clergy  are,  in  like  manner,  attired  in  the  cast-off  garb  of 
the  heathen  priesthood  ;  acting  diametrically  in  opposition  to  their  Gods 
moral  precepts,  but  nevertheless,  sitting  in  judgment  over  the  whole 

When  dying  on  the  cross,  the  martyred  Man  of  Sorrows  forgave  his 
enemies.  His  last  words  were  a  prayer  in  their  behalf.  He  taught  his 
disciples  to  curse  not,  but  to  bless,  even  their  foes.     But  the  heirs  of 


St.  Peter,  the  self-constituted  representatives  on  earth  of  that  same  meek 
Jesus,  unhesitatingly  curse  whoever  resists  their  despotic  will.  Besides, 
was  not  the  "  Son  "  long  since  crowded  by  them  into  the  'background  ? 
They  make  their  obeisance  only  to  the  Dowager  Mother,  for — according 
to  their  teaching — again  through  "the  direct  Spirit  of  God,"  she  alone 
acts  as  a  mediatrix.  The  CEcumenical  Council  of  1870  embodied  the 
teaching  into  a  dogma,  to  disbelieve  which  is  to  be  doomed  forever  to 
the  '  bottomless  pit.'  The  work  of  Don  Pasquale  di  Franciscis  is  posi- 
tive on  that  point ;  for  he  tells  us  that,  as  the  Queen  of  Heaven  owes  to 
the  present  Pope  "  the  finest  gem  in  her  coronet,"  since  he  has  conferred 
on  her  the  unexpected  honor  of  becoming  suddenly  immaculate,  there  is 
nothing  she  cannot  obtain  from  her  Son  for  "  her  Church."  * 

Some  years  ago,  certain  travellers  saw  in  Barri,  Italy,  a  statue  of  the 
Madonna,  arrayed  in  a  flounced  pink  skirt  over  a  swelling  crinoline  ! 
Pious  pilgrims  who  may  be  anxious  to  examine  the  regulation  wardrobe 
of  their  God's  mother  may  do  so  by  going  to  Southern  Italy,  Spain,  and 
Catholic  North  and  South  America.  The  Madonna  of  Barri  must  still 
be  there — between  two  vineyards  and  a  locanda  (gin-shop).  When  last 
seen,  a  half-successful  attempt  had  been  made  to  clothe  the  infant  Jesus  ; 
they  had  covered  his  legs  with  a  pair  of  dirty,  scollop-edged  pantaloons. 
An  English  traveller  having  presented  the  "  Mediatrix  "  with  a  green 
silk  parasol,  the  grateful  population  of  the  contadini,  accompanied  by  the 
village-priest,  went  in  procession  to  the  spot.  They  managed  to  stick 
the  sunshade,  opened,  between  the  infant's  back  and  the  arm  of  the 
Virgin  which  embraced  him.  The  scene  and  ceremony  were  both  sol- 
emn and  highly  refreshing  to  our  religious  feelings.  For  there  stood  the 
image  of  the  goddess  in  its  niche,  surrounded  with  a  row  of  ever-burning 
lamps,  the  flames  of  which,  flickering  in  the  breeze,  infect  God's  pure  air 
with  an  offensive  smell  of  olive  oil.  The  Mother  and  Son  truly  repre- 
sent the  two  most  conspicuous  idols  of  Monotheistic  Christianity  ! 

For  a  companion  to  the  idol  of  the  poor  contadini  of  Barri,  go  to  the 
rich  city  of  Rio  Janeiro.  In  the  Church  of  the  Duomo  del  Candelaria, 
in  a  long  hall  running  along  one  side  of  the  church,  there  might  be  seen, 
a  few  years  ago,  another  Madonna.  Along  the  walls  of  the  hall  there  is 
a  line  of  saints,  each  standing  on  a  contribution-box,  which  thus  forms  a 
fit  pedestal.  In  the  centre  of  this  line,  under  a  gorgeously  rich  canopy 
of  blue  silk,  is  exhibited  the  Virgin  Mary  leaning  on  the  arm  of  Christ. 
"  Our  Lady  "  is   arrayed   in  a  very  decollete  blue  satin  dress  with  short 

*Vide  "Speeches  of  Pope  Pius  IX.,"  by  Don  Pasq.  di  Franciscis;  Gladstone's 
pamphlet  on  this  book;  Draper's  "Conflict  between  Religion  and  Science,"  and 


sleeves,  showing,  to  great  advantage,  a  snow-white,  exquisitely-mou  c 
neck,  shoulders,  and  arms.  The  skirt  equally  of  blue  satin  with  an  over- 
skirt  of  rich  lace  and  gauze  puffs,  is  as  short  as  that  of  a  ballet-dancei  ; 
hardly  reaching  the  knee,  it  exhibits  a  pair  of  finely-shaped  legs  covered 
with  flesh  colored  silk  tights,  and  blue  satin  French  boots  with  very  high 
red  heels  !  The  blonde  hair  of  this  "  xMother  of  God  "  is  arranged  in 
the  latest  fashion,  with  a  voluminous  chignon  and  curls.  As  she  leans  on 
her  Son's  arm,  her  face  is  lovingly  turned  toward  her  Only-Begotten, 
whose  dress  and  attitude  are  equally  worthy  of  admiration.  Christ  wears 
an  evening  dress-coat,  with  swallow-tail,  black  trousers,  and  low  cut 
white  vest ;  varnished  boots,  and  white  kid  gloves,  over  one  of  which  spar- 
kles a  rich  diamond  ring,  worth  many  thousands  we  must  suppose— a 
precious  Brazihan  jewel.  Above  this  body  of  a  modern  Portuguese  dan- 
dy, is  a  head  with  the  hair  parted  in  the  middle  ;  a  sad  and  solemn  face, 
and  eyes  whose  patient  look  seems  to  reflect  all  the  bitterness  of  this 
last  insult  flung  at  the  majesty  of  the  Crucified.  * 

The  Egyptian  Isis  was  also  represented  as  a  Virgin  Mother  by  her 
devotees,  and  as  holding  her  infant  son,  Horus,  in  her  arms.  In  some 
statues  and  basso-relievos,  when  she  appears  alone  she  is  either  com- 
pletely nude  or  veiled  from  head  to  foot.  But  in  the  Mysteries,  in  common 
with  nearly  every  other  goddess,  she  is  entirely  veiled  from  head  to  foot, 
as  a  symbol  of  a  mother's  chastity.  It  would  not  do  us  any  harm  were 
we  to  borrow  from  the  ancients  some  of  the  poetic  sentiment  in  their 
religions,  and  the  innate  veneration  they  entertained  for  their  symbols. 

It  is  but  fair  to  say  at  once  that  the  last  of  the  true  Christians  died 
with  the  last  of  the  direct  apostles.  Max  Miiller  forcibly  asks  :  "  How 
can  a  missionary  in  such  circumstances  meet  the  surprise  and  questions 
of  his  pupils,  unless  he  may  point  to  that  seed,  f  and  tell  them  what 
Christianity  was  meant  to  be  ?  unless  he  may  show  that,  like  all  other  reli- 
gions, Christianity  too,  has  had  its  history  ;  that  the  Christianity  of  the 
nineteenth  century  is  not  the  Christianity  of  the  middle  ages,  and  that 
the  Christianity  of  the  middle  ages  was  not  that  of  the  early  Councils ; 
that  the  Cliristianity  of  the  early  Councils  was  not  that  of  the  Apostles, 
and  that  what  has  been  said  by  Christ,  that  alone  was  well  said  ?  "  J 

Thus  we  may  infer  that  the  only  characteristic  difference  between 
modern  Christianity  and  the  old  heathen  faiths  is  the  belief  of  the  former 
in  a  personal  devil  and  in  hell.  "  The  Aryan  nations  had  no  devil," 
says  Max  Miiller.     "  Pluto,  though   of  a  sombre  character,  was  a  very 

*  The  fact  is  given  to  us  by  an  eye-witness  who  has  visited  the  church  several  times  • 
a  Roman  Catholic,  who  felt  perfectly  horrified,  as  he  expressed  it. 
\  Referring  to  the  seed  planted  by  Jesus  and  his  Apostles. 
\  "Chips,"  vol.  i.,  p.  26,   Preface. 


respectable  personage  ;  and  Loki  (the  Scandinavian),  though  a  mischiev- 
ous person,  was  not  a  fiend.  The  German  Goddess,  Hell,  too,  like 
Proserpine,  had  once  seen  better  days.  Thus,  when  the'Germans  were 
indoctrinated  with  the  idea  of  a  real  devil,  the  Semitic  Seth,  Satan  or 
Diabolus,  they  treated  him  in  the  most  good-humored  way." 

The  same  may  be  said  of  hell.  Hades  was  quite  a  different  place  from 
our  region  of  eternal  damnation,  and  might  be  termed  rather  an  inter- 
mediate state  of  purification.  Neither  does  the  Scandinavian  Hel  or 
Hela,  imply  either  a  state  or  a  place  of  punishment ;  for  when  Frigga, 
the  grief-stricken  mother  of  Bal-dur,  the  white  god,  who  died  and  found 
himself  in  the  dark  abodes  of  the  shadows  (Hades)  sent  Hermod,  a  son 
of  Thor,  in  quest  of  her  beloved  child,  the  messenger  found  him  in  the 
inexorable  region — alas  !  but  still  comfortably  seated  on  a  rock,  and 
reading  a  book.*  The  Norse  kingdom  of  the  dead  is  moreover  situated 
in  the  higher  latitudes  of  the  Polar  regions  ;  it  is  a  cold  and  cheerless 
abode,  and  neither  the  gelid  halls  of  Hela,  nor  the  occupation  of  Baldur 
present  the  least  similitude  to  the  blazing  hell  of  eternal  fire  and  the 
miserable  "  damned  "  sinners  with  which  the  Church  so  generously  peoples 
it.  No  more  is  it  the  Eg)^tian  Amenthes,  the  region  of  judgment  and 
purification  ;  nor  the  Onderah — the  abyss  of  darkness  of  the  Hindus  ; 
for  even  the  fallen  angels  hurled  into  it  by  Siva,  are  allowed  by  Para- 
brahma  to  consider  it  as  an  intermediate  state,  in  which  an  opportunity 
is  afforded  them  to  prepare  for  higher  degrees  of  purification  and  redemp- 
tion from  their  wretched  condition.  The  Gehenna  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment was  a  locality  outside  the  walls  of  Jerusalem  ;  and  in  mentioning 
it,  Jesus  used  but  an  ordinary  metaphor.  Whence  then  came  the  dreary 
dogma  of  hell,  that  Archimedean  lever  of  Christian  theology,  with  which 
they  have  succeeded  to  hold  in  subjection  the  numberless  millions  of 
Christians  for  nineteen  centuries  ?  Assuredly  not  from  the  Jewish 
Scriptures,  and  we  appeal  for  corroboration  to  any  well-informed  Hebrew 

The  only  designation  of  something  approaching  hell  in  the  Bible  is 
Gehen?ia  or  Hinnom,  a  valley  near  Jerusalem,  where  was  situated  Tophet, 
a  place  where  a  fire  was  perpetually  kept  for  sanitary  purposesi  The 
prophet  Jeremiah  informs  us  that  the  Israelites  used  to  sacrifice  their 
children  to  Moloch-Hercules  on  that  spot ;  and  later  we  find  Chris- 
tians quietly  replacing  this  divinity  by  their  god  of  mercy,  whose  wrath 
will  not  be  appeased,  unless  the  Church  sacrifices  to  him  her  unbaptized 
children  and  sinning  sons  on  the  altar  of  "  eternal  damnation  !  " 

Whence  then  did  the  divine  learn  so  well  the  conditions  of  hell,  as 

*  Mallet :   "  Northern  Antiquities." 


to  actually  divide  its  torments  into  two  kinds,  i\\^  pana  damni  and  paenEe 
sensus,  the  former  being  the  privation  of  the  beatific  vision ;  the  latter 
the  eternal  pains  in  a  lake  of  fire  and  brimstone  ?  If  they  answer  us  that 
it  is  in  the  Apocalypse  (xx.  lo),  we  are  prepared  to  demonstrate  whence 
the  theologist  John  himself  derived  the  idea,  "  And ///^  fl'^wV  that  deceived 
them  was  cast  into  the  lake  of  fire  and  brimstone,  where  the  beast ^z.nA 
the  false  prophet  are  and  shall  be  tormented  for  ever  and  ever,"  he 
says.  Laying  aside  the  esoteric  interpretation  that  the  "devil"  or 
tempting  demon  meant  our  own  earthly  body,  which  after  death  will 
surely  dissolve  in  \he fiery  or  ethereal  elements,*  the  word  "eternal"  by 
which  our  theologians  interpret  the  words  '•  for  ever  and  ever"  does  not 
exist  in  the  Hebrew  language,  either  as  a  word  or  meaning.  There  is 
no  Hebrew  word  which  properly  expresses  eternity  ;  d>ij?  oulam,  according 
to  Le  Clerc,  only  imports  a  time  whose  beginning  or  end  is  not  known. 
While  showing  that  this  word  does  not  mean  infinite  duration,  and  that 
in  the  Old  Testament  the  word  forever  only  signifies  a  long  time.  Arch- 
bishop Tillotson  has  completely  perverted  its  sense  with  respect  to  the 
idea  of  hell-torments.  According  to  his  doctrine,  when  Sodom  and 
Gomorrah  are  said  to  be  suffering  "  eternal  fire,"  we  must  understand  it 
only  in  the  sense  of  that  fire  nat  being  extinguished  till  both  cities  were 
entirely  consumed.  But,  as  to  hell-fire  the  words  must  be  understood  in 
the  strictest  sense  of  infinite  duration.  Such  is  the  decree  of  the  learned 
divine.  For  the  duration  of  the  punishment  of  the  wicked  must  be 
proportionate  to  the  eternal  happiness  of  the  righteous.  So  he  says, 
"  These  (speaking  of  the  wicked)  "  shall  go  away  eis  KoKaaw  uuivtov  into 
eternal  punishment ;  but  the  righteous  €is  Jcuryv  amviov  into  life  eternal." 

The  Reverend  T.  Surnden,  f  commenting  on  the  speculations  of  his 
predecessors,  fills  a  whole  volume  with  unanswerable  arguments,  tending 
to  show  that  the  locality  of  Hell  is  in  the  sun.  We  suspect  that  the  rev- 
erend speculator  had  read  the  Apocalypse  in  bed,  and  had  the  night- 
mare in  consequence.  There  are  two  verses  in  the  Revelation  of  John 
reading  thus  :  "And  the  fourth  angel  poured  out  his  vial  upon  the  sun, 
and  power  was  given  him  to  scorch  men  with  fire.  And  men  were 
scorched  with  great  heat,  and  blasphemed  the  name  of  God."  J  This  is 
simply  Pythagorean  and  kabahstic  allegory.  The  idea  is  new  neither  with 
the  above-mentioned  author  nor  with  John.  Pythagoras  placed  the 
"  sphere  of  purification  in  the  sun,"  which  sun,  with  its  sphere,  he  moreover 

*  Ether  is  both  pure  and  impure  fire.  The  composition  of  the  latter  comprises  all 
its  visible  forms,  such  as  the  "  correlation  of  forces"  —  heat,  flame,  electricity  etc. 
The  former  is  the  Spirit  of  Fire.      The  difference  is  purely  alchemical. 

I  See  "  Inquiry  into  the  Nature  and  Place  of  Hell,"  by  Rev.  T.  Surnden. 

:|;  Revelation  xvi.  S-9. 


locates  in  the  middle  of  the  universe,  *  the  allegory  having  a  double  mean- 
ing :  I.  Symbolically,  the  central,  spiritual  sun,  the  Supreme  Deity. 
Arrived  at  this  region  every  soul  becomes  purified  of  its  sins,  and  unites 
itself  forever  with  its  spirit,  having  previously  suffered  throughout  all  the 
lower  spheres.  2.  By  placing  the  sphere  of  visible  fire  in  the  middle  of 
the  universe,  he  simply  taught  the  heliocentric  system  which  appertained 
to  the  Mysteries,  and  was  imparted  only  in  the  higher  degree  of  initiation. 
John  gives  to  his  Word  a  purely  kabalistic  significance,  which  no  "  Fathers," 
except  those  who  had  belonged  to  the  Neo-platonic  school,  were  able  to 
comprehend.  Origen  understood  it  well,  having  been  a  pupil  of  Ammo- 
nius  Saccas  ;  therefore  we  see  him  bravely  denying  the  perpetuity  of  hell- 
torments.  He  maintains  that  not  only  men,  but  even  devils  (by  which 
term  he  meant  disembodied  human  sinners),  after  a  certain  duration  of 
punishment  shall  be  pardoned  and  finally  restored  to  heaven,  f  In  con- 
sequence of  this  and  other  such  heresies  Origen  was,  as  a  matter  of 
course,  exiled. 

Many  have  been  the  learned  and  truly-inspired  speculations  as  to  the 
locality  of  hell.  The  most  popular  were  those  which  placed  it  in  the 
centre  of  the  earth.  At  a  certain  time,  however,  skeptical  doubts  which 
disturbed  the  placidity  of  faith  in  this  highly-refreshing  doctrine  arose  in 
consequence  of  the  meddling  scientists  of  those  days.  As  a  Mr.  Swinden 
in  our  own  century  observes,  the  theory  was  inadmissible  because  of  two 
objections  :  ist,  that  a  fund  of  fuel  or  sulphur  sufficient  to  maintain  so 
furious  and  constant  a  fire  could  not  be  there  supposed  ;  and,  2d,  that  it 
must  want  the  nitrous  particles  in  the  air  to  sustain  and  keep  it  alive. 
"And  how,"  says  he,  "can  a  fire  be  eternal,  when,  by  degrees,  the  whole 
substance  of  the  earth  must  be  consumed  thereby  ?  "  J 

The  skeptical  gentleman  had  evidently  forgotten  that  centuries  ago  St. 
Augustine  solved  the  difficulty.  Have  we  not  the  word  of  this  learned 
divine  that  hell,  nevertheless,  is  in  the  centre  of  the  earth,  for  "  God  sup- 
plies the  central  fire  with  air  by  a  miracle?  "  The  argument  is  unanswerable, 
and  so  we  will  not  seek  to  upset  it. 

The  Christians  were  the  first  to  make  the  existence  of  Satan  a  dogma 
of  the  Church.  And  once  that  she  had  established  it,  she  had  to 
struggle  for  over  1,700  years  for  the  repression  of  a  mysterious  force 
which  it  was  her  policy  to  make  appear  of  diabolical  origin.  Unfortu- 
nately, in  manifesting  itself,  this  force  invariably  tends  to  upset  such 
a  belief  by  the  ridiculous  discrepancy  it  presents  between  the  alleged 
cause  and  the  effects.    If  the  clergy  have  not  over-estimated  the  real  power 

*  Aristotle  mentions  Pythagoreans  who  placed  the  sphere  of  fire  in  the  sun,  and 
named  it  Jupiter''s  Prison.     See  "  De  Coelo,"  lib.  ii. 

\  "DeCivit.  Dei,"  i,  xxi.,  c.  17.  %  "  Demonologia  and  Hell,"  p.  289. 


of  the  "  Arch-Enemy  of  God,"  it  must  be  confessed  that  he  takes  mig^'y 
precautions  against  being  recognized  as  the  "  Prince  of  Darkness  wio 
aims  at  our  souls.  If  modern  "  spirits  "  are  devils  at  all,  as  preactiea 
by  the  clergy,  then  they  can  only  be  those  "poor"  or  "  stupid  devils 
whom  Max  Mffller  describes  as  appearing  so  often  in  the  German  and 
Norwegian  tales.  ,. 

Notwithstanding  this,  the  clergy  fear  above  all  to  be  forced  to  relin- 
quish this  hold  on  humanity.  They  are  not  willing  to  let  us  judge  of  the 
tree  by  its  fruits,  for  that  might  sometimes  force  them  into  dangerous  di- 
lemmas. They  refuse,  likewise,  to  admit,  with  unprejudiced  people,  that 
the  phenomena  of  Spiritualism  has  unquestionably  spiritualized  and  re- 
claimed from  evil  courses  many  an  indomitable  atheist  and  skeptic.  But,  as 
they  confess  themselves,  what  is  the  use  in  a  Pope,  if  there  is  no  Devil  ? 

And  so  Rome  sends  her  ablest  advocates  and  preachers  to  the  rescue 
of  those  perishing  in  "  the  bottomless  pit."  Rome  employs  her  cleverest 
writers  for  this  purpose— albeit  they  all  indignantly  deny  the  accusation— 
and  in  the  preface  to  every  book  put  forth  by  the  prolific  des  Mousseaux, 
the  French  Tertullian  of  our  century,  we  find  undeniable  proofs  of  the 
fact.  Among  other  certificates  of  ecclesiastical  approval,  every  volume  is 
ornamented  with  the  text  of  a  certain  original  letter  addressed  to  the  very 
pious  author  by  the  world-known  Father  Ventura  de  Raulica,  of  Rome. 
Few  are  those  who  have  not  heard  this  famous  name.  It  is  the  name  of 
one  of  the  chief  pillars  of  the  Latin  Church,  the  ex-General  of  the  Order 
of  the  Theatins,  Consultor  of  the  Sacred  Congregation  of  Rites,  Examiner 
of  Bishops,  and  of  the  Roman  Clergy,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.  This  strikingly 
characteristic  document  vnll  remain  to  astonish  future  generations  by 
its  spirit  of  unsophisticated  demonolatry  and  unblushing  sincerity.  We 
translate  a  fragment  verbatim,  and  by  thus  helping  its  circulation  hope  to 
merit  the  blessings  of  Mother  Church  :  * 

"Monsieur  and  excellent  Friend: 

"The  greatest  victory  of  Satan  was  gained  on  that  day  when  he  succeeded  in  mak- 
ing himself  denied. 

"  To  demonstrate  the  existence  of  Satan,  is  to  reestablish  one  of  the  fundamental 
dogmas  of  the  Church,  which  serve  as  a  basis  for  Christianity,  and,  without  which,  Satan 
would  be  but  a  name.   .    .  . 

"  Magic,  mesmerism,  magnetism,  somnambulism,  spiritualism,  spiritism,  hypnotism 
.  .  .   are  only  other  names  for  SATANISM. 

"  To  bring  out  such  a  truth  and  show  it  in  its  proper  light,  is  to  unmask  the  enemy  ; 
it  is  to  unveil  the  immense  danger  of  certain  practices,  reputed  innocent ;  it  is  to  de- 
serve well  in  the  eyes  of  humanity  and  of  religion. 

"  Father  Ventura  de  Raulica." 

*   "  Les  Hauts  Ph^nomenes  de  la  Magie,"  p.  v.,  Preface. 


A — men ! 

This  is  an  unexpected  honor  indeed,  for  our  American  "  controls  "  in 
general,  and  the  innocent  "Indian  guides"  in  particular.  *To  be  thus 
introduced  in  Rome  as  princes  of  the  Empire  of  Eblis,  is  more  than  they 
could  ever  hope  for  in  other  lands. 

Without  in  the  least  suspecting  that  she  was  working  for  the  future 
welfare  of  her  enemies — the  spiritualists  and  spiritists — the  Church,  some 
twenty  years  since,  in  tolerating  des  Mousseaux  and  de  Mirville  as  the 
biographers  of  the  Devil,  and  giving  her  approbation  thereto,  tacitly  con- 
fessed the  literary  copartnership. 

M.  the  Chevalier  Gougenot  des  Mousseaux,  and  his  friend  and  colla- 
borateur,  the  Marquis  Eudes  de  Afirville,  to  judge  by  their  long  titles, 
must  be  aristocrats  J>ur  sang,  and  they  are,  moreover,  writers  of  no  small 
erudition  and  talent.  Were  they  to  show  themselves  a  little  more  parsi- 
monious of  double  points  of  exclamation  following  every  vituperation, 
and  invective  against  Satan  and  his  worshippers,  their  style  would  be  fault- 
less. As  it  is,  the  crusade  against  the  enemy  of  mankind  was  fierce,  and 
lasted  for  over  twenty  years. 

What  with  the  Catholics  piling  up  their  psychological  phenomena  to 
prove  the  existence  of  a  personal  devil,  and  the  Count  de  Gasparin,  an 
ancient  minister  of  Louis  Philippe,  collecting  volumes  of  other  facts  to 
prove  the  contrary,  the  spiritists  of  France  have  contracted  an  everlast- 
ing debt  of  gratitude  toward  the  disputants.  The  existence  of  an  unseen 
spiritual  imiverse  peopled  with  invisible  beings  has  now  been  demon- 
strated beyond  question.  Ransacking  the  oldest  libraries,  they  have  dis- 
tilled from  the  historical  records  the  quintessence  of  evidence.  All 
epochs,  from  the  Homeric  ages  down  to  the  present  day,  have  supplied 
their  choicest  materials  to  these  indefatigable  authors.  In  trying  to  prove 
the  authenticity  of  the  miracles  wrought  by  Satan  in  the  days  preceding 
the  Christian  era,  as  well  as  throughout  the  middle  ages,  they  have  sim- 
ply laid  a  firm  foundation  for  a  study  of  the  phenomena  in  our  modern 

Though  an  ardent,  uncompromising  enthusiast,  des  Mousseaux  un- 
wittingly transforms  himself  into  the  tempting  demon,  or — as  he  is  fond 
of  calling  the  Devil — the  "  serpent  of  Genesis."  In  his  desire  to  demon- 
strate in  every  manifestation  the  presence  of  the  Evil  One,  he  only  suc- 
ceeds in  demonstrating  that  Spiritualism  and  magic  are  no  new  things  in 
the  world,  but  very  ancient  twin-brothers,  whose  origin  must  be  sought 
for  in  the  earliest  infancy  of  ancient  India,  Chaldea,  Babylonia,  Egypt, 
Persia,  and  Greece. 

He  proves  the  existence  of  "spirits,"  whether  these  be  angels  or 
devils,  with  such  a  clearness  of  argument  and  logic,  and  such  an  amount 


of  evidence,  historical,  irrefutable,  and  strictly  authenticated,  that  little  is 
left  for  spiritualist  authors  who  may  come  after  him.  How  unfortunate 
that  the  scientists,  who  beheve  neither  in  devil  nor  spirit,  are  more  than 
likely  to  ridicule  M.  des  Mousseaux's  books  without  reading  them,  for 
they  really  contain  so  many  facts  of  profound  scientific  interest ! 

But  what  can  we  expect  in  our  own  age  of  unbelief,  when  we  find 
Plato,  over  twenty-two  centuries  ago,  complaining  of  the  same  ?  "  Me, 
too,"  says  he,  in  his  Euthyphron,  "  when  I  say  anything  in  the  public 
assembly  concerning  divine  things,  and  predict  to  the7n  what  is  going  to 
happen,  they  ridicule  as  mad  ;  and  although  nothing  that  I  have  predicted 
has  proved  untrue,  yet  they  envy  all  such  men  as  we  are.  However,  we 
ought  not  to  heed,  but  pursue  our  own  way." 

The  literary  resources  of  the  Vatican  and  other  Catholic  repositories 
of  learning  must  have  been  freely  placed  at  the  disposal  of  these  modern 
authors.  When  one  has  such  treasures  at  hand— original  manuscripts, 
papyri,  and  books  pillaged  from  the  richest  heathen  libraries  ;  old  trea- 
tises on  magic  and  alchemy  ;  and  records  of  all  the  trials  for  witchcraft, 
and  sentences  for  the  same  to  rack,  stake,  and  torture,  it  is  mighty  easy 
to  write  volumes  of  accusations  against  the  Devil.  We  affirm  on  good 
grounds  that  there  are  hundreds  of  the  most  valuable  works  on  the  occult 
sciences,  which  are  sentenced  to  eternal  concealment  from  the  pubhc, 
but  are  attentively  read  and  studied  by  the  privileged  who  have  access  to 
the  Vatican  Library.  The  laws  of  nature  are  the  same  for  heathen  sor- 
cerer as  for  Catholic  saint ;  and  a  "  miracle  "  may  be  produced  as  well  by 
one  as  by  the  other,  without  the  slightest  intervention  of  God  or  devil. 

Hardly  had  the  manifestations  begun  to  attract  attention  in  Europe, 
than  the  clergy  commenced  their  outcry  that  their  traditional  enemy  had 
reappeared  under  another  name,  and  "divine  miracles"  also  began  to 
be  heard  of  in  isolated  instances.  First  they  were  confined  to  humble 
individuals,  some  of  whom  claimed  to  have  them  produced  through  the 
intervention  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  saints  and  angels  ;  others — according  to 
the  clergy — began  to  suffer  from  obsession  and  possession  ;  for  the  Devil 
must  have  his  share  of  fame  as  well  as  the  Deity.  Finding  that,  not- 
withstanding the  warning,  the  independent,  or  so-called  spiritual  phe- 
nomena went  on  increasing  and  multiplying,  and  that  these  manifesta- 
tions threatened  to  upset  the  carefully-constructed  dogmas  of  the  Church, 
the  world  was  suddenly  startled  by  extraordinary  intelligence.  In  1864, 
a  whole  community  became  possessed  of  the  Devil.  Morzine,  and  the 
awful  stories  of  its  demoniacs  ;  A'alleyres,  and  the  narratives  of  its  well- 
authenticated  exhibitions  of  sorcery ;  and  those  of  the  Presbytere  de 
Cideville  curdled  the  blood  in  Catholic  veins. 

Strange  to  say,  the  question  has  been  asked  over  and  over  again, 


why  the  "  divine "  miracles  and  most  of  the  obsessions  are  so  strictly 
confined  to  Roman  Catholic  dioceses  and  countries  ?  Why  is  it  that 
since  the  Reformation  there  has  been  scarcely  one  single  mvine  "  mira- 
cle "  in  a  Protestant  land?  Of  course,  the  answer  we  must  expect  from 
Catholics  is,  that  the  latter  are  peopled  by  heretics,  and  abandoned  by 
God.  Then  why  are  there  no  more  Church-miracles  in  Russia,  a  coun- 
try whose  religion  differs  from  the  Roman  Catholic  faith  but  in  external 
forms  of  rites,  its  fundamental  dogmas  being  identically  the  same,  except 
as  to  the  emanation  of  the  Holy  Ghost  ?  Russia  has  her  accepted  saints 
and  thaumaturgical  relics,  and  miracle-working  images.  The  St.  Mitro- 
phaniy  of  Voroneg  is  an  authenticated  miracle-worker,  but  his  miracles 
are  limited  to  heaUng  ;  and  though  hundreds  upon  hundreds  have  been 
healed  through  faith,  and  though  the  old  cathedral  is  full  of  magnetic  ef- 
fluvia, and  whole  generations  will  go  on  believing  in  his  i^ower,  and  some 
persons  will  always  be  healed,  still  no  such  miracles  are  heard  of  in  Rus- 
sia as  the  Madonna-walking,  and  Madonna  letter-writing,  and  statue-talk- 
ing of  CathoHc  countries.  Why  is  this  so .'  Sunply  because  the  emperors 
have  strictly  forbidden  that  sort  of  thing.  The  Czar,  Peter  the  Great, 
stopped  every  spurious  "  divine  "  njiracle  with  one  frown  of  his  mighty 
brow.  He  declared  he  would  have  no  false  miracles  played  by  the  holy 
icones  (images  of  saints),  and  they  disappeared  forever.  * 

There  are  cases  on  record  of  isolated  and  independent  phenomena 
exhibited  by  certain  images  in  the  last  century  ;  the  latest  was  the  bleed- 
ing of  the  cheek  of  an  image  of  the  Virgin,  when  a  soldier  of  Napoleon 
cut  her  face  in  two.  This  miracle,  alleged  to  have  happened  in  1812,  in 
the  days  of  the   invasion   by  the   "  grand  army,"  was  the  final  farewell.f 

*  Dr.  Stanley:    "Lectures  on  the  Eastern  Church,"  p.  407. 

■j-  In  the  government  of  Tambov,  a  gentleman,  a  rich  landed  proprietor,  had  a  curious 
case  happen  in  his  family  during  the  Hungarian  campaign  of  1S4S.  His  only  and  much- 
beloved  nephew,  whom,  having  no  children,  he  had  adopted  as  a  son,  was  in  the  Russian 
army.  The  elderly  couple  had  a  portrait  of  his — a  water-color  painting — constantly, 
during  the  meals,  placed  on  the  table  in  front  of  the  young  man's  usual  seat.  One 
evening  as  the  family,  with  some  friends,  were  at  their  early  tea,  the  glass  over  the  por- 
trait, without  any  one  touching  it,  was  shattered  to  atoms  with  a  loud  explosion.  As 
the  aunt  of  the  young  soldier  caught  the  picture  in  her  hand  she  saw  the  forehead  and 
head  besmeared  with  blood.  The  guests,  in  order  to  quiet  her,  attributed  the  blood  to 
her  having  £Ut  her  fingers  with  the  broken  glass.  But,  examine  as  they  would,  they 
could  not  find  the  vestige  of  a  cut  on  her  fingers,  and  no  one  had  touched  the  picture  but 
herself.  Alarmed  at  her  state  of  excitement  the  husband,  pretending  to  examine  the 
portrait  more  closely,  cut  his  finger  on  purpose,  and  then  tried  to  assure  her  that  it  was 
his  blood  and  that,  in  the  first  excitement,  he  had  touched  the  frame  without  any  one 
remarking  it.  All  was  in  vain,  the  old  lady  felt  sure  that  Dimitry  was  killed.  She 
began  to  have  masses  said  for  him  daily  at    the  village  church,  and  arrayed   the  whole 


But  since  then,  although  the  three  successive  emperors  have  been  pious 
men.  their  will  has  been  respected,  and  the  images  and  saints  have 
remained  quiet,  and  hardly  been  spoken  of  except  as  connected  with 
religious  worship.  In  Poland,  a  land  of  furious  ultramontanism,  there 
wer°e,  at  different  times,  desperate  attempts  at  miracle-doing.  They  died 
at  birth,  however,  for  the  argus-eyed  police  were  there  ;  a  Catholic  mira- 
cle in  Poland,  made  public  by  the  priests,  generally  meaning  pohtical 
revolution,  bloodshed,  and  war. 

Is  It  then,  not  permissible  to  at  least  suspect  that  if,  in  one  country 
divine  miracles  may  be  arrested  by  civil  and  military  law,  and  in  another 
they  never  occur,  we  must  search  for  the  explanation  of  the  two  facts  in 
some  natural  cause,  instead  of  attributing  them  to  either  god  or  devil  ? 
In  our  opinion— if  it  is  worth  anything— the  whole  secret  may  be 
accounted  for  as  follows.  In  Russia,  the  clergy  know  better  than  to 
bewilder  their  parishes,  whose  piety  is  sincere  and  faith  strong  without 
miracles  ;  they  know  that  nothing  is  better  calculated  than  the  latter  to 
sow  seeds  of  distrust,  doubt,  and  finally  of  skepticism  which  leads  directly 
to  atheism.  Moreover  the  climate  is  less  propitious,  and  the  magnetism 
of  the  average  population  too  positive,  too  healthy,  to  call  forth  independ- 
ent phenomena ;  and  fraud  would  not  answer.  On  the  other  hand, 
neither  in  Protestant  Germany,  nor  England,  nor  yet  in  America,  since 
the  days  of  the  Reformation,  has  the  clergy  had  access  to  any  of  the  Vati- 
can secret  libraries.  Hence  they  are  all  but  poor  hands  at  the  magic  of 
Albertus  Magnus. 

As  for  America  being  overflowed  with  sensitives  and  mediums,  the 
reason  for  it  is  partially  attributable  to  climatic  influence  and  especially 
to  the  physiological  condition  of  the  population.  Since  the  days  of  the 
Salem  witchcraft,  200  years  ago,  when  the  comparatively  few  settlers  had 
pure  and  unadulterated  blood  in  their  veins,  nothing  much  had  been 
heard  of  "  spirits"  or  "mediums"  until  1840.  *  The  phenomena  then 
first  appeared  among  the  ascetic  and  exalted  Shakers,  whose  religious 
aspirations,  peculiar  mode  of  life,  moral  purity,  and  physical  chastity 
all  led  to  the  production  of  independent  phenomena  of  a  psychological 

household  in  deep  mourning.  Several  weeks  later,  an  official  communication  was 
received  from  the  colonel  of  the  regiment,  stating  that  their  nephew  was  killed  by  a 
fragment  of  a  shell  which  had  carried  off  the  upper  part  of  his  head. 

*  Executions  for  witchcraft  took  place,  not  much  later  than  a  century  ago,  in  other 
of  the  American  provinces.  Notoriously  there  were  negroes  executed  in  New  Jersey  by 
burning  at  the  stake — the  penalty  denounced  in  several  States.  Even  in  South  Caro- 
lina, in  1865,  when  the  State  government  was  "  reconstructed,"  after  the  civil  war  the 
statutes  inflicting  death  for  witchcraft  were  found  to  be  still  unrepealed.  It  is  not  a 
hundred  years  since  they  have  been  enforced  to  the  murderous  letter  of  their  text. 


as  well  as  physical  nature.  Hundreds  of  thousands,  and  even  millions 
of  men  from  various  climates  and  of  different  constitutions  and  habits, 
have,  since  1692,  invaded  North  America,  and  by  intermarrying  have  sub- 
stantially changed  the  physical  type  of  the  inhabitants.  Of  what  country 
in  the  world  do  the  women's  constitutions  bear  comparison  with  the  deli- 
cate, nervous,  and  sensitive  constitutions  of  the  feminine  portion  of  the 
population  of  the'United  States  ?  We  were  struck  on  our  arrival  in  the 
country  with  the  semi-transparent  delicacy  of  skin  of  the  natives  of  both 
sexes.  Compare  a  hard-working  Irish  factory  girl  or  boy,  with  one  from 
a  genuine  American  family.  Look  at  their  hands.  One  works  as  hard 
as  the  other  ;  they  are  of  equal  age,  and  both  seemingly  healthy  ;  and 
still,  while  the  hands  of  the  one,  after  an  hour's  soaping,  will  show  a  skin 
little  softer  than  that  of  a  young  alligator,  those  of  the  other,  notwith- 
standing constant  use,  will  allow  you  to  observe  the  circulation  of  the 
blood  under  the  thin  and  delicate  epidermis.  No  wonder,  then,  that 
while  America  is  the  conservatory  of  sensitives  the  majority  of  its  clergy, 
unable  to  produce  divine  or  any  other  miracles,  stoutly  deny  the  possi- 
bility of  any  phenomena  except  those  produced  by  tricks  and  juggling. 
And  no  wonder  also  that  the  Catholic  priesthood,  who  are  practically 
aware  of  the  existence  of  magic  and  spiritual  phenomena,  and  believe  in 
them  while  dreading  their  consequences,  try  to  attribute  the  whole  to  the 
agency  of  the  Devil. 

Let  us  adduce  one  more  argument,  if  only  for  the  sake  of  circum- 
stantial evidence.  In  what  countries  have  "  divine  miracles  "  flourished 
most,  been  most  frequent  and  most  stupendous  ?  Catholic  Spain,  and 
Pontifical  Italy,  beyond  question.  And  which  more  than  these  two,  has 
had  access  to  ancient  literature  ?  Spain  was  famous  for  her  libraries ; 
the  Moors  were  celebrated  for  their  profound  learning  in  alchemy  and 
other  sciences.  The  Vatican  is  the  storehouse  of  an  immense  number 
of  ancient  manuscripts.  During  the  long  interval  of  nearly  1,500  years 
they  have  been  accumulating,  from  trial  after  trial,  books  and  manuscripts 
confiscated  from  their  sentenced  victims,  to  their  own  profit.  The  Cath- 
olics may  plead  that  the  books  were  generally  committed  to  the  flames  ; 
that  the  treatises  of  famous  sorcerers  and  enchanters  perished  with  their 
accursed  authors.  But  the  Vatican,  if  it  could  speak,  could  tell  a  dif- 
ferent story.  It  knows  too  well  of  the  existence  of  certain  closets  and 
rooms,  access  to  which  is  had  but  by  the  very  few.  It  knows  that  the 
entrances  to  these  secret  hiding-places  are  so  cleverly  concealed  from 
sight  in  the  carved  frame-work  and  under  the  profuse  ornamentation  of 
the  library-walls,  that  there  have  even  been  Popes  who  lived  and  died 
within  the  precmcts  of  the  palace  without  ever  suspecting  their  existence. 
But  these  Popes  were  neither  Sylvester  II.,  Benedict  IX.,  John  XX.,  nor 


the  Vlth  and  Vllth  Gregory  ;  nor  yet  the  famous  Borgia  of  toxicolo^cal 
memory.  Neither  were  those  who  remained  ignorant  of  the  hidden  lore 
friends  of  the  sons  of  Loyola. 

Where,  in  the  records  of  European  Magic,  can  we  iind  cleverer 
enchanters  than  in  the  mysterious  solitudes  of  the  cloister  ?  Albert 
Magnus,  the  famous  Bishop  and  conjurer  of  Ratisbon,  was  never  sur- 
passed in  his  art.  Roger  Bacon  was  a  monk,  and  Thomas  Aquinas  one 
of  the  most  learned  pupils  of  Albertus.  Trithemius,  Abbot  of  the 
Spanheim  Benedictines,  was  the  teacher,  friend,  and  confidant  of  Corne- 
lius Agrippa;  and  while  the  confederations  of  the  Theosophists  were 
scattered  broadcast  about  Germany,  where  they  first  originated,  assist- 
ing one  another,  and  struggling  for  years  for  the  acquirement  of  esoteric 
knowledge,  any  person  who  knew  how  to  become  the  favored  pupil  of  cer- 
tain monks,  might  very  soon  be  proficient  in  all  the  important  branches 
of  occult  learning. 

This  is  all  in  history  and  cannot  be  easily  denied.  Magic,  in  all  its 
aspects,  was  widely  and  nearly  openly  practiced  by  the  clergy  till  the 
Reformation.  And  even  he  who  was  once  called  the  "  Father  of  the 
Reformation,"  the  famous  John  Reuchlin,  *  author  of  the  Mirific  Word 
and  friend  of  Pico  di  Mirandola,  the  teacher  and  instructor  of  Erasmus, 
Luther,  and  Melancthon,  was  a  kabalist  and  occultist. 

The  ancient  Soriilegium,  or  divination  by  means  of  Sortes  or  lots — 
an  art  and  practice  now  decried  by  the  clergy  as  an  abomination,  desig- 
nated by  Stat.  lo  Jac.  as  felony,  f  and  by  Stat.  12  Carolus  I  J.  ex- 
cepted out  of  the  general  pardons,  on  the  ground  of  being  sorcery — 
was  widely  practiced  by  the  clergy  and  monks.  Nay,  it  was  sanctioned 
by  St.  Augustine  himself,  who  does  not  "  disapprove  of  this  method  of 
learning  futurity,  provided  it  be  not  used  for  worldly  purposes."  More 
than  that,  he  confesses  having  practiced  it  himself.  J 

Aye  ;  but  the  clergy  called  it  Sortes  Sa?tctorum,  when  it  was  they 
who  practiced  it ;  while  the  Sortes  Prce.nestince,  succeeded  by  the  Sortes 
Homcric(C  and  Sortes  Virgiliana,  were  abominable  heathenism,  the 
worship  of  the  Devil,  when  used  by  any  one  else. 

Gregory  de  Tours  informs  us  that  when  the  clergy  resorted  to  the 
Sortes  their  custom  was  to  lay  the  £ible  on  the  altar,  and  to  pray  the 
Lord  that  He  would  discover  His  will,  and  disclose  to  them  futurity  in 
one  of  the  verses  of  the  book.     Gilbert  de  Nogent  writes  that  in  his  days 

*  Vide  the  title-page  on  tlie  English  translation  of  Mayerhoff's  "  Reuchlin  und 
Seine  Zeit,"  Berlin,  1830.  "The  Life  and  Times  of  John  Reuchlin,  or  Capnion,  the 
Father  of  the  German  Reformation,"  by  F.  Barham,  London,  1843. 

f  Lord  Coke  :   3  "  Institutes,"  fol.  44. 

I  Vidi  "The  Life  of  St.  Gregory  of  Tours." 

-  i 


(about  the  twelfth  century)  the  custom  was,  at  the  consecration  of 
bishops,  to  consult  the  Sortes  Sanctorum,  to  thereby  learn  the  success 
and  fate  of  the  episcopate.  On  the  other  hand,  we  are  told  that  the  Sor- 
tes Sanctorum  were  condemned  by  the  Council  of  Agda,  in  506.  In  this 
case  again  we  are  left  to  inquire,  in  which  instance  has  the  infallibihty  of 
the  Church  failed  ?  Was  it  when  she  prohibited  that  which  was  practiced 
by  her  greatest  saint  and  patron,  Augustine,  or  in  the  twelfth  centur)', 
when  it  was  openly  and  with  the  sanction  of  the  same  Church  practiced 
by  the  clergy  for  the  benefit  of  the  bishop's  elections  ?  Or,  must  we  still 
believe  that  in  both  of  these  contradictory  cases  tlie  Vatican  was  inspired 
by  the  direct  "  spirit  of  God?  " 

If  any  doubt  that  Gregory  of  Tours  approved  of  a  practice  that  pre- 
vails to  this  day,  more  or  less,  even  among  strict  Protestants,  let  them 
read  this  :  "  Lendastus,  Earl  of  Tours,  who  was  for  ruining  me  with 
Queen  Fredegonde,  coming  to  Tours,  big  with  evil  designs  against  me,  I 
withdrew  to  my  oratory  under  a  deep  concern,  where  I  took  the  Psalms. 
.  .  .  My  heart  revived  within  me  when  I  cast  my  eyes  on  this  of  the 
seventy-seventh  Psalm :  '  He  caused  them  to  go  on  with  confidence, 
whilst  the  sea  swallowed  up  their  enemies.'  Accordingly,  the  count 
spoke  not  a  word  to  my  prejudice  ;  and  leaving  Tours  that  very  day,  the 
boat  in  which  he  was,  sunk  in  a  storm,  but  his  skill  in  swimming  saved 

The  sainted  bishop  simply  confesses  here  to  having  practiced  a  bit  of 
sorcery.  Every  mesmerizer  knows  the  power  of  u<ill  during  an  intense 
desire  bent  on  any  particular  subject.  Whether  in  consequence  of  "  co- 
incidents "  or  otherwise,  the  opened  verse  suggested  to  his  mind  revenge 
by  drowning.  Passing  the  remainder  of  the  day  in  "  deep  concern,"  and 
possessed  by  this  aU-absorbing  thought,  the  saint — it  may  be  unconsciously 
— exercises  his  will  on  the  subject ;  and  thus  while  imagining  in  the  acci- 
dent the  hand  of  God,  he  simply  becomes  a  sorcerer  exercising  his  mag- 
netic will  which  reacts  on  the  person  feared  ;  and  the  count  barely 
escapes  with  his  life.  Were  the  accident  decreed  by  God,  the  culprit 
would  have  been  drowned  ;  for  a  simple  bath  could  not  have  altered  his 
malevolent  resolution  against  St.  Gregory  had  he  been  very  intent  on  it. 

Furthermore,  we  find  anathemas  fulminated  against  this  lottery  of 
fate,  at  the  council  of  Varres,  which  forbids  "  all  ecclesiastics,  under  pain 
of  excommunication,  to  perform  that  kind  of  divination,  or  to  pry  into 
futurity,  by  looking  into  any  book,  or  writing,  whatsoever."  The  same 
prohibition  is  pronounced  at  the  coimcils  of  Agda  in  506,  of  Orleans,  in 
SIX,  of  Auxerre  in  595,  and  finally  at  the  council  of  Aenham  in  mo  ; 
the  latter  condemning  "  sorcerers,  witches,  diviners,  such  as  occasioned 
death  by  magical  operations,  and  who  practiced  fortune-telling  by  the 


holy-book  lots  ;  "  and  the  complaint  of  the  joint  clergy  against  de  Gar- 
lande,  their  bishop  at  Orleans,  and  addressed  to  Pope  Alexander  III., 
concludes  in  this  manner  :  "  Let  your  apostolical  hands  put  on  strength 
to  strip  naked  the  iniquity  of  this  man,  that  the  curse  prognosticated  on 
the  day  of  his  consecration  may  overtake  him  ;  for  the  gospels  bemg 
opened  on  the  altar  according  to  custom,  the  first  words  were  :  and  the 
young  man,  leaving  his  linen  cloth,  fled  from  them  naked!'  * 

Why  then  roast  the  lay-magicians  and  consulters  of  books,  and  cano- 
nize the  ecclesiastics  ?  Simply  because  the  mediseval  as  well  as  the 
modern  phenomena,  manifested  through  laymen,  whether  produced 
through  occult  knowledge  or  happening  independently,  upset  the  claims 
of  both  the  Catholic  and  Protestant  Churches  to  divine  miracles.  In  the 
face  of  reiterated  and  unimpeachable  evidence  it  became  impossible  for 
the  former  to  maintain  successfully  the  assertion  that  seemingly  miracu- 
lous manifestations  by  the  "good  angels"  and  God's  direct  intervention 
could  be  produced  exclusively  by  her  chosen  ministers  and  holy  saints. 
Neither  could  the  Protestant  well  maintain  on  the  same  ground  that 
miracles  had  ended  with  the  apostolic  ages.  For,  whether  of  the  same 
nature  or  not,  the  modern  phenomena  claimed  close  kinship  with  the 
biblical  ones.  The  magnetists  and  healers  of  our  century  came  into 
direct  and  open  competition  with  the  apostles.  The  Zouave  Jacob,  of 
France,  had  outrivalled  the  prophet  Elijah  in  recalling  to  life  persons 
who  were  seemingly  dead  ;  and  Alexis,  the  somnambulist,  mentioned  by 
Mr.  Wallace  in  his  work,f  was,  by  his  lucidity,  putting  to  shame  apostles, 
prophets,  and  the  Sibyls  of  old.  Since  the  burning  of  the  last  witch,  the 
great  Revolution  of  France,  so  elaborately  prepared  by  the  league  of 
the  secret  societies  and  their  clever  emissaries,  had  blown  over  Europe 
and  awakened  terror  in  the  bosom  of  the  clergy.  It  had,  like  a  destroy- 
ing hurricane,  swept  away  in  its  course  those  best  allies  of  the  Church, 
the  Roman  Catholic  aristocracy.  A  sure  foundation  was  now  laid  for 
the  right  of  individual  opinion.  The  world  was  freed  from  ecclesiastical 
tyranny  by  opening  an  unobstructed  path  to  Napoleon  the  Great,  who 
had  given  the  deathblow  to  the  Inquisition.  This  great  slaughter-house 
of  the  Christian  Church — wherein  she  butchered,  in  the  name  of  the 
I^ainb,  all  the  sheep  arbitrarily  declared  scurvy — was  in  ruins,  and  she 
found  herself  left  to  her  own  responsibility  and  resources. 

So  long  as  the  phenomena  had  appeared  only  sporadically,  she  had 
always  felt  herself  powerful  enough  to  repress  the  consequences.     Super- 

*  Translated  from  the  original  document  in  the  Archives  of  Orleans,  France  j  also 
see  "  Sortes  and  Sortilegium  ;  "   "  Life  of  Peter  de  Blois." 
f  "Miracles  and  Modern  Spiritualism." 


stition  and  belief  in  the  Devil  were  as  strong  as  ever,  and  Science  had  not 
yet  dared  to  publicly  measure  her  forces  with  those  of  supernatural  Religion. 
Meanwhile  the  enemy  had  slowly  but  surely  gained  ground.  All  at  once 
it  broke  out  with  an  unexpected  violence.  "  Miracles  "  began  to  appear 
in  full  daylight,  and  passed  from  their  mystic  seclusion  into  the  domain 
of  natural  law,  where  the  profane  hand  of  Science  was  ready  to  strip  off 
their  sacerdotal  mask.  Still,  for  a  time,  the  Church  held  her  position,  and 
with  the  powerful  help  of  superstitious  fear  checked  the  progress  of  the 
intruding  force.  But,  when  in  succession  appeared  mesmerists  and  som- 
nambulists, reproducing  the  physical  and  mental  phenomenon  of  ecstasy, 
hitherto  believed  to  be  the  special  gift  of  saints  ;  when  the  passion  for 
the  turning  tables  had  reached  in  France  and  elsewhere  its  climax  of 
fury  ;  when  the  psychography — alleged  spiritual — from  a  simple  curiosity 
had  developed  itself  and  settled  into  an  unabated  interest,  and  finally 
ebbed  into  religious  mysticism  ;  when  the  echoes  aroused  by  the  first  raps 
of  Rochester,  crossing  the  oceans,  spread  until  they  were  re-percussed  from 
nearly  every  corner  of  the  world — then,  and  only  then,  the  Latin  Church 
was  fully  awakened  to  a  sense  of  danger.  Wonder  after  wonder  was 
reported  to  have  occurred  in  the  spiritual  circles  and  the  lecture-rooms 
of  the  mesmerists ;  the  sick  were  healed,  the  blind  made  to  see,  the  lame 
to  walk,  the  deaf  to  hear.  J.  R.  Newton  in  America,  and  Du  Potet  in 
France,  were  healing  the  multitude  without  the  slightest  claim  to  divine 
intervention.  The  great  discovery  of  Mesmer,  which  reveals  to  the 
earnest  inquirer  the  mechanism  of  nature,  mastered,  as  if  by  magical 
power,  organic  and  inorganic  bodies. 

But  this  was  not  the  worst.  A  more  direful  calamity  for  the  Church 
occurred  in  the  evocation  from  the  upper  and  nether  worlds  of  a  multi- 
tude of  "  spirits,"  whose  private  bearing  and  conversation  gave  the  direct 
lie  to  the  most  cherished  and  profitable  dogmas  of  the  Church.  These 
"  spirits  "  claimed  to  be  the  identical  entities,  in  a  disembodied  state,  of 
fathers,  mothers,  sons,  and  daughters,  friends  and  acquaintances  of  the 
persons  viewing  the  weird  phenomena.  The  Devil  seemed  to  have  no 
objective  existence,  and  this  struck  at  the  very  foundation  upon  which 
the  chair  of  St.  Peter  rested.*     Not  a  spirit  except  the  mocking  nianni- 

*  There  were  two  chairs  of  the  titular  apostle  at  Rome.  The  clergy,  frightened  at 
the  uninterrupted  evidence  furnished  by  scientific  research,  at  last  decided  to  confront 
the  enemy,  and  we  find  the  *'  Chronique  des  Arts  "  giving  the  cleverest,  and  at  the  same 
time  most  jfesuitical,  explanation  of  the  fact.  According  to  their  story,  "  The  increase 
in  the  number  of  the  faithful  decided  Peter  upon  making  Rome  henceforth  the  centre 
of  his  action.  The  cemetery  of  Ostrianum  was  too  distant  and  would  7ioi  snjffice  for 
the  reunions  of  the  Christians.  The  motive  which  had  induced  the  Apostle  to  confer 
on  Linus  and  Cletus  successively  the  episcopal  character,  in  order  to  render  them  capa- 

24  IS.[S   UNVEILED. 

kins  of  Planchette  would  confess  to  the  most  distant  relationship  with  the 
Satanic  majesty,  or  accredit  him  with  the  governorship  of  a  single  mch 
of  territory.  The  clergy  felt  their  prestige  growing  weaker  every  day, 
as  they  saw  the  people  impatiently  shaking  off,  in  the  broad  daylight 
of  truth,  the  dark  veils  with  which  they  had  been  blindfolded  for  so  many 
centuries.  Then  finally,  fortune,  which  previously  had  been  on  their  side 
in  the  long-waged  conflict  between  theology  and  science,  deserted  to 
their  adversary.  The  help  of  the  latter  to  the  study  of  the  occult  side  of 
nature  was  truly  precious  and  timely,  and  science  has  unwittingly  widened 
the  once  narrow  path  of  the  phenomena  into  a  broad  highway.     Had  not 

ble  of  sharing  the  solicitudes  of  a  church  whose  extent  was  to  be  without  limits,  led 
naturally  to  a  multiplication  of  the  places  of  meeting.  The  particular  residence  of  Peter 
was  therefore  fixed  at  Viminal ;  and  there  was  established  that  mysterious  Chair,  the 
symbol  of  power  and  truth.  The  august  seat  which  was  venerated  at  the  Ostrian  Cata- 
combs was  not,  however,  removed.  Peter  still  visited  this  cradle  of  the  Roman  Church, 
and  often,  without  doubt,  exercised  his  holy  functions  there,  A.  second  Chair,  expressing 
the  same  mystery  as  the  first,  was  set  up  at  Cornelia,  and  it  is  this  which  has  come  down 
to  us  through  the  ages." 

Now,  so  far  from  it  being  possible  that  there  ever  were  two  genuine  chairs  of  this 
kind,  the  majority  of  critics  show  that  Peter  never  was  at  Rome  at  all ;  the  reasons  are 
many  and  unanswerable.  Perhaps  we  had  best  begin  by  pointing  to  the  works  of  Justin 
Martyr.  This  great  champion  of  Christianity,  writing  in  the  early  part  of  the  second 
century  in  Rome,  where  he  fixed  his  abode,  eager  to  get  hold  of  the  least  proof  in  favor 
of  the  truth  for  which  he  suffered,  seems  perfectly  unconscious  of  St.  Peter'' s  existence! I 

Neither  does  any  other  writer  of  any  consequence  mention  him  in  connection  with 
the  Church  of  Rome,  earlier  than  the  days  of  Irenieus,  when  the  latter  set  himself  to 
invent  a  new  religion,  drawn  from  the  depths  of  his  imagination.  We  refer  the  reader 
anxious  to  learn  more  to  the  able  work  of  Mr.  George  Reber,  entitled  "  The  Christ  of 
Paul."  The  arguments  of  this  author  are  conclusive.  The  above  article  in  the  "Chron- 
ique  des  Arts,"  speaks  of  the  increase  of  the  faithful  to  such  an  extent  that  Ostrianum 
could  not  contain  the  number  of  Christians.  Now,  if  Peter  was  at  Rome  at  all— runs 
Mr.  Reber' s  argument — it  must  have  been  between  the  years  A.  D.  64  and  69  ;  for  at 
64  he  was  at  Babylon,  from  whence  he  %vrote  epistles  and  letters  to  Rome,  and  at 
some  time  between  64  and  68  (the  reign  of  Nero)  he  either  died  a  mai-tyr  or  in  his  bed, 
for  Irenteus  makes  him  deliver  the  Church  of  Rome,  together  with  Paul  ( !  ? )  (whom 
he  persecuted  and  quarrelled  with  all  his  life),  into  the  hands  of  Linns,  who  became 
bishop  in  69  (see  Reber's  "  Christ  of  Paul,"  p.  122).  We  will  treat  of  it  more  fully  in 
chapter  iii. 

Now,  we  ask,  in  the  name  of  common  sense,  how  could  the  faithful  of  Peter's 
Church  increase  at  such  a  rate,  when  Nero  trapped  and  killed  them  like  so  many 
mice  during  his  reign  ?  History  shows  the  few  Christians  fleeing  from  Rome,  wherever 
they  could,  to  avoid  the  persecution  of  the  emperor,  and  the  "Chronique  des  Arts " 
makes  them  increase  and  multiply  !  "  Christ,"  the  article  goes  on  to  say,  "willed  that 
this  visible  sign  of  the  doctrmal  authority  of  his  vicar  should  also  have  its  portion  of 
immortality ;  one  can  follow  it  from  age  to  age  in  the  documents  of  the  Roman  Church." 
TertuUian  formally  attests  its  existence  in  his  book  "De  Proescriptionibus."  Eager  to 
learn  everything  concerning  so  interesting  a  subject,  we  would  like  to  be  shown  when 


this  conflict  culminated  at  the  nick  of  time,  we  might  have  seen  repro- 
duced on  a  miniature  scale  the  disgraceful  scenes  of  the  episodes  of 
Salem  witchcraft  and  the  Nuns  of  Loudun.  As  it  was,  the  clergy  were 

But  if  science  has  unintentionally  helped  the  progress  of  the  occult 
phenomena,  the  latter  have  reciprocally  aided  science  herself.  Until 
the  days  when  newly-reincarnated  philosophy  boldly  claimed  its  place  in 
the  world,  there  had  been  but  few  scholars  who  had  undertaken  the  difficult 
task  of  studying  comparative  theology.  This  science  occupies  a  domain 
heretofore  penetrated  by  few  explorers.  The  necessity  which  it  involved 
of  being  well  acquainted  with  the  dead  languages,  necessarily  limited  the 
number  of  students.  Besides,  there  was  less  popular  need  for  it  so  long 
as  people  could  not  replace  the  Christian  orthodoxy  by  something  more 
tangible.  It  is  one  of  the  most  undeniable  facts  of  psychology,  that  the 
average  man  can  as  little  exist  out  of  a  religious  element  of  some  kind, 
as  a  fish  out  of  the  water.  The  voice  of  truth,  "  a  voice  stronger  than 
the  voice  of  the  mightiest  thunder,"  speaks  to  the  inner  man  in  the  nine- 
teenth century  of  the  Christian  era,  as  it  spoke  in  the  corresponding 
century  B.C.  It  is  a  useless  and  unprofitable  task  to  ofifer  to  humanity 
the  choice  between  a  future  life  and  annihilation.  The  only  chance  that' 
remains  for  those  friends  of  human  progress  who  seek  to  establish  for 
the  good  of  mankind  a  faith,  henceforth   stripped  entirely  of  superstition 

did  Christ  WILL  anything  of  the  kind  ?  However  :  ' '  Ornaments  of  ivory  have  been  fitted 
to  the  front  and  back  of  the  chair,  but  only  on  those  parts  repaired  with  acacia-wood. 
Those  which  cover  the  panel  in  front  are  divided  into  three  superimposed  rows,  each 
containing  six  plaques  of  ivory,  on  which  are  engraved  various  subjects,  among  others  the 
'  Labors  of  Hercules.'  Several  of  the  plaques  were  wrongly  placed,  and  seemed  to  have 
been  affixed  to  the  chair  at  a  time  when  the  remains  of  antiquity  were  employed  as  orna- 
ments, without  much  regard  to  fitness."  This  is  the  point.  The  article  was  written 
simply  as  a  clever  answer  to  several  facts  published  during  the  present  century.  Bower, 
in  his  "History  of  the  Popes  "  (vol.  li.,  p.  7),  narrates  that  in  the  year  1662,  while  cleaning 
one  of  the  chairs,  "the  '  Twelve  Labors  of  Hercules'  unluckily  appeared  engraved  upon  it," 
after  which  the  chair  was  removed  and  another  substituted.  But  in  1795,  when  Bona- 
parte's troops  occupied  Rome,  the  chair  was  again  examined.  This  time  there  was 
found  the  Mahometan  confession  of  faith,  in  Arabic  letters :  "  There  is  no  Deity 
but  Allah,  and  Mahomet  is  his  Apostle."  (See  appendix  to  "Ancient  Symbol- Worship," 
by  H.  M.  Westropp  and  C.  Staniland  Wake.)  In  the  appendix  Prof.  Alexander 
Wilder  very  justly  remarks  as  follows :  "  We  presume  that  the  Apostle  of  the  Circum- 
cision, as  Paul,  his  great  rival,  styles  him,  was  never  at  the  Imperial  City,  nor  had  a 
successor  there,  not  even  in  the  ghetto.  The  '  Chau-  of  Peter,'  therefore,  is  sacred 
rather  than  apostolical.  Its  sanctity  proceeded,  however,  from  the  esoteric  religion  of 
the  former  times  of  Rome.  The  hierophant  of  the  Mysteries  probably  occupied  it  on 
the  day  of  initiations,  when  exhibiting  to  the  candidates  the  Petronia  (stone  tablet 
containing  the  last  revelation  made  by  the  hierophant  to  the  neophyte  for  initiation)." 


and  dogmatic  fetters  is  to  address  them  in  the  words  of  Joshua  :  "  Choose 
ye  this  day  whom  you  will  serve  ;  whether  the  gods  which  your  fathers 
served  that  were  on  the  other  side  of  the  flood,  or  the  gods  of  the 
Amorites,  in  whose  land  ye  dwell.''  * 

"The  science  of  religion,"  wrote  Max  Miiller  in  i860,  "is  only  just 
beginning.  .  .  .  During  the  last  fifty  years  the  authentic  documents  of 
the  most  important  religions  in  the  world  have  been  recovered  in  a  most 
unexpected  and  almost  miraculous  mattncr.\  We  have  now  before  us  the 
Canonical  books  of  Buddhism ;  the  Zend-Avesta  of  Zoroaster  is  no 
longer  a  sealed  book  ;  and  the  hymns  of  the  Rig-  Veda  have  revealed  a 
state  of  religions  anterior  to  the  first  beginnings  of  that  mythology  which 
in  Homer  and  Hesiod  stands  before  us  as  a  mouldering  ruin."  \ 

In  their  insatiable  desire  to  extend  the  dominion  of  blind  faith,  the 
early  architects  of  Christian  theology  had  been  forced  to  conceal,  as 
much  as  it  was  possible,  the  true  sources  of  the  same.  To  this  end 
they  are  said  to  have  burned  or  otherwise  destr03'ed  all  the  original  man- 
uscripts on  the  Kabala,  magic,  and  occult  sciences  upon  which  they 
could  lay  their  hands.  They  ignorantly  supposed  that  the  most  danger- 
ous writings  of  this  class  had  perished  with  the  last  Gnostic ;  but  some 
day  they  may  discover  their  mistake.  Other  authentic  and  as  important 
documents  will  perhaps  reappear  in  a  "  most  unexpected  and  almost 
miraculous  manner." 

*  Joshua  xxiv.  15. 

\  One  of  the  most  surprising  facts  that  have  come  under  our  observation,  is  that 
students  of  profound  research  should  not  couple  the  frequent  recurrence  of  these  "un- 
expected and  almost  miraculous  "  discoveries  of  important  documents,  at  the  most  op- 
portune moments,  with  a  premeditated  design.  Is  it  so  strange  that  the  custodians  of 
"Pagan"  lore,  seeing  that  the  proper  moment  had  arrived,  should  cause  the  needed 
document,  book,  or  relic  to  fall  as  if  by  accident  in  the  right  man's  way?  Geological 
surveyors  and  explorers  even  as  competent  as  Humboldt  and  Tschuddi,  have  not  dis- 
covered the  hidden  mines  from  which  the  Peruvian  Incas  dug  their  treasure,  although 
the  latter  confesses  that  the  present  degenerate  Indians  have  the  secret.  In  1S39,  Per- 
ring,  the  archiEologist,  proposed  to  the  sheik  of  an  Arab  village  two  purses  of  gold,  if  he 
helped  him  to  discover  the  entrance  to  the  hidden  passage  leading  to  the  sepulchral 
chambers  in  the  North  Pyramid  of  Doshoor.  But  though  his  men  were  o^t  of  employ- 
ment and  half stai-ved,  the  sheik  proudly  refused  to  "sell  the  secret  of  the  dead," 
promising  to  show  it  gratis^  when  the  time  would  come  for  it.  Is  it,  then,  impossible 
that  in  some  other  regions  of  the  earth  are  guarded  the  remains  of  that  glorious  litera- 
ture of  the  past,  which  was  the  fruit  of  its  majestic  civilization  ?  What  is  there  so  sur- 
prising in  the  idea  ?  Who  knows  but  that  as  the  Christian  Church  has  unconsciously 
begotten  free  thought  by  reaction  against  her  own  cruelty,  rapacity,  and  dogmatism,  the 
public  mind  may  be  glad  to  follow  the  lead  of  the  Orientalists,  away  from  Jerusalem 
and  towards  EUora  ;  and  that  then  much  more  will  be  discovered  that  is  now  hidden? 

I  "  Chips  from  a  German  Workshop,"  vol.  i.,  p.  373  ;  Semitic  Monotheism. 


There  are  strange  traditions  current  in  various  parts  of  the  East — 
on  Mount  Athos  and  in  the  Desert  of  Nitria,  for  instance — among 
certain  monks,  and  with  learned  Rabbis  in  Palestine,  who'  pass  their 
lives  in  commenting  upon  the  Talmud.  They  say  that  not  all  the  rolls 
and  manuscripts,  reported  in  history  to  have  been  burned  by  Csesar,  by 
the  Christian  mob,  in  389,  and  by  the  Arab  General  Amru,  perished  as 
it  is  commonly  believed  ;  and  the  story  they  tell  is  the  following  :  At 
the  time  of  the  contest  for  the  throne,  in  51  B.C.,  between  Cleopatra 
and  her  brother  Dionysius  Ptolemy,  the  Bruckion,  which  contained  over 
seven  hundred  thousand  rolls,  all  bound  in  wood  and  fire-proof  parch- 
ment, was  undergoing  repairs,  and  a  great  portion  of  the  original  man- 
uscripts, considered  among  the  most  precious,  and  which  were  not 
duplicated,  were  stored  away  in  the  house  of  one  of  the  librarians.  As 
the  fire  which  consumed  the  rest  was  but  the  result  of  accident,  no  pre- 
cautions had  been  taken  at  the  time.  But  they  add,  that  several  hours 
passed  between  the  burning  of  the  fleet,  set  on  fire  by  Cffisar's  order, 
and  the  moment  when  the  first  buildings  situated  near  the  harbor  caught 
fire  in  their  turn  ;  and  that  all  the  librarians,  aided  by  several  hundred 
slaves  attached  to  the  museum,  succeeded  in  saving  the  most  precious  of 
the  rolls.  So  perfect  and  solid  was  the  fabric  of  the  parchment,  that  while 
in  some  rolls  the  inner  pages  and  the  wood-binding  were  reduced  to  ashes, 
of  others  the  parchment  binding  remained  unscorched.  These  particu- 
lars were  all  written  out  in  Greek,  Latin,  and  the  Chaldeo-Syriac  dia- 
lect, by  a  learned  youth  named  Theodas,  one  of  the  scribes  employed 
in  the  museum.  One  of  these  manuscripts  is  alleged  to  be  preserved 
till  now  in  a  Greek  convent  ;  and  the  person  who  narrated  the  tradi- 
tion to  us  had  seen  it  himself.  He  said  that  many  more  will  see  it  and 
learn  where  to  look  for  important  documents,  when  a  certain  prophecy 
will  be  fulfilled  ;  adding,  that  most  of  these  works  could  be  found  in 
Tartary  and  India.*  The  monk  showed  us  a  copy  of  the  original,  which, 
of  course,  we  could  read  but  poorly,  as  we  claim  but  little  eiudition  in 
the  matter  of   dead  languages.     But  we  were   so  particularly  struck  by 

*  An  after-thought  has  made  us  fancy  that  we  can  understand  what  is  meant  by  the 
following  sentences  of  Moses  of  Choreni:  "The  ancient  Asiatics,"  says  he,  "five 
centuries  before  our  era — and  especially  the  Hindus,  the  Persians,  and  the  Chaldeans, 
had  in  their  possession  a  quantity  of  historical  and  scientific  books.  These  works 
were  partially  borrowed,  partially  translated  in  the  Greek  language,  mostly  since  the 
Ptolemies  had  established  the  Alexandrian  library  and  encouraged  the  writers  by  their 
liberalities,  so  that  the  Greek  language  became  the  deposit  of  all  the  sciences" 
("  History  of  Armenia").  Therefore,  the  greater  part  of  the  literature  included  in 
the  700,000  volumes  of  the  Alexandrian  Library  was  due  to  India,  and  her  next 


the  vivid  and  picturesque  translation  of  the  holy  father,  that  we  perfectly 
remember  some  curious  paragraphs,  which  run,  as  far  as  we  can  recall 
them,  as  follows :—"  When  the  Queen  of  the  Sun  (Cleopatra)  was 
brought  back  to  the  half-ruined  city,  after  the  fire  had  devoured  the 
Glory  of  the  World ;  and  when  she  saw  the  mountains  of  books— or 
rolls— covering  the  half-consumed  steps  of  the  estrada  ;  and  when  she 
perceived  that  the  inside  was  gone  and  the  indestructible  covers  alone 
remained,  she  wept  in  rage  and  fury,  and  cursed  the  meanness  of  her 
fathers  who  had  grudged  the  cost  of  the  real  Perganios  for  the  inside  as 
well  as  the  outside  of  the  precious  rolls."  Further,  our  author,  Theodas, 
indulges  in  a  joke  at  the  expense  of  the  queen  for  believing  that  nearly 
all  the  library  was  burned  ;  when,  in  fact,  hundreds  and  thousands  of  the 
choicest  books  were  safely  stored  in  his  own  house  and  those  of  other 
scribes,  librarians,  students,  and  philosophers. 

No  more  do  sundry  very  learned  Copts  scattered  all  over  the  East 
in  Asia  Minor,  Egypt,  and  Palestine  believe  in  the  total  destruction  of 
the  subsequent  libraries.  For  instance,  they  say  that  out  of  the  library 
of  Attains  III.  of  Pergamus,  presented  by  Antony  to  Cleopatra,  not  a 
volume  was  destroyed.  At  that  time,  according  to  their  assertions,  from 
the  moment  that  the  Christians  began  to  gain  power  in  Alexandria— 
about  the  end  of  the  fourth  century — and  Anatolius,  Bishop  of  Laodicea, 
began  to  insult  the  national  gods,  the  Pagan  philosophers  and  learned 
theurgists  adopted  effective  measures  to  preserve  the  repositories  of 
their  sacred  learning.  Theophilus,  a  bishop,  who  left  behind  him  the 
reputation  of  a  most  rascally  and  mercenary  villain,  was  accused  by  one 
named  Antoninus,  a  famous  theurgist  and  eminent  scholar  of  occult 
science  of  Alexandria,  with  bribing  the  slaves  of  the  Serapion  to  steal 
books  which  he  sold  to  foreigners  at  great  prices.  History  tells  us  how 
Theophilus  had  the  best  of  the  philosophers,  in  a.d.  389  ;  and  how  his 
successor  and  nephew,  the  no  less  infamous  Cyril,  butchered  Hypatia. 
Suidas  gives  us  some  details  about  Antoninus,  whom  he  calls  Anto- 
nius,  and  his  eloquent  friend  Olympus,  the  defender  of  the  Serapion. 
But  history  is  far  from  being  complete  in  the  miserable  remnants  of 
books,  which,  crossing  so  many  ages,  have  reached  our  own  learned  cen- 
tury ;  it  fails  to  give  the  facts  relating  to  the  first  five  centuries  of  Chris- 
tianity which  are  preserved  in  the  numerous  traditions  current  in  the 
East.  Unauthenticated  as  these  may  appear,  there  is  unquestionably 
in  the  heap  of  chaff  much  good  grain.  That  these  traditions  are  not 
oftener  communicated  to  Europeans  is  not  strange,  when  we  consider 
how  apt  our  travellers  are  to  render  themselves  antagonistic  to  the 
natives  by  their  skeptical  bearing  and,  occasionally,  dogmatic  intoler- 
ance.    When  exceptional  men  like  some  archccologists,  who  knew  how 


to  win  the  confidence  and  even  friendship  of  certain  Arabs,  are 
favored  with  precious  documents,  it  is  declared  simply  a  "  coinci- 
dence." And  yet  there  are  widespread  traditions  of  the  existence  of 
certain  subterranean,  and  immense  galleries,  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Ishmonia — the  "  petrified  City,"  in  which  are  stored  numberless  manu- 
scripts and  rolls.  For  no  amount  of  money  would  the  Arabs  go  near 
it.  At  night,  they  say,  from  the  crevices  of  the  desolate  ruins,  sunk 
deep  in  the  unwatered  sands  of  the  desert,  stream  the  rays  from  lights 
carried  to  and  fro  in  the  galleries  by  no  human  hands.  The  Afrites 
study  the  literature  of  the  antediluvian  ages,  according  to  their  behef, 
and  the  Djin  learns  from  the  magic  rolls  the  lesson  of  the  following 

The  Encyclopedia  Brtta?inica,  in  its  article  on  Alexandria,  says  : 
"Wlien  the  temple  of  Serapis  was  demolished  .  .  .  the  valuable  library 
was  pillaged  or  destroyed  ;  and  twenty  years  afterwards  *  the  empty  shelves 
excited  the  regret  .  .  .  etc."  But  it  does  not  state  the  subsequent  fate  of 
the  pillaged  books. 

In  rivalry  of  the  fierce  Mary-worshippers  of  the  fourth  century,  the 
modern  clerical  persecutors  of  liberalism  and  "  heresy  "  would  wiUingly 
shut  up  all  the  heretics  and  their  books  in  some  modern  Serapion  and 
burn  them  alive.f  The  cause  of  this  hatred  is  natural.  Modern  re- 
search has  more  than  ever  unveiled  the  secret.  "  Is  not  the  worship  of 
saints  and  angels  now,"  said  Bishop  Newton,  years  ago,  "  in  all  respects 
the  same  that  the  worship  of  demons  was  in  former  times  ?  The  name 
only  is  different,  the  thing  is  identically  the  same  .  .  .  the  very  same 
temples,  the  very  same  images,  which  were  once  consecrated  to  Jupiter 
and  the  other  demons,  are  now  consecrated  to  the  Virgin  Mary  and 
other  saints  .  .  .  the  whole  of  Paganism  is  converted  and  applied  to 

\Vhy  not  be  impartial  and  add  that  "  a  good  portion  of  it  was  adopted 
by  Protestant  religions  also  ?  " 

The  very  apostolic  designation  Peter  is  from  the  Mysteries.  The 
hierophant  or  supreme  pontiff  bore  the  Chaldean  title  -ins,  peter,  or  in- 
terpreter. The  names  Phtah,  Peth'r,  the  residence  of  Balaam,  Patara, 
and  Patras,  the  names  of  oracle-cities,  pateres  or  pateras  and,   perhaps, 

*  Bonamy  says  in  "  Le  Bibliotheque  d'Alexandrie,"  quoting,  we  suppose,  the  Pres- 
byter Orosius,  wlio  was  an  eye-witness,  *'  thirty  years  later.'' 

■)•  Since  the  above  was  written,  the  spirit  here  described  has  been  beautifully  exem- 
plified at  Barcelona,  Spain,  where  the  Bishop  Fray  Joachim  invited  the  local  spiritual- 
ists to  witness  a  formal  burning  of  spiritual  books.  We  find  the  account  in  a  paper 
called  "  The  Revelation,"  published  at  Alicante,  which  sensibly  adds  that  the  perform- 
ance was  **  a  caricature  of  the  memorable  epoch  of  the  Inquisition.'* 


Buddha,*  all  come  from  the  same  root.  Jesus  says  :  "  Upon  this  pdra  I 
will  build  my  Church,  and  the  gates,  or  rulers  of  Hades,  shall  not  prevail 
against  it  ;  "  meaning  by  petra  the  rock-temple,  and  by  metaphor,  the 
Christian  Mysteries  ;  the  adversaries  to  which  were  the  old  mystery-gods 
of  the  underworld,  who  were  worshipped  in  the  rites  of  Isis,  Adonis, 
Atys,  Sabazius,  Dionysus,  and  the  Eleusinia.  No  apostle  Peter  was  ever 
at  Rome  ;  but  the  Pope,  seizing  the  sceptre  of  the  Pontifex  Maximus,  the 
keys  of  Janus  and  Kubel6,  and  adorning  his  Christian  head  with  the  cap 
of  the  Magna  Mafer,  copied  from  that  of  the  tiara  of  Brahmatma,  the 
Supreme  Pontiff  of  the  Initiates  of  old  India,  became  the  successor  of 
the  Pagan  high  priest,  the  real  Peter-Roma,  or  Petroma.\ 

The  Roman  Catholic  Church  has  two  far  mightier  enemies  than  the 
"  heretics  "  and  the  "  infidels  ;  "  and  these  are — Couiparative  Mythology 
and  Philology.  When  such  eminent  divines  as  the  Rev.  James  Free- 
man Clarke  go  so  much  out  of  their  way  to  prove  to  their  readers  that 
"  Critical  Theology  from  the  time  of  Origen  and  Jerome  .  .  .  and  the 
Controversial  Theology  during  fifteen  centuries,  has  not  consisted  in 
accepting  on  authority  the  opinions  of  other  people,"  but  has  shown, 
on  the  contrary,  much  "acute  and  comprehensive  reasoning,"  we  can  but 
regret  that  so  much  scholarship  should  have  been  wasted  in  attempting 
to  prove  that  which  a  fair  survey  of  the  history  of  theology  upsets  at 
every  step.  In  these  "controversies"  and  critical  treatment  of  the  doc- 
trines of  the  Church  one  can  certainly  find  any  amount  of  "  acute  rea- 
soning," but  far  more  of  a  still  acuter  sophistry. 

Recently  the  mass  of  cumulative  evidence  has  been  reinforced  to  an 
extent  which  leaves  little,  if  any,  room  for  further  controversy.  A  con- 
clusive opinion  is  furnished  by  too  many  scholars  to  doubt  the  fact  that 
India  was  the  Alma-]\Tater,  not  only  of  the  civilization,  arts,  and  sciences, 
but  also  of  all  the  great  religions  of  antiquity ;  Judaism,  and  hence 
Christianity,  included.  Herder  places  the  cradle  of  humanity  in  India, 
and  shows  Moses  as  a  clever  and  relatively  wz^^^/^rw  compiler  of  the  ancient 
Brahmanical  traditions  :  "  The  river  which  encircles  the  country  (India) 
is  the  sacred  Ganges,  which  all  Asia  considers  as  the  paradisaical  river. 
There,  also,  is  the  biblical  Gihon,  which  is  none  else  but  the  Indus. 
The  Arabs  call  it  so  unto  this  day,  and  the  names  of  the  countries  watered 
by  it  are  yet  existing  among  the  Hindus."  Jacolliot  claims  to  have 
translated  every  ancient  palm-leaf  manuscript  which  he  had  the  fortune 
of  being  allowed  by  the  Brahmans  of  the  pagodas  to  see.     In  one  of  liis 

*  E.  PococUe  gives  the  variations  of  the  name  Buddha  as :  Bud'ha,  Buddha,  Booddha, 
Butta,  Pout,  Pote,  Pto,  Pte,  Phte,  Phtha,  Phut,  etc.,  etc.  See  "India  in  Greece," 
Note,  Appendix,  397. 

\  The  tiara  of  the  Pope  is  also  a  perfect  copy  of  that  of  the  Dalai- Lama  of  Thibet. 

ORIGIN   OF  THE  PAPAL  TIARA  AND   KEYS.        '  31 

translations,  we  found  passages  which  reveal  to  us  the  undoubted  origin 
of  the  keys  of  St.  Peter,  and  account  for  the  subsequent  adoption  of  the 
symbol  by  their  Holinesses,  the  Popes  of  Rome. 

He  shows  us,  on  the  testimony  of  the  Agrouchada  Parikshai,  which 
he  freely  translates  as  "  the  Book  oj  Spirits "  (Pitris),  that  centuries 
before  our  era  the  initiates  of  the  temple  chose  a  Superior  Council,  pre- 
sided over  by  the  Brahm-titma  or  supreme  chief  of  all  these  Initiates. 
That  this  pontificate,  which  could  be  exercised  only  by  a  Brahman  who 
had  reached  the  age  of  eighty  years  ;  *  that  the  Brahm-atnia  was  sole 
guardian  of  the  mystic  formula,  resume  of  every  science,  contained  jn  the 
three  mysterious  letters, 


which  signify  creation,  conservation,  and  transformation.  He  alone 
could  expound  its  meaning  in  the  presence  of  the  initiates  of  the  third 
and  supreme  degree.  Whomsoever  among  these  initiates  revealed  to  a 
profane  a  single  one  of  the  truths,  even  the  smallest  of  the  secrets  en- 
trusted to  his  care,  was  put  to  death.  He  who  received  the  confidence 
had  to  share  his  fate. 

"Finally,  to  crown  this  able  system,"  says  JacoUiot,  "there  existed  a 
word  still  more  superior  to  the  mysterious  monosyllable — A  U  M,  and 
which  rendered  him  who  came  into  the  possession  of  its  key  nearly  the 
equal  of  Brahma  himself.  The  Brahm-4tma  alone  possessed  this  key, 
and  transmitted  it  in  a  sealed  casket  to  his  successor. 

"  This  unknown  word,  of  which  no  human  power  could,  even  to-day, 
when  the  Brahmanical  authority  has  been  crushed  under  the  Mongolian 
and  European  invasions,  to-day,  when  each  pagoda  has  its  Brahm-atma,  f 
force  the  disclosure,  was  engraved  in  a  golden  triangle  and  preserved  in 
a  sa,nctuary  of  the  temple  of  Asgartha,  whose  Brahm-atma  alone  held  the 
keys.  He  also  bore  upon  his  tiara  two  crossed  keys  supported  by  two 
kneeling  Brahmans,  symbol  of  the  precious  deposit  of  which  he  had  the 
keeping.  .  .  .  This  word  and  this  triangle  were  engraved  upon  the  tablet 
of  the  ring  that  this  religious  chief  wore  as  one  of  the  signs  of  his  dig- 
nity ;  it  was  also  framed  in  a  golden  sun  on  the  altar,  where  every  morn- 
ing the  Supreme  Pontiff  offered  the  sacrifice  of  the  sarvameda,  or  sacri- 
fice to  all  the  forces  of  nature."  t 

*  It  is  the  traditional  policy  of  the  College  of  Cardinals  to  elect,  whenever  practi- 
cable, the  new  Pope  among  the  oldest  valetudinarians.  The  hierophant  of  the  Eleusi- 
nia  was  likewise  always  an  old  man,  and  unmarried. 

•f  This  is  not  correct.  |  "  Le  Spiritisme  dans  le  Monde,"  p.  28. 

32  •  ISIS    UNVEILED. 

Is  this  clear  enough  ?  And  will  the  Catholics  still  maintain  that  it 
M-as  the  Brahraans  of  4,000  years  ago  who  copied  the  ritual,  symbols,  and 
dress  of  the  Roman  Pontiffs  ?     We  would  not  feel  in  the  least  surprised. 

Without  going  very  far  back  into  antiquity  for  comparisons,  if  we  only 
stop  at  the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries  of  our  era,  and  contrast  the  so-called 
"heathenism"  of  the  third  Neo-platonic  Eclectic  School  with  the  grow- 
ing Christianity,  the  result  may  not  be  favorable  to  the  latter.  Even  at 
that  early  period,  when  the  new  religion  had  hardly  outlined  its  contra- 
dictory dogmas ;  when  the  champions  of  the  bloodthirsty  Cyril  knew  not 
themselves  whether  Mary  was  to  become  "  the  Mother  of  God,"  or  rank 
as  a  "  demon  "  in  company  with  Isis  ;  when  the  memory  of  the  meek  and 
lowly  Jesus  still  lingered  lovingly  in  every  Christian  heart,  and  his  words 
of  mercy  and  charity  vibrated  still  in  the  air,  even  then  the  Christians 
were  outdoing  the  Pagans  in  every  kind  of  ferocity  and  religious  intoler- 

And  if  we  look  still  farther  back,  and  seek  for  examples  of  true 
Christism,  in  ages  when  Buddhism  had  hardly  superseded  Brahmanism  in 
India,  and  the  name  of  Jesus  was  only  to  be  pronounced  three  centuries 
later,  what  do  we  find  ?  Which  of  the  holy  pillars  of  the  Church  has  ever 
elevated  himself  to  the  level  of  religious  tolerance  and  noble  simplicity 
of  character  of  some  heathen  ?  Compare,  for  instance,  the  Hindu 
Asoka,  who  lived  300  B.C.,  and  the  Carthaginian  St.  Augustine,  who  flour- 
ished three  centuries  after  Christ.  According  to  Max  Miiller,  this  is 
what  is  found  engraved  on  the  rocks  of  Girnar,  Dhauli,   and  Kapurdigiri : 

"  Piyadasi,  the  king  beloved  of  the  gods,  desires  that  the  ascetics  of 
all  creeds  might  reside  in  all  places.  All  these  ascetics  profess  alike  the 
command  which  people  should  exercise  over  themselves,  and  the  purity 
of  the  soul.  But  people  have  different  opinions  and  different  inclina- 

And  here  is  what  Augustine  wrote  after  his  baptism  :  "  Wondrous 
depth  of  thy  words  !  whose  surface,  behold  !  is  before  us,  inviting  to 
little  ones  ;  yet  are  they  a  wondrous  depth,  O  my  God,  a  wondrous 
depth  !  It  is  awful  to  look  therein  ;  yes  ...  an  awfulness  of  honor, 
and  a  trembling  of  love.  Thy  enemies  [read  Pagans]  thereof  I  hate 
vehemently  ;  Oh,  that  thou  wouldst  slay  them  with  thy  two-edged  sword, 
that  they  might  no  longer  be  enemies  to  it ;  for  so  do  I  love  to  have  them 
slain."  * 

Wonderful  spirit  of  Christianity ;  and  that  from  a  Manichean  con- 
verted to  the  religion  of  one  who  even  on  his  cross  prayed  for  his  ene- 
mies ! 

*  Translated    by  Prof.    Draper  for  "Conflict    between    Religion   and    Science;" 
book  xii. 


Who  the  enemies  of  the  "Lord"  were,  according  to  the  Christians,  is 
not  difficult  to  surmise  ;  the  few  inside  the  Augustinian  fold  werg  His  new 
children  and  favorites,  who  had  supplanted  in  His  affections  the  sons  of 
Israel,  His  "  chosen  people."  The  rest  of  mankind  were  His  natural  foes. 
The  teeming  multitudes  of  heathendom  were  proper  food  for  the  flames 
of  hell;  the  handful  within  the  Church  communion,  "heirs  of  salvation." 

But  if  such  a  prescriptive  policy  was  just,  and  its  enforcement  was 
"  sweet  savor "  in  the  nostrils  of  the  "  Lord,"  why  not  scorn  also  the 
Pagan  rites  and  philosophy  ?  Why  draw  so  deep  from  the  wells  of  wisdom, 
dug  and  filled  up  to  brim  by  the  same  heathen  ?  Or  did  the  fathers,  in 
their  desire  to  imitate  the  chosen  people  whose  time-worn  shoes  they 
were  trying  to  fit  upon  their  feet,  contemplate  the  reenaction  of  the 
spoliation-scene  of  the  Exodus  1  Did  they  propose,  in  fleeing  from 
heathendom  as  the  Jews  did  from  Egypt,  to  carry  off  the  valuables  of  its 
religious  allegories,  as  the  "chosen  ones"  did  the  gold  and  silver  orna- 
ments ? 

It  certainly  does  seem  as  if  the  events  of  the  first  centuries  of  Chris- 
tianity were  but  the  reflection  of  the  images  thrown  upon  the  mirror  of 
the  future  at  the  time  of  the  Exodus.  During  the  stormy  days  of  Irenaeus, 
the  Platonic  philosophy,  with  its  mystical  submersion  into  Deity,  was  not 
so  obnoxious  after  all  to  the  new  doctrine  as  to  prevent  the  Christians 
from  helping  themselves  to  its  abstruse  metaphysics  in  every  way  and 
manner.  Allying  themselves  with  the  ascetical  theurapeut» — forefathers 
and  models  of  the  Christian  monks  and  hermits,  it  was  in  Alexandria,  let 
it  be  remembered,  that  they  laid  the  first  foundations  of  the  purely  Pla- 
tonic trinitarian  doctrine.  It  became  the  Plato-Philonean  doctrine  later, 
and  such  as  we  find  it  now.  Plato  considered  the  divine  nature  under  a 
three-fold  modification  of  the  First  Cause,  the  reason  or  Logos,  and  the 
soul  or  spirit  of  the  universe.  "The  three  archial  or  original  principles," 
says  Gibbon,*  "  were  represented  in  the  Platonic  system  as  three  gods, 
united  with  each  other  by  a  mysterious  and  ineffable  generation."  Blend- 
ing this  transcendental  idea  with  the  more  hypostatic  figure  of  the  Logos 
of  Philo,  whose  doctrine  was  that  of  the  oldest  Kabala,  and  who  viewed 
the  King  Messiah,  as  the  metatron,  or  "the  angel  of  the  Lord,"  the 
Legatus  descended  in  flesh,  but  not  the  Ancient  of  Days  Himself;  f  the 
Christians  clothed  with  this  mythical  representation  of  the  Mediator  for 
the  fallen  race  of  Adam,  Jesus,  the  son  of  Mary.  Under  this  unexpected 
garb  his  personality  was  all  but  lost.  In  the  modern  Jesus  of  the  Chris- 
tian Church,  we  find  the  ideal  of  the  imaginative  Iren?eus,  not  the  adept 

*  "  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire." 

f  "  Sohar  Comment.,"  Gen.  xl.  lo;  "  Kabbal.  Denud.,"  i.,  528. 



of  the  Essenes,  the  obscure  reformer  from  Galilee.  We  see  him  under 
the  disfigured  Plato-Philonean  mask,  not  as  the  disciples  heard  him  on 
the  mount. 

So  far  then  the  heathen  philosophy  had  helped  them  in  the  building 
of  the  principal  dogma.  But  when  the  theurgists  of  the  third  Neo-pla- 
tonic  school,  deprived  of  their  ancient  Mysteries,  strove  to  blend  the 
doctrines  of  Plato  with  those  of  Aristotle,  and  by  combining  the  two 
philosophies  added  to  their  theosophy  the  primeval  doctrines  of  the 
Oriental  Kabala,  then  the  Christians  from  rivals  became  persecutors. 
Once  that  the  metaphysical  allegories  of  Plato  were  being  prepared  to  be 
discussed  in  pubhc  in  the  form  of  Grecian  dialectics,  all  the  elaborate 
system  of  the  Christian  trinity  would  be  unravelled  and  the  divine  pres- 
tige completely  upset.  The  eclectic  school,  reversing  the  order,  had 
adopted  the  inductive  method ;  and  this  method  became  its  death-knell. 
Of  all  things  on  earth,  logic  and  reasonable  explanations  vie.T?:  the  most 
hateful  to  the  new  religion  of  mystery ;  for  they  threatened  to  unveil  the 
whole  ground-work  of  the  trinitarian  conception ;  to  apprise  the  multi- 
tude of  the  doctrine  of  emanations,  and  thus  destroy  the  unity  of  the 
whole.  It  could  not  be  permitted,  and  it  was  not.  History  records  the 
ChristVik.&  means  that  were  resorted  to. 

The  universal  doctrine  of  emanations,  adopted  from  time  immemo- 
rial by  the  greatest  schools  which  taught  the  kabalistic,  Alexandrian,  and 
Oriental  philosophers,  gives  the  key  to  that  panic  among  the  Christian 
fathers.  That  spirit  of  Jesuitism  and  clerical  craft,  which  prompted 
Parkhurst,  many  centuries  later,  to  suppress  in  his  Hebrew  Lexicon  thS 
true  meaning  of  the  first  word  of  Genesis,  originated  in  those  days  of 
war  against  the  expiring  Neo-platonic  and  eclectic  school.  The  fathers 
had  decided  to  pervert  the  meaning  of  the  word  "  daimon,"  *  and  they 
dreaded  above  all  to  have  the  esoteric  and  true  meaning  of  the  word 
Rasit  unveiled  to  the  multitudes  ;  for  if  once  the  true  sense  of  this 
sentence,  as  well  as  that  of  the  Hebrew  word  asdt  (translated  in  the 
Septuagint  ^^ angels"  while  it  means  emanations),!  were  understood 
rightly,  the  mystery  of  the  Christian  trinity  would  have  crumbled,  carry- 
ing in  its  downfall  the  new  religion  into  the  same  heap  of  ruins  with  the 
ancient  Mysteries.  This  is  the  true  reason  why  dialecticians,  as  well  as 
Aristotle  himself,  the  "prying  philosopher,"  were  ever  obnoxious  to 
Christian  theology.  Even  Luther,  while  on  his  work  of  reform,  feeling 
the  ground  insecure  under  his  feet,  notwithstanding  that  the  dogmas  had 

*  "  The  beings  which  the  philosophers  of  other  peoples  distinguish  by  the  name 
'  Dfemons,'  Moses  names  '  Angels,'  "  sa)'S  Philo  Judfeus. — "  De  Gigant,"  i.  253. 
f  Deuteronomy  xxxiii.  2.,  mC'X  is  translated  "fiery  law"  in  the  English  Bible. 


been  reduced  by  him  to  their  simplest  expression,  gave  full  vent  to  his 
fear  and  hatred  for  Aristotle.  The  amount  of  abuse  he  heaped  ifpon  the 
memory  of  the  great  logician  can  only  be  equalled — never  surpassed — 
by  the  Pope's  anathemas  and  invectives  against  the  liberals  of  the  Italian 
government.  Compiled  together,  they  might  easily  fill  a  copy  of  a  nevv 
encycloptedia  with  models  for  monkish  diatribes. 

Of  course  the  Christian  clergy  can  never  get  reconciled  with  a  doc- 
trine based  on  the  application  of  strict  logic  to  discursive  reasoning  ? 
The  number  of  those  who  have  abandoned  theology  on  this  account  has 
never  been  made  known.  They  have  asked  questions  and  been  forbid- 
den to  ask  them  ;  hence,  separation,  disgust,  and  often  a  despairing 
plunge  into  the  abyss  of  atheism.  The  Orphean  views  of  ether  as  chief 
medium  betwee?i  God  and  created  matter  were  likewise  denounced.  The 
Orphic  ^ther  recalled  too  vividly  the  Archeus,  the  Soul  of  the  World, 
and  the  latter  was  in  its  metaphysical  sense  as  closely  related  to  the 
emanations,  being  the  first  manifestation — Sephira,  or  Divine  Light. 
And  when  could  the  latter  be  more  feared  than  at  that  critical  moment  ? 

Origen,  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  Chalcidius,  Methodius,  and  Maimoni- 
des,  on  the  authority  of  the  Targum  of  Jerusalem,  the  orthodox  and 
greatest  authority  of  the  Jews,  held  that  the  first  two  words  in  the  book 
of  Genesis — b-rasit,  mean  lVisdoi?i,  or  the  Principle.  And  that  the 
idea  of  these  words  meaning  "  in  the  beginning  "  was  never  shared  but 
by  the  profane,  who  were  not  allowed  to  penetrate  any  deeper  into  the 
esoteric  sense  of  the  sentence.  Beausobre,  and  after  him  Godfrey  Hig- 
gins,  have  demonstrated  the  fact.  "  All  things,"  says  the  Kabala,  "  are 
derived  from  one  great  Principle,  and  this  principle  is  the  unknown  and 
invisible  God.  From  Him  a  substantia^  power  immediately  proceeds, 
which  is  the  image  of  God,  and  the  source  of  all  subsequent  emanations. 
This  second  principle  sends  forth,  by  the  energy  {or  will  s^nA  force)  oi 
emanation,  other  natures,  which  are  more  or  less  perfect,  according  to 
their  different  degrees  of  distance,  in  the  scale  of  emanation,  from  the 
First  Source  of  existence,  and  which  constitute  different  worlds,  or  orders 
of  being,  all  united  to  the  eternal  power  from  which  they  proceed. 
Matter  is  nothing  more  than  the  most  remote  effect  of  the  emanative  energy 
of  the  Deity.  The  material  world  receives  its  form  from  the  immediate 
agency  of  powers  far  beneath  the  First  Source  of  Being  *  .  .  .  Beausobre  f 
makes  St.  Augustine  the  Manichean  say  thus  :  'And  if  by  Rasit  we 
^understand  the  active  Principle  of  the  creation,  instead  of  its  beginning, 
,in  such  a  case  we  will  clearly  perceive  that   Moses  never  meant  to  say 

*  See  Rees's  "  Encyclopcedia,"  art.  Kabala. 
\  "  Histor.  Manich.,"  Liv.  vi.,  ch.  i.,  p.  291. 


that  heaven  and  earth  were  the  first  works  of  God.  He  only  said  t 
God  created  heaven  and  earth  through  the  Principle,  who  is  His  Son. 
is  not  the  timeht  points  to,  but  to  the  immediate  author  of  the  creatu 
Angels,  according  to  Augustine,  were  created  before  the  firmament,  f 
according  to  the  esoteric  interpretation,  the  heaven  and  earth  were  c 
ated  after  that,  evolving  from  the  second  Principle  or  the  Logos — 
creative  Deity.  "  The  word  principle,"  says  Beausobre,  "  does  i 
mean  that  the  heaven  and  earth  were  created  before  anything  else,  i 
to  begin  with,  the  angels  were  created  before  that  ;  but  that  God  i 
everything  through  His  Wisdom,  which  is  His  Verbum,  and  which  I 
Christian  Bible  named  the  Beginning"  thus  adopting  the  exoteric  me 
ing  of  the  word  abandoned  to  the  multitudes.  The  Kabala — the  C 
ental  as  well  as  the  Jewish — shows  that  a  number  of  emanations  (l 
Jewish  Sephiroth)  issued  from  the  First  Principle,  the  chief  of  whi 
was  Wisdom.  This  Wisdom  is  the  Logos  of  Philo,  and  Michael,  t 
chief  of  the  Gnostic  Eons  ;  it  is  the  Ormazd  of  the  Persians ;  Minen 
goddess  of  wisdom,  of  the  Greeks,  who  emanated  from  the  head 
Jupiter ;  and  the  second  Person  of  the  Christian  Trinity.  The  eai 
Fathers  of  the  Church  had  not  much  to  exert  their  imagination ;  tli 
found  a  ready-made  doctrine  that  had  existed  in  every  theogony  for  thi 
sands  of  years  before  the  Christian  era.  Their  trinity  is  but  the  trio 
Sephiroth,  the  first  three  kabalistic  lights  of  which  Moses  Nachmanic 
says,  that  "  they  have  never  been  seen  by  any  one  ;  there  is  not  any  def( 
in  them,  nor  any  disunion."  The  first  eternal  number  is  the  Father, 
the  Chaldean  primeval,  invisible,  and  incomprehensible  chaos,  out 
which  proceeded  the  Intelligible  one.  The  Egyptian  Phtah,  or  "t 
Principle  of  Light — not  the,  light  itself,  and  the  Principle  of  Li 
though  himself  no  life."  The  Wisdom  by  which  the  Father  created  ti 
heavens  is  the  Son,  or  the  kabalistic  androgynous  Adam  Kadmo 
The  Son  is  at  once  the  male  Ra,  or  Light  of  Wisdom,  Prudence  or  Int 
ligcnce,  Sephira,  the  female  part  of  Himself ;  while  from  this  dual  beii 
proceeds  ;he  third  emanation,  the,  Binah  or  Reason,  the  second  Intel 
gence — the  Holy  Ghost  of  the  Christians.  Therefore,  strictly  speakit 
there  is  a  Tetraktis  or  quaternary,  consisting  of  the  Unintelligit 
First  monad,  and  its  triple  emanation,  which  properly  constitute  o 

How  then  avoid  perceiving  at  once,  that  had  not  the  Christians  pi 
posely  disfigured  in  their  interpretation  and  translation  the  Mosaic  Gena 
to  fit  their  own  views,  their  religion,  with  its  present  dogmas,  would  ha' 
been  impossible  ?  The  word  Rasit,  once  taught  in  its  new  sense  of  tl 
Principle  and  not  the  Beginning,  and  the  anathematized  doctrine  ( 
emanations  accepted,  the  position   of  the  second   trinitarian  personal 


becomes  untenable.  For,  if  the  angels  are  the  first  divine  emanations 
from  the  Divine  Substance,  and  were  in  existence  before  the  Second 
Principle,  then  the  anthropomorphized  Son  is  at  best  an  emanation  like 
themselves,  and  cannot  be  God  hypostatically  any  more  than  our  visible 
works  are  ourselves.  That  these  metaphysical  subtleties  never  entered 
into  tlie  head  of  the  honest-minded,  sincere  Paul,  is  evident ;  as  it  is  fur- 
thermore evident,  that  like  all  learned  Jews  he  was  well  acquainted  with 
the  doctrine  of  emanations  and  never  thought  of  corrupting  it.  How 
can  any  one  imagine  that  Paul  identified  the  Son  with  the  Father,  when 
he  tells  us  that  God  made  Jesus  "  a  little  lower  than  the  angels  " 
{Hebrews  ii.  9),  and  a  little  higher  than  Moses  !  "  For  this  man  was 
counted  worthy  of  more  glory  than  Moses"  {Hebrews  iii.  3).  Of  what- 
ever, or  how  many  forgeries,  interlined  later  in  the  Acts,  the  Fathers  are 
guilty  we  know  not ;  btlt  that  Paul  never  considered  Christ  more  than 
a  man  "  full  of  the  Spirit  of  God  "  is  but  too  evident  :  "  In  the  arche 
was  the  Logos,  and  the  Logos  was  adnate  to  the  Theos." 

Wisdom,  the  first  emanation  of  En-Soph ;  the  Protogonos,  the  Hy- 
postasis ;  the  Adam  Kadmon  of  the  kabalist,  the  Brahma  of  the  Hindu  ; 
the  Logos  of  Plato,  and  the  "Beginning"  of  St.  John — is  the  Rasit — 
n-csn,  of  the  Book  of  Genesis.  If  rightly  interpreted  it  overturns,  as  we 
have  remarked,  the  whole  elaborate  system  of  Christian  theology,  for 
it  proves  that  behind  the  creative  Deity,  there  was  a  higher  god  ;  a 
planner,  an  architect ;  and  that  the  former  was  but  His  executive  agent 
— a  simple  power  ! 

They  persecuted  the  Gnostics,  murdered  the  philosophers,  and  burned 
the  kabalists  and  the  masons  ;  and  when  the  day  of  the  great  reckoning 
arrives,  and  the  light  shines  in  darkness,  what  will  they  have  to  offer  in 
the  place  of  the  departed,  expired  religion  ?  What  will  they  answer, 
these  pretended  monotheists,  these  worshippers  and /j^«^i!'- servants  of 
the  one  living  God,  to  their  Creator  ?  How  will  they  account  for  this 
long  persecution  of  them  who  were  the  true  followers  of  the  grand 
Megalistor,  the  supreme  great  master  of  the  Rosicrucians,  the  first 
of  masons.  "  For  he  is  the  Builder  and  Architect  of  the  Teniple  of  the 
universe  ;   He  is  the  Verbum  Sapienti."  * 

"  Every  one  knows,"  wrote  the  great  Manichean  of  the  third  century, 
..  Fauste,   "  that  the    Evangeliums  were  written  neither  by  Jesus  Christ, 

•  "  The  altogether  mystical  coloring  of  Christianity  harmonized  with  the  Essene 
rules  of  life  and  opinions,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  Jesus  and  John  the  Baptist 
were  initiated  into  the  Essene  Mysteries,  to  which  Christianity  may  be  indebted  for 
many  a  form  of  expression  ;  as  indeed  the  community  of  Therapeuts!,  an  offspring  of 
,  the  Essene  order,  soon  belonged  wholly  to  Christianity  "  ("Yost,"  i.,  411 — quoted  by 
the  author  of  "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man  "). 


nor  his  apostles,  but  long  after  their  time  by  some  unknown  persons, 
who,  judging  well  that  they  would  hardly  be  beHeved  when  telhng  of 
things  they  had  not  seen  themselves,  headed  their  narratives  with  the 
names  of  the  apostles  or  of  disciples  contemporaneous  with  the  latter." 

Commenting  upon  the  subject,  A.  Franck,  the  learned  Hebrew 
scholar  of  the  Institute  and  translator  of  the  Kabala,  expresses  the  same 
idea.  "  Are  we  not  authorized,"  he  asks,  "  to  view  the  Kabala  as  a 
precious  remnant  of  rehgious  philosophy  of  the  Orient,  which,  trans- 
ported into  Alexandria,  got  mixed  to  the  doctrine  of  Plato,  and  under  the 
usurped  name  of  Dionysius  the  Areopagite,  bishop  of  Athens,  converted 
and  consecrated  by  St.  Paul,  was  thus  enabled  to  penetrate  into  the 
mysticism  of  the  mediceval  ages  ?  "  * 

Says  Jacolliot :  "  What  is  then  this  religious  philosophy  of  the  Orient, 
which  has  penetrated  into  the  mystic  symbolism  of  Christianity  ?  We 
answer  :  This  philosophy,  the  traces  of  which  we  find  among  the  Ma- 
gians,  the  Chaldeans,  the  Egyptians,  the  Hebrew  kabalists  and  the  Chris- 
tians, is  none  other  than  that  of  the  Hindu  Brahraans,  the  sectarians  of 
the  pitris,  or  the  spirits  of  the  invisible  worlds  which  surround  us."  f 

But  if  the  Gnostics  were  destroyed,  the  Gnosis,  based  on  the  secret 
science  of  sciences,  still  lives.  It  is  the  earth  which  helps  the  woman, 
and  which  is  destined  to  open  her  mouth  to  swallow  up  mediaeval  Chris- 
tianity, the  usurper  and  assassin  of  the  great  master's  doctrine.  The 
ancient  Kabala,  the  Gnosis,  or  traditional  secret  knowledge,  was  never 
without  its  representatives  in  any  age  or  country.  The  trinities  of  initiates, 
whether  passed  into  history  or  concealed  under  the  impenetrable  veil  of 
mystery,  are  preserved  and  impressed  throughout  the  ages.  They  are 
known  as  Moses,  Aholiab,  and  Bezaleel,  the  son  of  Uri,  the  son  of  Hur, 
as  Plato,  Philo,  and  Pythagoras,  etc.  At  the  Transfiguration  we  see  them 
as  Jesus,  Moses,  and  Elias,  the  three  Trismegisti ;  and  three  kabalists, 
Peter,  James,  and  John — whose  revelation  is  the  key  to  all  wisdom.  We 
found  them  in  the  twilight  of  Jewish  history  as  Zoroaster,  Abraham,  and 
Terah,  and  later  as  Henoch,  Ezekiel,  and  Daniel. 

Who,  of  those  who  ever  studied  the  ancient  philosophies,  who  under- 
stand intuitionally  the  grandeur  of  their  conceptions,  the  boundless  subli- 
mity of  their  views  of  the  Unknown  Deity,  can  hesitate  for  a  moment  to 
give  the  preference  to  their  doctrines  over  the  incomprehensible  dog- 
matic and  contradictory  theology  of  the  hundreds  of  Christian  sects? 
Who  that  ever  read  Plato  and  fathomed  his  To  'Ov,  "  whom  no  person  lias 
seen  except  the  Son,"  can  doubt   that  Jesus  was  a  disciple  of  the  same 

*  A.  Franck:   "Die  Kabbala." 
f  "  Le  Spiritisme  dans  le  Monde." 


secret  doctrine  which  had  instructed  the  great  philosopher  ?  For,  as  we 
have  shown  before  now,  Plato  never  claimed  to  be  the  inventor  of  all 
tliat  he  wrote,  but  gave  credit  for  it  to  Pythagoras,  who,  ia  his  turn, 
pointed  to  the  remote  East  as  the  source  whence  he  derived  his  informa- 
tion and  his  philosophy.  Colebrooke  shows  that  Plato  confesses  it  in  his 
epistles,  and  says  that  he  has  taken  his  teachings  from  ancient  and  sacred 
doctrines  !  *  Moreover,  it  is  undeniable  that  the  theologies  of  all  the 
great  nations  dovetail  together  and  show  that  each  is  a  part  of  "  one 
stupendous  whole."  Like  the  rest  of  the  initiates  we  see  Plato  taking 
great  pains  to  conceal  the  true  meaning  of  his  allegories.  Every  time 
the  subject  touches  the  greater  secrets  of  the  Oriental  Kabala,  secret  of 
the  true  cosmogony  of  the  universe  and  of  the  ideal,  preexisting  world, 
Plato  shrouds  his  philosophy  in  the  profoundest  darkness.  His  Timaus 
is  so  confused  that  no  one  but  an  initiate  can  understand  the  secret 
meaning.  And  Mosheim  thinks  that  Philo  has  filled  his  works  with  pas- 
sages directly  contradicting  each  other  for  the  sole  purpose  of  concealing 
the  true  doctrine.     For  once  we  see  a  critic  on  the  right  track. 

And  this  very  trinitarian  idea,  as  well  as  the  so  bitterly  denounced 
doctrine  of  emanations,  whence  their  remotest  origin  ?  The  answer  is 
easy,  and  every  proof  is  now  at  hand.  In  the  sublime  and  profoundest 
of  all  philosophies,  that  of  the  universal  "  Wisdom-Religion,"  the  first 
traces  of  which,  historical  research  now  finds  in  the  old  pre-Vedic 
religion  of  India.  As  the  much-abused  JacoUiot  well  remarks,  "  It  is  not 
in  the  religious  works  of  antiquity,  such  as  the  Vedas,  the  Zend  Avesta, 
the  Bible,  that  we  have  to  search  for  the  exact  expression  of  the  enno- 
bling and  sublime  beliefs  of  those  epochs."  f 

"  The  holy  primitive  syllable,  composed  of  the  three  letters 
A — U — M.,  in  which  is  contained  the  Vedic  Trimurti  (Trinity),  must 
be  kept  secret,  like  another  triple  Veda,"  says  Manu,  in  book  xi.,  sloka 

Swayambhouva  is  the  unrevealed  Deity ;  it  is  the  Being  existent 
through  and  of  itself;  he  is  the  central  and  immortal  germ  of  all  that 
exists  in  the  universe.  Three  trinities  emanate  and  are  confounded  in 
him,  forming  a  Supreme  unity.  These  trinities,  or  the  triple  Trijnurti, 
are  :  the  Nara,  Nari,  and  Viradyi — the  initial  triad  ;  the  Agni,  Vaya,  and 
Sourya — the  manifested  tT\3.A;  Brahma,  Vishnu,  and  Siva,  the  creative  triad. 
Each  of  these  triads  becomes  less  metaphysical  and  more  adapted  to 
the  vulgar  intelligence  as  it  descends.  Thus  the  last  becomes  but  the 
symbol  in  its  concrete  expression  ;  the  necessarianism  of  a  purely  meta- 

•  "  Asiat.  Trans.,"  i. ,  p.  579. 

f  Louis  JacoUiot :   "  The  Initiates  of  the  Ancient  Temples." 


physical  conception.  Together  with  Swayambhouva,  they  are  the  ten 
Sephiroth  of  the  Hebrew  kabaHsts,  the  ten  Hindu  Prajapatis— the 
En-Soph  of  the  former,  answering  to  the  great  Unknown,  expressed  by 
the  mystic  A  U  M  of  the  latter. 

Says  Franck,  the  translator  of  the  Kabala  : 

"  The  ten  Sephiroth  are  divided  into  iAree  classes,  each  of  them 
presenting  to  us  the  divinity  under  a  different  aspect,  the  whole  still 
remaining  an  indivisible  Tri7iity, 

"The  first  three  Sephiroth  are  purely  intellectual  in  metaphysics, 
they  express  the  absolute  identity  of  existence  and  thought,  and  form 
what  the  modern  kabalists  called  the  intelligible  world — which  is  the 
first  manifestation  of  God. 

"  The  three  that  follow,  make  us  conceive  God  in  one  of  their 
aspects,  as  the  identity  of  goodness  and  wisdom  ;  in  the  other  they  show 
to  us,  in  the  Supreme  good,  the  origin  of  beauty  and  magnificence  (in 
the  creation).  Therefore,  they  are  named  the  virtues,  or  the  sensible 

"  Finally,  we  learn,  by  the  last  three  Sephiroth,  that  the  Universal 
Providence,  that  the  Supreme  artist  is  also  absolute  Force,  the  all- 
powerful  cause,  and  that,  at  the  same  time,  this  cause  is  the  generative 
element  of  all  that  is.  It  is  these  last  Sephiroth  that  constitute  the 
natural  world,  or  nature  in  its  essence  and  in  its  active  principle. 
Naiura  naturans."  * 

This  kabalistic  conception  is  thus  proved  identical  with  that  of  the 
Hindu  philosophy.  "Whoever  reads  Plato  and  his  Dialogue  Timasus, 
will  find  these  ideas  as  faithfully  re-echoed  by  the  Greek  philosopher, 
Moreover,  the  injunction  of  secrecy  was  as  strict  with  the  kabaHsts,  as 
with  the  initiates  of  the  Adyta  and  the  Hindu  Yogis. 

"  Close  thy  mouth,  lest  thou  shouldst  speak  of  this  (the  mystery), 
and  thy  heart,  lest  thou  shouldst  think  aloud  ;  and  if  thy  heart  has  es- 
caped thee,  bring  it  back  to  its  place,  for  such  is  the  object  of  our  alli- 
ance "  {Sepher  Jezireh,  Book  of  Creation). 

"  This  is  a  secret  which  gives  death  :  close  thy  mouth  lest  thou 
shouldst  reveal  to  the  vulgar  ;  compress  thy  brain  lest  something  should 
escape  from  it  and  fall  outside  "  (Agrouchada-Parikshai). 

Truly  the  fate  of  many  a  future  generation  hung  on  a  gossamer  thread, 
in  the  days  of  the  third  and  fourth  centuries.  Had  not  the  Emperor 
sent  in  389  to  Alexandria  a  rescript — which  was  forced  from  him  by  the 
Christians — for  the  destruction  of  every  idol,  our  own  century  would 
never  have  had  a  Christian   mythological  Pantheon  of  its  own.     Never 

*  Franck  :  "Die  Kabbala." 


did  the  Neo-platonic  school  reach  such  a  height  of  philosophy  as  when 
nearest  its  end.  Uniting  the  mystic  theosophy  of  old  Egypt  with  the 
refined  philosophy  of  the  Greeks  ;  nearer  to  the  ancient  Mysteries  of 
Thebes  and  Memphis  than  they  had  been  for  centuries  ;  versed  in  the 
science  of  soothsaying  and  divination,  as  in  the  art  of  the  Therapeutists  ; 
friendly  with  the  acutest  men  of  the  Jewish  nation,  who  were  deeply 
imbued  with  the  Zoroastrian  ideas,  the  Neo-platonists  tended  to  amal- 
gamate the  old  wisdom  of  the  Oriental  Kabala  with  the  more  refined 
conceptions  of  the  Occidental  Theosophists.  Notwithstanding  the 
treason  of  the  Christians,  who  saw  fit,  for  political  reasons,  after  the  days 
of  Constantine,  to  repudiate  their  tutors,  the  influence  of  the  new 
Platonic  philosophy  is  conspicuous  in  the  subsequent  adoption  of 
dogmas,  the  origin  of  which  can  be  traced  but  too  easily  to  that  remark- 
able school.  Though  mutilated  and  disfigured,  they  still  preserve  a 
strong  family  likeness,  which  nothing  can  obliterate. 

But,  if  the  knowledge  of  the  occult  powers  of  nature  opens  the 
spiritual  sight  of  man,  enlarges  his  intellectual  faculties,  and  leads  him 
unemngly  to  a  profounder  veneration  for  the  Creator,  on  the  other  hand 
ignorance,  dogmatic  narrow-mindedness,  and  a  childish  fear  of  looking  to 
the  bottom  of  things,  invariably  leads  to  fetish-worship  and  superstition. 

When  Cyril,  the  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  had  openly  embraced  the 
cause  of  Isis,  the  Egyptian  goddess,  and  had  anthropomorphized  her  into 
!Mary,  the  mother  of  God  ;  and  the  trinitarian  controversy  had  taken 
place  ;  from  that  moment  the  Egyptian  doctrine  of  the  emanation  of  the 
creative  God  out  of  Emepht  began  to  be  tortured  in  a  thousand  ways, 
until  the  Councils  had  agreed  upon  the  adoption  of  it  as  it  now  stands — 
the  disfigured  Ternary  of  the  kabalistic  Solomon  and  Philo  !  But  as 
its  origin  was  yet  too  evident,  the  Word  was  no  longer  called  the 
"Heavenly  man,"  the  primal  Adaxn  Kadmon,  but  became  the  Logos — 
Christ,  and  was  made  as  old  as  the  "  Ancient  of  the  Ancient,"  his 
father.  The  concealed  WISDOM  became  identical  with  its  emanation, 
the  Divine  Thought,  and  made  to  be  regarded  coequal  and  coeternal 
with  its  first  manifestation. 

If  we  now  stop  to  consider  another  of  the  fundamental  dogmas  of 
Christianity,  the  doctrine  of  atonement,  we  may  trace  it  as  easily  back  to 
heathendom.  This  corner-stone  of  a  Church  which  had  believed  herself 
built  on  a  firm  rock  for  long  centuries,  is  now  excavated  by  science  and 
proved  to  come  from  the  Gnostics.  Professor  Draper  shows  it  as  hardly 
known  in  the  days  of  TertuUian,  and  as  having  "originated  among  the 
Gnostic  heretics."  *     We  will  not  permit  ourselves  to  contradict  such  a 

*  See  "  Conflict  between  Religion  and  Science,"  p.  224. 


learned  authority,  farther  than  to  state  that  it  originated  among  them 
no  more  than  their  "anointed"  Christos  and  Sophia.  The  former 
they  modelled  on  the  original  of  the  "  King  Messiah,"  the  male  prmci- 
ple  of  wisdom,  and  the  latter  on  the  third  Sephiroth,  from  the  Chaldean 
Kabala,*  and  even  from  the  Hindu  Brahma  and  Sara-asvati,  f  and  the 
Pagan  Dionysus  and  Demeter.  And  here  we  are  on  firm  ground,  if  it 
were  only  because  it  is  now  proved  that  the  New  Testament  never 
appeared  in  its  complete  form,  such  as  we  find  it  now,  till  300  years 
after  the  period  of  apostles,  \  and  the  Sohar  and  other  kabalistic  books 
are  found  to  belong  to  the  first  century  before  our  era,  if  not  to  be  far 
older  still. 

The  Gnostics  entertained  many  of  the  Essenean  ideas;  and  the 
Essenes  had  their  "greater"  and  "minor"  Mysteries  at  least  two  centu- 
ries before  our  era.  They  were  the  Isarim  or  Initiates,  the  descendants 
of  the  Egyptian  hierophants,  in  whose  country  they  had  been  settled  for 
several  centuries  before  they  were  converted  to  Buddhistic  monasticism  by 
the  missionaries  of  King  Asoka,  and  amalgamated  later  with  the  earhest 
Christians  ;  and  they  existed,  probably,  before  the  old  Egyptian  temples 
were  desecrated  and  ruined  in  the  incessant  invasions  of  Persians,  Greeks, 
and  other  conquering  hordes.  The  hierophants  had  their  atonement 
enacted  in  the  Mystery  of  Initiation  ages  before  the  Gnostics,  or  even 
the  Essenes,  had  appeared.  It  was  known  among  hierophants  as  the  Bap- 
tism OF  Blood,  and  was  considered  not  as  an  atonement  for  the  "  fall  of 
man  "  in  Eden,  but  simply  as  an  expiation  for  the  past,  present,  and  future 
sins  of  ignorant  but  nevertheless  polluted  mankind.  The  hierophant 
had  the  option  of  either  offering  his  pure  and  sinless  life  as  a  sacrifice  for 
his  race  to  the  gods  whom  he  hoped  to  rejoin,  or  an  animal  victim.  The 
former  depended  entirely  on  their  own  will.  At  the  last  moment  of  the 
solemn  "new  birth,"  the  initiator  passed  "the  word"  to  the  initiated,  and 
immediately  after  that  the  latter  had  a  weapon  placed  in  his  right  hand, 
and  was  ordered  to  strike.  §  This  is  the  true  origin  of  the  Christian  dogma 
of  atonement. 

*  See  "Soliar;"  "  Kab.  Den.;"  "The  Book  of  Mystery,"  the  oldest  book 
of  the  kabalists;  and  Milman  :   "History  of  Christianity,"  pp.  212,  213-215. 

f  Milman  :  "  History  of  Christianity,"  p.  2S0.  The  Kurios  and  Kora  are  men- 
tioned repeatedly  in  "  Justin  Martyr."     See  p.  97. 

:j;  .See  Okhausen :  "  Biblischer  Commentar  iiber  sammtliche  Schriften  des  Neuen 
Testaments,"  ii. 

§  There  is  a  wide-spread  superstition  ( ? ),  especially  among  the  Slavonians  and  Rus- 
sians, that  the  magician  or  wizard  cannot  die  before  he  has  passed  the  "word"  to  a 
successor.  So  deeply  is  it  rooted  among  the  popular  beliefs,  that  we  do  not  imagine 
there  is  a  person  in  Russia  who  has  not  heard  of  it.  It  is  but  too  easy  to  trace  the 
origin  of  this  superstition  to  the  old  Mysteries  wliich  had  been  for  ages  spread  all  over 

THE   sorcerer's  TERRIFYING  DEATH-BED.  43 

Verily  the  "  Christs  "  of  the  pre-Christian  ages  were  many.  But  they 
died  unknown  to  the  world,  and  disappeared  as  silently  and  as  mysteri- 
ously from  the  sight  of  man  as  Mos-es  from  the  top  of  Pisgab,  the  moun- 
tain of  Nebo  (oracular  wisdom),  after  he  had  laid  his  hands  upon  Joshua, 
who  thus  became  "full  of  the  spirit  of  wisdom  "(z.(?.,  initiated). 

Nor  does  the  Mystery  of  the  Eucharist  pertain  to  Christians  alone. 
Godfrey  Higgins  proves  that  it  was  instituted  many  hundreds  of  years 
before  the  "  Paschal  Supper,"  and  says  that  "  the  sacrifice  of  bread  and 

the  globe.  The  ancient  Variago-Rouss  had  his  Mysteries  in  the  North  as  well  as  in 
the  South  of  Russia;  and  there  are  many  relics  of  the  by-gone  faith  scattered  in  the 
lands  watered  by  the  sacred  Dnieper,  the  baptismal  Jordan  of  all  Russia.  No  Zn&char 
(the  knowing  one)  or  Koldoun  (sorcerer),  male  or  female,  can  die  in  fact  before  he  has 
passed  the  mysterious  word  to  some  one.  The  popular  belief  is  that  unless  he  does  that 
he  will  linger  and  suffer  for  weeks  and  months,  and  were  he  even  finally  to  get  liberated, 
it  would  be  only  to  wander  on  earth,  unable  to  quit  its  region  unless  he  finds  a  successor 
even  after  death.  How  far  the  belief  may  be  verified  by  others,  we  do  not  know,  but 
we  have  seen  a  case  which,  for  its  tragical  and  mysterious  dhtoument,  deserves  to  be  given 
here  as  an  illustration  of  the  subject  in  hand.      An  old  man,  of  over  one  hundred  years 

of  age,  a  peasant-serf  in  the  government  of  S ,  having  a  wide  reputation  as  a  sorcerer 

and  healer,  was  said  to  be  dying  for  several  days,  and  still  unable  to  die.  The  report 
spread  like  lightning,  and  the  poor  old  fellow  was  shunned  by  even  the  members  of  his 
own  family,  as  the  latter  were  afraid  of  receiving  the  unwelcome  inheritance.  At  last 
the  public  rumor  in  the  village  was  that  he  had  sent  a  message  to  a  colleague  less  versed 
than  himself  in  the  art,  and  who,  although  he  lived  in  a  distant  district,  was  nevertheless 
coming  at  the  call,  and  would  be  on  hand  early  on  the  following  morning.  There  was 
at  that  time  on  a  visit  to  the  proprietor  of  the  village  a  young  physician  who,  belonging 
to  the  famous  school  of  Nihilism  of  that  day,  laughed  outrageously  at  the  idea.  The 
master  of  the  house,  being  a  very  pious  man,  and  but  half  inclined  to  make  so  cheap 
of  the  **  superstition,'*  smiled — as  the  saying  goes — but  with  one  corner  of  his  mouth. 
Meanwhile  the  young  skeptic,  to  gratify  his  curiosity,  had  made  a  visit  to  the  dying 
man,  had  found  that  he  could  not  live  twenty-four  hours  longer,  and,  determined  to 
prove  the  absurdity  of  the  "  superstition,"  had  taken  means  to  detain  the  coming  "suc- 
cessor "  at  a  neighboring  village. 

Early  in  the  morning  a  company  of  four  persons,  comprising  the  physician,  the  mas- 
ter of  the  place,  his  daughter,  and  the  writer  of  the  present  lines,  went  to  the  hut  in 
which  was  to  be  achieved  the  triumph  of  skepticism.  The  dying  man  was  expecting  his 
liberator  every  moment,  and  his  agony  at  the  delay  became  extreme.  We  tried  to  per- 
suade the  physician  to  humor  the  patient,  were  it  for  humanity's  sake.  He  only  laughed. 
Getting  hold  with  one  hand  of  the  old  wizard's  pulse,  he  took  out  his  watch  with  the 
other,  and  remarking  in  French  that  all  would  be  over  in  a  few  moments,  remained  ab- 
sorbed in  his  professional  experiment.  The  scene  was  solemn  and  appalling.  Suddenly 
the  door  opened,  and  a  young  boy  entered  with  the  intelligence,  addressed  to  the  doctor, 
that  the  ioum  was  lying  dead  drunk  at  a  neighboring  village,  and,  according  to  his 
orders,  could  not  be  with  "grandfather"  till  the  next  day.  The  young  doctor  felt 
confused,  and  was  just  going  to  address  the  old  man,  when,  as  quick  as  lightn-ng,  the 
Znachar  snatched  his  hand  from  his  grasp  and  raised  himself  in  bed.  His  deep-sunken 
eyes  flashed  ;  his  yellow-white  beard  and  hair  streaming  round  his  livid  face  made  him  a 


wine  was  common  to  many  ancient  nations."*  Cicero  mentions  it  m  his 
works,  and  wonders  at  the  strangeness  of  the  rite.  There  had  been  an 
esoteric  meaning  attached  to  it  from  the  first  estabUshment  of  the  Mys- 
teries, and  the  Eucharistia  is  one  of  the  oldest  rites  of  antiquity.  With 
the  hierophants  it  had  nearly  the  same  significance  as  with  the  Chris- 
tians. Ceres  was  bread,  and  Bacchus  was  wine  ;  the  former  meaning  re- 
generation of  life  from  the  seed,  and  the  latter- — the  grape — the  emblem 
of  wisdom  and  knowledge  ;  the  accumulation  of  the  spirit  of  things,  and 
the  fermentation  and  subsequent  strength  of  that  esoteric  knowledge 
being  justly  symbolized  by  wine.  The  mystery  related  to  the  drama  of 
Eden  ;  it  is  said  to  have  been  first  taught  by  Janus,  who  was  also  the  first 
to  introduce  in  the  temples  the  sacrifices  of  "  bread  "  and  "  wine  "  in  com- 
memoration of  the  "fall  into  generation"  as  the  symbol  of  the  "seed." 
"  I  am  the  vine,  and  my  Father  is  the  husbandman,"  says  Jesus,  alluding 
to  the  secret  knowledge  that  could  be  imparted  by  him.  "  I  will  drink 
no  more  of  the  fruit  of  the  vine  until  that  day  that  I  drink  it  new  in  the 
kingdom  of  God." 

The  festival  of  the  Eleusinian  Mysteries  began  in  the  month  of  Boe- 
dromion,  which  corresponds  with  the  month  of  September,  the  time  of 
grape-gathering,  and  lasted  from  the  15th  to  the  22d  of  the  month,  seven 
days.f  The  Hebrew  festival  of  the  Eeast  of  Tabernacles  began  on  the 
15th  and  ended  on  the  22d  of  the  month  of  Ethanim,  which  Dunlap 
shows  as  derived,  from  Adonim,  Adonia,  Attenim,  Ethanim  ;  \  and  this 
feast  is  named  in  Exodus  (xxiii.  16)  the  feast  of  ingatherings.  "All  the 
men  of  Israel  assembled  unto  King  Solomon  at  the  feast  in  the  month 
Ethanim,  which  is  the  seventh."  § 

Plutarch  thinks  the  feast  of  the  booths  to  be  the  Bacchic  rites,  not 

dreadful  sight.  One  instant  more,  and  his  long,  sinewy  arms  were  clasped  romid  the 
physician's  neck,  as  with  a  supernatural  force  he  drew  the  doctor's  head  closer  and  closer 
to  his  own  face,  where  he  held  liim  as  in  a  vise,  while  whisperhig  words  inaudible  to  us 
in  his  ear.  The  skeptic  struggled  to  free  himself,  but  before  he  had  lime  to  make  one 
effective  motion  the  work  had  evidently  been  done  ;  the  hands  relaxed  their  grasp,  and 
the  old  sorcerer  fell  on  his  back — a  corpse !  A  strange  and  ghostly  smile  had  settled  on 
the  stony  lips — a  smile  of  fiendish  triumph  and  satisfied  revenge  ;  but  the  doctor  looked 
paler  and  more  ghastly  than  the  dead  man  himself.  He  stared  round  with  an  expression 
of  terror  difficult  to  describe,  and  without  answering  our  inquiries  ruslied  out  wildly  from 
the  hut,  in  the  direction  of  the  woods.  Messengers  were  sent  after  him,  but  he  was 
nowhere  to  be  found.  About  sunset  a  report  was  heard  in  the  forest.  An  hour  later 
his  body  was  brought  home,  with  a  bullet  through  his  head,  for  the  skeptic  had  blown 
out  his  brains  ! 

What  made  him  commit  suicide  ?  What  magic  spell  of  sorcery  had  the  "  word  "  of 
the  dying  wizard  left  on  his  mind  ?     Who  can  tell  ? 

*  "  Anacalypsis ; "  also  Tertullian.  \   "  Anthon,"  art.  Eleusinia. 

\  Dunlap:   "  Musah,  His  Mysteries,"  p.  71.         §   i  Kings,  viil.  2. 


the  Eleusinian.  Thus  "  Bacchus  was  directly  called  upon,"  he  says. 
The  Sabazian  worship  was  Sabbatic  ;  the  names  Evius,  pr  Hevius,  and 
Luaios  are  identical  with  Hivite  and  Levite.  The  French  name  Louis 
is  the  Hebrew  Levi  ;  lacchus  again  is  lao  or  Jehovah  ;  and  Baal  or  Adon, 
like  Bacchus,  was  a  phallic  god.  "Who  shall  ascend  into  the  hill  (the 
high  place)  of  the  Lord  ?  "  asks  the  holy  king  David,  "  who  shall  stand  in 
the  place  of  his  Kadushii  vinp"  ?  {^Psalms  xxiv.  3).  Kadesh  may  mean  in 
one  sense  to  devote,  hallow,  sanctify,  and  even  to  initiate  or  to  set  apart ; 
but  it  also  means  the  ministers  of  lascivious  rites  (the  Venus-worship) 
and  the  true  interpretation  of  the  word  Kadesh  is  bluntly  rendered  in 
Deuteronomy  xxiii.  17  ;  Hosea  iv.  14  ;  and  Genesis  xxxviii.,  from  verses 
15  to  22.  The  "holy"  Kadeshuth  of  the  Bible  were  identical  as  to  the 
duties  of  their  office  with  the  Nautch-girls  of  the  later  Hindu  pagodas. 
The  Hebrew  Kadeshim  or  galli  lived  "  by  the  house  of  the  Lord,  where 
the  women  wove  hangings  for  the  gi'ove,"  or  bust  of  Venus-Astartfe,  says 
verse  the  seventh  in  the  twenty-third  chapter  of  2  Kings. 

The  dance  performed  by  David  round  the  ark  was  the  "circle-dance" 
said  to  have  been  prescribed  by  the  Amazons  for  the  Mysteries.  Such 
was  the  dance  of  the  daughters  of  Shiloh  [Judges  xxi.  21,  23  et  passim), 
and  the  leaping  of  the  prophets  of  Baal  (i  Kings  xviii.  26).  It  was  simply 
a  characteristic  of  the  Sabean  worship,  for  it  denoted  the  motion  of  the 
planets  round  the  sun.  That  the  dance  was  a  Bacchic  frenzy  is  appar- 
ent. Sistra  were  used  on  the  occasion,  and  the  taunt  of  Michael  and  the 
king's  reply  are  very  expressive.  "  The  king  of  Israel  uncovered  him- 
self before  his  maid-servants  as  one  of  the  vain  (or  debauched)  fellows 
shamelessly  uncovereth  himself."  And  he  retorts :  "  I  will  play  (act 
wantonly)  before  runi,  and  I  will  be  yet  more  vile  than  this,  and  I  will 
be  base  in  my  own  sight."  When  we  remember  that  David  had  so- 
journed among  the  Tyrians  and  Philistines,  where  their  rites  were  com- 
mon ;  and  that  indeed  he  had  conquered  that  land  away  from  the  house 
of  Saul,  by  the  aid  of  mercenaries  from  their  country,  the  countenancing 
and  even,  perhaps,  the  introduction  of  such  a  Pagan-like  worship  by  the 
weak  "  psalmist"  seems  very  natural.  David  knew  nothing  of  Moses,  it 
seems,  and  if  he  introduced  the  Jehovah-worship  it  was  not  in  its  mono- 
theistic character,  but  simply  as  that  of  one  of  the  many  gods  of  the 
neighboring  nations — a  tutelary  deity  to  whom  he  had  given  the  prefer- 
ence, and  chosen  among  "  all  other  gods." 

Following  the  Christian  dogmas  seriatim,  if  we  concentrate  our  atten- 
tion upon  one  which  provoked  the  fiercest  battles  until  its  recognition, 
that  of  the  Trinity,  what  do  we  find  ?  We  meet  it,  as  we  have  shown, 
northeast  of  the  Indus  ;  and  tracing  it  to  Asia  Minor  and  Europe,  recog- 
nize it  among  every  people  who  had  anything  like  an  established  re- 


ligion.  It  was  taught  in  the  oldest  Chaldean,  Egyptian,  and  Mithraitic 
schools.  The  Chaldean  Sun-god,  Mithra,  was  called  "  Triple,"  and  the 
trinitarian  idea  of  the  Chaldeans  was  a  doctrine  of  the  Akkadians,  who, 
themselves,  belonged  to  a  race  which  was  the  first  to  conceive  a  meta- 
physical trinity.  The  Chaldeans  are  a  tribe  of  the  Akkadians,  according 
toRawlinson,  who  lived  in  Babylonia  from  the  earliest  times.  They  were 
Turanians,  according  to  others,  and  instructed  the  Babylonians  into  the 
first  notions  of  religion.  But  these  same  Akkadians,  who  were  they  ? 
Those  scientists  who  would  ascribe  to  them  a  Turanian  origin,  make 
of  them  the  inventors  of  the  cuneiform  characters  ;  others  call  them  Su- 
merians  ;  others  again,  respectively,  make  their  language,  of  which  (for 
very  good  reasons)  no  traces  whatever  remain — Kasdean,  Chaldaic, 
Proto-Chaldean,  Kasdo-Scythic,  and  so  on.  The  only  tradition  worthy 
of  credence  is  that  these  Akkadians  instructed  the  Babylonians  in  the 
Mysteries,  and  taught  them  the  sacerdotal  or  Mysiery-limguSige.  These 
Akkadians  were  then  simply  a  tribe  of  the  Hindu-Brahmans,  now  called 
Aryans — their  vernacular  language,  the  Sanscrit  *  of  the  Vedas  ;  and  the 
sacred  or  Mystery-language,  that  which,  even  in  our  own  age,  is  used  by 
the  Hindu  fakirs  and  initiated  Brahmans  in  their  magical  evocations,  f 
It  has  been,  from  time  immemorial,  and  still  is  employed  by  the  initiates 
of  all  countries,  and  the  Thibetan  lamas  claim  that  it  is  in  this  tongue 
that  appear  the  mysterious  characters  on  the  leaves  and  bark  of  the 
sacred  Koumboum. 

Jacolhot,  who  took  such  pains  to  penetrate  the  mysteries  of  the 
Brahmanical  initiation  in  translating  and  commenting  upon  the  Agrou- 
chada-Parikshai,  confesses  the  following  : 

"  It  is  pretended  also,  without  our  being  able  to  verify  the  assertion, 
that  the  magical  evocations  were  pronounced  in  a  particular  language, 
and  that  it  was  forbidden,  under  pain  of  death,  to  translate  them  into 
vulgar  dialects.  The  rare  expressions  that  we  have  been  able  to  catch 
like — L'rhovi,  h'hom,  sKhrum,  sho'rhim,  are  in  fact  most  curious,  and  do 
not  seem  to  belong  to  any  known  idiom."  \ 

Those  who  have  seen  a  fakir  or  a  lama  reciting  his  mantras  and  con- 

*  Let  us  remember  in  this  connection  that  Col.  Van  Kennedy  has  long  ago  declared 
his  opinion  that  Babylonia  was  once  the  seat  of  the  Sanscrit  language  and  of  Brahman- 
ical influence. 

f  "  '  Tlie  Agi-ouchada-Parikshai,'  which  discloses,  to  a  certain  extent,  the  order  of  in- 
itiation, does  not  give  the  formula  of  evocation,"  says  Jacolliot,  and  he  adds  that,  accord- 
ing to  some  Brahmans,  "  these  formula  were  never  written,  they  were  and  still  are  im- 
parted in  a  whisper  in  the  ear  of  the  adepts"  ("  month  to  ear,  and  the  word  at  Imo 
breath^''  say  the  Masons).  — "  Le  Spiritisme  daiis  le  Monde,"  p.  loS. 

t  "  Le  Spiritisme  dans  le  Monde,"  p.  loS. 


jurations,  know  that  he  never  pronounces  the  words  audibly  when  pre- 
paring for  a  phenomenon.  His  lips  move,  and  none  will  fver  hear  the 
terrible  formula  pronounced,  except  in  the  interior  of  the  temples,  and 
then  in  a  cautious  whisper.  This,  then,  was  the  language  now  respect- 
ively baptized  by  every  scientist,  and,  according  to  his  imaginative  and 
philological  propensities,  Kasdeo-Semitic,  Scythic,  Proto-Chaldean,  and 
the  like. 

Scarcely  two  of  even  the  most  learned  Sanscrit  philologists  are  agreed 
as  to  the  true  interpretation  of  Vedic  words.  Let  one  put  forth  an  essay, 
a  lecture,  a  treatise,  a  translation,  a  dictionary,  and  straightway  all  the 
others  fall  to  quarrelling  with  each  other  and  with  him  as  to  his  sins  of 
omission  and  commission.  Professor  Whitney,  greatest  of  American 
Orientalists,  says  that  Professor  MUUer's  notes  on  the  Rig  Veda  Sdnhiia 
"  are  far  from  showing  that  sound  and  thoughtful  judgment,  that  modera- 
tion and  economy  which  are  among  the  most  precious  qualities  of  an 
exegete."  ProfessoT-  Miiller  angril}'  retorts  upon  his  critics  that  "  not 
only  is  the  joy  embittered  which  is  the  inherent  reward  of  all  bona  fide 
work,  but  selfishness,  malignity,  aye,  even  untruthfubiess,  gain  the  upper 
hand,  and  the  healthy  growth  of  science  is  stunted."  He  differs  "in 
many  cases  from  the  explanations  of  Vedic  words  given  by  Professor 
Roth"  in  his  Sanscrit  Dictionary,  and  Professor  Whitney  shampooes 
both  their  heads  by  sa)ring  that  there  are,  unquestionably,  words  and 
phrases  "as  to  which  both  alike  will  hereafter  be  set  right." 

In  volume  i.  of  his  Chips,  Professor  Miiller  stigmatizes  all  the  Vedas 
except  the  Rik,  the  Atharva-Veda  included,  as  "theological  twaddle," 
while  Professor  Whitney  regards  the  latter  as  "  the  most  comprehensive 
and  valuable  of  the  four  collections,  next  after  the  Rik."  To  return  to 
the  case  of  JacoUiot.  Professor  Whitney  brands  him  as  a  "bungler 
and  a  humbug,"  and,  as  we  remarked  above,  this  is  the  very  general 
verdict.  But  when  the  Bible  dans  V Inde  appeared,  the  Societe  Acade- 
mique  de  Saint  Quentin  requested  M.  Textor  de  Ravisi,  a  learned  In- 
dianist,  ten  years  Governor  of  Karikal,  India,  to  report  upon  its  merits. 
He  was  an  ardent  Catholic,  and  bitterly  opposed  JacoUiot's  conclusions 
where  they  discredited  the  Mosaic  and  Catholic  revelations ;  but  he  was 
forced  to  say  :  "Written  with  good  faith,  in  an  easy,  vigorous,  and  pas- 
sionate style,  of  an  easy  and  varied  argumentation,  the  work  of  M.  Jac- 
oUiot is  of  absorbing  interest  ...  a  learned  work  on  known  facts  and 
with  familiar  arguments." 

Enough.  Let  Jacolliot  have  the  benefit  of  the  doubt  when  such 
very  imposing  authorities  are  doing  their  best  to  show  up  each  other  as 
incompetents  and  literary  journeymen.  We  quite  agree  with  Professor 
Whitney  that  "  the  truism,  that  [for  European  critics?]  it  is  far  easier  to 


pull  to  pieces  than  to  build  up,  is  nowhere  truer  than  in  matters  affecting 
the  archseology  and  history  of  India."  * 

Babylonia  happened  to  be  situated  on  the  way  of  the  great  stream  of 
the  earliest  Hindu  emigration,  and  the  Babylonians  were  one  of  the  first 
peoples  benefited  thereby,  f  These  Khaldi  were  the  worshippers  of  the 
Moon-god,  Deus  Lunus,  from  which  fact  we  may  infer  that  the  Akkadians 
— if  such  must  be  their  name — belonged  to  the  race  of  the  Kings  of  the 
Moon,  whom  tradition  shows  as  having  reigned  in  Pruyay — now  Allaha- 
bad. With  them  the  trinity  of  Deus  I.unus  was  manifested  in  the  three 
lunar  phases,  completing  the  quaternary  with  the  fourth,  and  typifying 
the  death  of  the  Moon-god  in  its  gradual  waning  and  final  disappearance. 
This  death  was  allegorized  by  them,  and  attributed  to  the  triumph  of  the 
genius  of  evil  over  the  light-giving  deity  ;  as  the  later  nations  allegorized 
the  death  of  their  Sun-gods,  Osiris  and  Apollo,  at  the  hands  of  Typhon 
and  the  great  Dragon  Python,  when  the  sun  entered  the  winter  solstice. 
Babel,  Arach,  and  Akkad  are  names  of  the  sun.  The  Zoroastrian 
Oracles  are  full  and  explicit  upon  the  subject  of  the  Divine  Triad.  "A 
triad  of  Deity  shines  forth  throughout  the  whole  world,  of  which  a  Monad 
is  the  head,"  admits  the  Reverend  Dr.  Maurice. 

"  For  from  this  Triad,  in  the  bosoms,  are  all  things  governed,"  says 
a  Chaldean  oracle.  The  Phos,  Pur,  and  Phlox,  of  Sanchoniathon,  \  are 
Light,  Fire,  and  Flame,  three  manifestations  of  the  Sun  who  is  one. 
Bel-Saturn,  Jupiter-Bel,  and  Bel  or  Baal-Chom  are  the  Chaldean  trinity  ;§ 
"  The  Babylonian  Bel  was  regarded  in  the  Triune  aspect  of  Belitan, 
Zeus-Belus  (the  mediator)  and  Baal-Chom  who  is  Apollo  Chomseus. 
This  was  the  Triune  aspect  of  the  '  Highest  God,'  who  is,  according  to 
Berosus,  either  El  (the  Hebrew),  Bel,  Belitan,  Mithra,  or  Zervana,  and 
has  the  name  Trarrip,  "the  Father." ||  The  Brahma,  Vishnu,  and  Siva,^ 
corresponding  to  Power,  Wisdom,  and  Justice,  which  answer  in  their  turn 

*  W.  D.  Whitney:   "  Oriental  and  Linguistic  Studies,  Tlie  Veda,  etc." 

\  Jacolliot  seems  to  have  very  logically  demonstrated  the  absurd  contradictions  of 
some  philologists,  anthropologists,  and  Orientalists,  in  regard  to  their  Akkado 
and  Semito  mania.  "  There  is  not,  perhaps,  much  of  good  faith  in  their  negations," 
he  writes.  "Tlie  scientists  who  invent  Turanian  peoples  know  very  well  that  in  Manu 
alone,  there  is  more  of  veritable  science  and  philosophy  than  in  all  that  this  pretended 
Semitism  has  hitherto  furnished  us  with  ;  but  they  are  the  slaves  of  a  path  which  some 
of  them  are  following  the  last  fifteen,  twenty,  or  even  thirty  years.  .  .  .  We  expect, 
therefore,  nothing  of  the  present.  India  will  owe  its  reconstitution  to  the  scientists  of 
the  next  generation  "  ("  Le  Gen^se  de  I'HumanitS,"  pp.  60-61). 

:j;Cory;    "Anc.  Frag."  §  Movers  :"  Phoinizer,"  263. 

II  Dunlap  :    "  Sp.  Hist,  of  Man,"  p.  2S1. 

1  Siva  is  not  a  god  of  the  Vedas,  strictly  speaking.  When  the  Vedas  were  written, 
he  held  the  rank  of  Maha-Deva  or  Bel  among  the  gods  of  aboriginal  India. 


to  Spirit,  Matter,  Time,  and  the  Past,  Present,  and  Future,  can  he  found 
in  the  temple  of  Gharipuri ;  thousands  of  dogmatic  Brahmans  worship 
these  attributes  of  the  Vedic  Deity,  while  the  severe  monks  and  nuns 
of  Buddhistic  Thibet  recognize  but  the  sacred  trinity  of  the  three  cardi- 
nal virtues  :  Poverty,  Chastity,  and  Obedience,  professed  by  the  Christians, 
practiced  by  the  Buddhists  and  some  Hindus  alone. 

The  Persian  triplicate  Deity  also  consists  of  three  persons,  Ormazd, 
Mithra,  and  Ahriman.  "  That  is  that  principle,"  says  Porphyry,*  "  which 
the  author  of  the  Chaldaic  Summary  saith,  '  They  conceive  there  is  one 
principle  of  all  things,  and  declare  that  is  one  and  good.'  "  The  Chinese 
idol  Sanpao,  consists  of  three  equal  in  all  respects;  f  and  the  Peruvians 
"  supposed  their  Tanga-tanga  to  be  one  in  three,  and  three  in  one,"  says 
Faber.J  The  Egyptians  have  their  Emepht,  Eicton,  and  Phta ;  and  the 
triple  god  seated  on  the  Lotos  can  be  seen  in  the  St.  Petersburg  Museum, 
on  a  medal  of  the  Northern  Tartars. 

Among  the  Church  dogmas  which  have  most  seriously  suffered  of 
late  at  the  hands  of  the  Orientalists,  the  last  in  question  stands  con- 
spicuous. The  reputation  of  each  of  the  three  personages  of  the  an- 
thropomorphic godhead  as  an  original  revelation  to  the  Christians 
through  Divine  will,  has  been  badly  compromised  by  inquiry  into  its 
predecessors  and  origin.  Orientalists  have  published  more  about  the 
similarity  between  Brahmanism,  Buddhism,  and  Christianity  than  was 
strictly  agreeable  to  the  Vatican.  Draper's  assertion  that  "  Paganism 
was  modified  by  Christianity,  Christianity  by  Paganisra,"§  is  being  daily 
verified.  "  Olympus  was  restored  but  the  divinities  passed  under  other 
names,"  he  says,  treating  of  the  Constantine  period.  "The  more  pow- 
erful provinces  insisted  on  the  adoption  of  their  time-honored  concep- 
tions. Views  of  the  trinity  in  accordance  with  the  Egyptian  traditions 
were  established.  Not  only  was  the  adoration  of  Isis  under  a  new  name 
restored,  but  .even  her  image,  standing  on  the  crescent  moon,  reappeared. 
The  well-known  effigy  of  that  goddess  with  the  infant  Horus  in  her  arms 
has  descended  to  our  days,  in  the  beautiful  artistic  creations  of  the 
Madonna  and  child." 

But  a  still  earlier  origin  than  the  Egyptian  and  Chaldean  can  be 
assigned  to  the  Virgin  "  Mother  of  God,"  Queen  of  Heaven.     Though 

*  "  De  Antro  Nympharum."  -j-  "  Navarette,"  book  ii.,  c.  x. 

X  "  On  the  Origin  of  Heathen  Idolatry." 

§  Isis  and  Osiris  are  said,  in  the  Egyptian  sacred  books,  to  have  appeared  {i.^.,  been 
worshipped),  on  earth,  later  than  Thot,  the  Jirst  Hermes,  called  Trismegistus,  who 
wrote  all  their  sacred  books  according  to  the  command  of  God  or  by  "divine  revela- 
tion." The  companion  and  instructor  of  Isis  and  Osiris  was  Thot,  or  Hermes  II.,  who 
was  an  incarnation  of  the  celestial  Hermes. 



Isis  is  also  by  right  the  Queen  of  Heaven,  and  is  generally  represented 
carrying  in  her  hand  the  Crux  Ansata  composed  of  the  mundane  cross, 
and  of  the  Stauros  of  the  Gnostics,  she  is  a  great  deal  younger  than  the 
celestial  virgin,  Neith.  In  one  of  the  tombs  of  the  Pharaohs — Rham- 
eses,  in  the  valley  of  Biban-el-M61ouk,  in  Thebes,  Champollion,  Junior, 
discovered  a  picture,  according  to  his  opinion  the  most  ancient  ever  yet 
found.  It  represents  the  heavens  symbolized  by  the  figure  of  a  woman 
bedecked  with  stars.  The  birth  of  the  Sun  is  figured  by  the  form  of  a 
little  child,  issuing  from  the  bosom  of  its  "  Divine  Mother." 

In  the  Book  of  Hermes,  "  Pimander  "  is  enunciated  in  distinct  and  un- 
equivocal sentences,  the  whole  trinitarian  dogma  accepted  by  the  Chris- 
tians. "  The  light  is  me,"  says  Pimander,  the  divine  thought.  "  I 
am  the  nous  or  intelligence,  and  I  am  thy  god,  and  I  am  far  older  than 
the  human  principle  which  escapes  from  the  shadow.  I  am  the  germ  of 
thought,  the  resplendent  word,  the  son  of  God.  Think  that  what  thus 
sees  and  hears  in  thee,  is  the  Verbum  of  the  Master,  it  is  the  Thought, 
which  is  God  the  Father.  .  .  .  The  celestial  ocean,  the  ^ther,  which 
flows  from  east  to  west,  is  the  Breath  of  the  Father,  the  life-giving 
Principle,  the  holy  ghost  !  "  "  For  they  are  not  at  all  separated  and 
their  union  is  life." 

Ancient  as  may  be  the  origin  of  Hermes,  lost  in  the  unknown  days  of 
Egyptian  colonization,  there  is  yet  a  far  older  prophecy,  directly  relating 
to  the  Hindu  Christna,  according  to  the  Brahmans.  It  is,  to  say  the 
least,  strange  that  the  Christians  claim  to  base  their  religion  upon  a  pro- 
phecy of  the  Bible,  which  exists  nowhere  in  that  book.  In  what  chapter 
or  verse  does  Jehovah,  the  "  Lord  God,"  promise  Adam  and  Eve  to  send 
them  a  Redeemer  who  will  save  humanity  ?  "I  will  put  enmity  between 
thee  and  the  woman,"  says  the  Lord  God  to  the  serpent,  "and  between 
thy  seed  and  her  seed  ;  it  shall  bruise  thy  head,  and  thou  shalt  bruise  his 

In  these  words  there  is  not  the  slightest  allusion  to  a  Redeemer,  and 
the  subtilest  of  intellects  could  not  extract  from  them,  as  they  stand  in  the 
third  chapter  of  Genesis,  anything  like  that  which  the  Christians  have 
contrived  to  find.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  traditions  and  Mann,  Brahma 
promises  directly  to  the  first  couple  to  send  them  a  Saviour  who  will 
teach  them  the  way  to  salvation. 

"  It  is  from  the  lips  of  a  messenger  of  Brahma,  who  will  be  born  in 
Kuroukshetra,  Matsya,  and  the  land  of  Pantchola,  also  called  Kanya- 
Cubja  (mountain  of  the  Virgin),  that  all  men  on  earth  will  learn  their 
duty,"  says  Manii  (book  ii.,  slokas  ig  and  20). 

The  Mexicans  call  the  Father  of  their  Trinity  Yzona,  the  Son  Bacab, 
and  the  Holy  Ghost  Echvah,  "  and  say  they  received  it  (the  doctrine) 


from  their  ancestors."  *  Among  the  Semitic  nations  we  can  trace  the  trin- 
ity to  the  prehistorical  days  of  the  fabled  Sesostris,  who  is  identified  by 
more  than  one  critic  with  Nimrod,  "  the  mighty  hunter."  Manetho  makes 
the  oracle  rebuke  the  king,  when  the  latter  asks,  "Tell  me,  O  thou 
strong  in  fire,  who  before  me  could  subjugate  all  things?  and  who  shall 
after  me  ?  "  And  the  oracle  saith  thus  :  "  First  God,  then  the  Word, 
and  then  '  the  Spirit.'  "  f 

In  the  foregoing  lies  the  foundation  of  the  fierce  hatred  of  the  Chris- 
tians toward  the  "Pagans"  and  the  theurgists.  Too  much  had  been 
borrowed ;  the  ancient  religions  and  the  Neo-platonists  had  been  laid  by 
them  under  contribution  sufficiently  to  perplex  the  world  for  several 
thousand  years.  Had  not  the  ancient  creeds  been  speedily  obliterated, 
it  would  have  been  found  impossible  to  preach  the  Christian  religion  as  a 
New  Dispensation,  or  the  direct  Revelation  from  God  the  Father,  through 
God  the  Son,  and  under  the  influence  of  God  the  Holy  Ghost.  As  a 
political  exigence  the  Fathers  had — to  gratify  the  wishes  of  their  rich 
converts — instituted  even  the  festivals  of  Pan.  They  went  so  far  as  to 
accept  the  ceremonies  hitherto  celebrated  by  the  Pagan  world  in  honor 
of  the  God  of  the  gardens,  in  all  their  primitive  sincerity.\  It  was 
time  to  sever  the  connection.  Either  the  Pagan  worship  and  the  Neo- 
platonic  theurgy,  with  all  ceremonial  of  magic,  must  be  crushed  out  for- 
ever, or  the  Christians  become  Neo-platonists. 

The  fierce  polemics  and  single-handed  battles  between  Irenseus  and 
the  Gnostics  are  too  well  known  to  need  repetition.  They  were  carried  on 
for  over  two  centuries  after  the  unscrupulous  Bishop  of  Lyons  had  uttered 
his  last  religious  paradox.  Celsus,  the  Neo-platonist,  and  a  disciple  of 
the  school  of  Ammonius  Saccas,  had  thrown  the  Christians  into  perturba- 
tion, and  even  had  arrested  for  a  time  the  progress  of  proselytism  by  suc- 
cessfully proving  that  the  original  and  purer  forms  of  the  most  important 
dogmas  of  Christianity  were  to  be  found  only  in  the  teachings  of  Plato. 
Celsus  accused  them  of  accepting  the  worst  superstitions  of  Paganism,  and 
of  interpolating  passages  from  the  books  of  the  Sybils,  without  rightly 
understanding  their  meaning.  The  accusations  were  so  plausible,  and  the 
facts  so  patent,  that  for  a  long  time  no  Christian  writer  had  ventured  to 
answer  the  challenge.  Origen,  at  the  fervent  request  of  his  friend,  Am- 
brosius,  was  the  first  to  take  the  defense  in  hand,  for,  having  belonged  to 
the  same  Platonic  school  of  Ammonius,  he  was  considered  the  most  com- 
petent man  to  refute  the  well-founded  charges.  But  his  eloquence  failed, 
and  the  only  remedy  that  could  be  found  was  to  destroy  the  writings  of 

*  Lord  Kingsborough :  "Ant.  Mex,,"  p.  165. 

f  "  Ap.  Malal.,"  lib.  i.,  cap.  iv.  %  Payne  Knight :   "Phallic  Worship." 


Celsus  themselves.  *  This  could  be  achieved  only  in  the  fifth  century, 
when  copies  had  been  taken  from  this  work,  and  many  were  those  who 
had  read  and  studied  them.  If  no  copy  of  it  has  descended  to  our  pres- 
ent generation  of  scientists,  it  is  not  because  there  is  none  extant  at 
present,  but  for  the  simple  reason  that  the  monks  of  a  certain  Oriental 
church  on  Mount  Athos  will  neither  show  nor  confess  they  have  one  in 
their  possession. f  Perhaps  they  do  not  even  know  themselves  the  value 
of  the  contents  of  their  manuscripts,  on  account  of  their  great  ignorance. 
The  dispersion  of  the  Eclectic  school  had  become  the  fondest  hope 
of  the  Christians.  It  had  been  looked  for  and  contemplated  with  intense 
anxiety.     It  was  finally  achieved.     The  members  were  scattered  by  the 

*  The  Celsus  above  mentioned,  who  lived  between  the  second  and  third  centuries, 
is  not  Celsus  the  Epicurean.  The  latter  wrote  several  works  against  Magic,  and  lived 
earlier,  during  the  reign  of  Hadrian, 

f  We  have  the  facts  from  a  trustworthy  witness,  having  no  interest  to  invent  such  a 
story.  Having  injured  his  leg  in  a  fall  from  the  steamer  into  the  boat  in  which  he  was 
to  land  at  the  Mount,  he  was  taken  care  of  by  these  monks,  and  during  his  convalescence, 
through  gifts  of  money  and  presents,  became  their  greitest  friend,  and  finally  won  their 
entire  confidence.  Having  asked  for  the  Joan  of  some  books,  he  was  taken  by  the  Supe- 
rior to  a  large  cellar  in  which  they  keep  their  sacred  vessels  and  other  property.  Opening 
a  great  trunk,  full  of  old  musty  manuscripts  and  rolls,  he  was  invited  by  the  Superior 
to  "  amuse  himself."  The  gentleman  was  a  scholar,  and  well  versed  in  Greek  and  Latin 
text.  "  I  was  amazed,"  he  says,  in  a  private  letter,  "  and  had  my  breath  taken  away, 
on  finding  among  these  old  parchments,  so  unceremoniously  treated,  some  of  the  most 
valuable  relics  of  the  first  centuries,  hitherto  believed  to  have  been  lost."  Among  others 
he  found  a  half-destroyed  manuscript,  which  he  is  perfectly  sure  must  be  a  copy  of  the 
"  True  Doctrine,"  the  Aoyo;  aXt]Qr\%  of  Celsus,  out  of  which  Origen  quoted  whole  pages. 
The  traveller  took  as  many  notes  as  he  could  on  that  day,  but  when  he  came  to  offer  to  the 
Superior  to  purchase  some  of  these  writings  he  found,  to  his  gi-eat  surprise,  that  no  amount 
of  money  would  tempt  the  monks.  They  did  not  know  what  the  manuscripts  contained, 
nor  "did  they  care,"  they  said.  But  the  "heap  of  writing,"  they  added,  was  transmitted 
to  them  from  one  generation  to  another,  and  there  was  a  tradition  among  them  that 
these  papers  would  one  day  become  the  means  of  crushing  the  "Great  Beast  of  the 
Apocalypse,"  their  hereditary  enemy,  the  Church  of  Rome.  They  were  constantly 
quarrelling  and  fighting  with  the  Catholic  monks,  and  among  the  whole  "heap"  they 
knew  that  there  was  a  "holy"  relic  which  protected  them.  They  did  not  know  which, 
and  so  in  their  doubt  abstained.  It  appears  that  the  Superior,  a  shrewd  Greek,  under- 
stood his  bevue  and  repented  of  his  kindness,  for  first  of  all  he  made  the  traveller  give 
him  his  most  sacred  word  of  honor,  strengthened  by  an  oath  he  made  him  take  on  the 
image  of  the  Holy  Patroness  of  the  Island,  never  to  betray  their  secret,  and  never  men- 
tion, at  least,  the  name  of  their  convent.  And  finally,  when  the  anxious  student  who 
had  passed  a  fortnight  in  reading  all  sorts  of  antiquated  trash  before  he  happened  to 
stumble  over  some  precious  manuscript,  expressed  the  desire  to  have  the  key,  to  "amuse 
himself  "  with  the  writings  once  more,  he  was  very  naively  informed  that  the  "  key  had 
been  lost,"  and  that  they  did  not  know  where  to  look  for  it.  And  thus  he  was  left  to 
the  few  notes  he  had  taken. 


hand  of  the  monsters  Theophilus,  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  and  his  nephew 
Cyril — the  murderer  of  the  young,  the  learned,  and  the  innocent  Hy- 
patia  !  * 

With  the  death  of  the  martyred  daughter  of  Theon,  the  mathematician, 
there  remained  no  possibility  for  the  Neo-platonists  to  continue  their 
school  at  Alexandria.  During  the  life-time  of  the  youthful  Hypatia  her 
friendship  and  influence  with  Orestes,  the  governor  of  the  city,  had  assured 
the  philosophers  security  and  protection  against  their  murderous  enemies. 
With  her  death  they  had  lost  their  strongest  friend.  How  much  she  was 
revered  by  all  who  knew  her  for  her  erudition,  noble  virtues,  and  charac- 
ter, we  can  infer  from  the  letters  addressed  to  her  by  Synesius,  Bishop  of 
Ptolemais,  fragments  of  which  have  reached  us.  "  My  heart  yearns  for 
the  presence  of  your  divine  spirit,"  he  wrote  in  413  a.  d.,  "which  more 
than  anything  else  could  alleviate  the  bitterness  of  my  fortunes."  At 
another  time  he  says  :  "  Oh,  my  mother,  my  sister,  my  teacher,  my  ben- 
efactor !  My  soul  is  very  sad.  The  recollection  of  my  children  I  have 
lost  is  killing  me.  .  .  .  When  I  have  news  of  you  and  learn,  as  I  hope, 
that  you  are  more  fortunate  than  myself,  I  am  at  least  only  half-unhappy." 

What  would  have  been  the  feelings  of  this  most  noble  and  worthy  of 
Christian  bishops,  who  had  surrendered  family  and  children  and  happiness 
for  the  faith  into  which  he  had  been  attracted,  had  a  prophetic  vision  dis- 
closed to  him  that  the  only  friend  that  had  been  left  to  him,  his  "  mother, 
sister,  benefactor,"  would  soon  become  an  unrecognizable  mass  of  flesh 
and  blood,  pounded  to  jelly  under  the  blows  of  the  club  of  Peter  the 
Reader — that  her  youthful,  innocent  body  would  be  cut  to  pieces,  "  the 
flesh  scraped  from  the  bones,"  by  oyster-shells  and  the  rest  of  her  cast 
into  the  fire,  by  order  of  the  same  Bishop  Cyril  he  knew  so  well — Cyril, 
the  CANONIZED  Saint !  !  f 

There  has  never  been  a  religion  in  the  annals  of  the  world  with  such 
a  bloody  record  as  Christianity.  All  the  rest,  including  the  traditional 
fierce  fights  of  the  "chosen  people"  with  their  next  of  kin,  the  idolatrous 
tribes  of  Israel,  pale  before  the  murderous  fanaticism  of  the  alleged  fol- 
lowers of  Christ !  Even  the  rapid  spread  of  Mahometanism  before  the 
conquering  sword_  of  the  Islam  prophet,  is  a  direct  consequence  of  the 

*  See  the  historical  romance  of  Canon  Kingsley,  "Hypatia,"  for  a  highly  pictu- 
resque account  of  the  tragical  fate  of  this  yoimg  martyr. 

+  We  beg  the  reader  to  bear  in  mind  that  it  is  the  same  Cyril  who  was  accused  and 
proved  guilty  of  having  sold  the  gold  and  silver  ornaments  of  his  church,  and  spent  the 
money.  He  pleaded  guilty,  but  tried  to  excuse  himself  on  the  ground  that  he  had  used 
the  money  for  the  poor,  but  could  not  give  evidence  of  it.  His  duplicity  with  Arius 
and  his  party  is  well  known.  Thus  one  of  the  first  Christian  saints,  and  the  founder 
of  the  Trinity,  appears  on  the  pages  of  history  as  a  murderer  and  a  thief  ! 


bloody  riots  and  fights  among  Christians.  It  was  the  intestine  war  be- 
tween the  Nestorians  and  Cyrilians  that  engendered  Islamism ;  and  it  is 
in  the  convent  of  Bozrah  that  the  prolific  seed  was  first  sown  by  Bahira, 
the  Nestorian  monk.  Freely  watered  by  rivers  of  blood,  the  tree  of 
Mecca  has  grown  till  we  find  it  in  the  present  century  overshadowing 
nearly  two  hundred  millions  of  people.  The  recent  Bulgarian  atrocities 
are  but  the  natural  outgrowth  of  the  triumph  of  Cyril  and  the  Mario- 

The  cruel,  crafty  politician,  the  plotting  monk,  glorified  by  ecclesias- 
tical history  with  the  aureole  of  a  martyred  saint.  The  despoiled  philoso- 
phers, the  Neo-platonists,  and  the  Gnostics,  daily  anathematized  by  the 
Church  all  over  the  world  for  long  and  dreary  centuries.  The  curse  of 
the  unconcerned  Deity  hourly  invoked  on  the  magian  rites  and  theurgic 
practice,  and  the  Christian  clergy  themselves  using  sorcery  for  ages. 
Hypatia,  the  glorious  maiden-philosopher,  torn  to  pieces  by  the  Christian 
mob.  And  such  as  Catherine  de  Medici,  Lucrezia  Borgia,  Joanna  of 
Naples,  and  the  Isabellas  of  Spain,  presented  to  the  world  as  the  faithful 
daughters  of  the  Church — some  even  decorated  by  the  Pope  with  the 
order  of  the  "Immaculate  Rose,"  the  highest  emblem  of  womanly  purity 
and  virtue,  a  symbol  sacred  to  the  Virgin-mother  of  God  !  Such  are  the 
examples  of  human  justice  !  How  far  less  blasphemous  appears  a  total 
rejection  of  Mary  as  an  immaculate  goddess,  than  an  idolatrous  worship 
of  her,  accompanied  by  such  practices. 

In  the  next  chapter  we  will  present  a  few  illustrations  of  sorcery,  as 
practiced  under  the  patronage  of  the  Roman  Church. 


"  They  undertake  by  scales  of  miles  to  tell 
The  bounds,  dimensions,  and  extent  of  hell ; 

Where  bloated  souls  in  smoky  durance  hung 
Like  a  Westphalia  gammon  or  neat*s  tongue. 
To  be  redeemed  with  masses  and  a  song." 

— Oldham  ;  Satires  %iJ>on  the  Jesuitt. 

**  York. — But  you  are  more  inhuman,  more  inexorable — 
O,  ten  times  more — than  tigers  of  Hyrcania." 

— King  Henry  K/.,  Part  Third,  Act  i..  Scene  iv. 

*'  War. — And  hark  ye,  Sirs ;  because  she  is  a  maid 
Spare  for  no  faggots,  let  there  be  enough  ; 
Place  barrels  of  pitch  upon  the  fatal  stake." 

— King  Henry  VI. ^  Part  First,  Act  v.,  Scene  iv. 

IN  that  famous  work  of  Bodin,  on  sorcery,*  a  frightful  story  is  told 
about  Catherine  of  Medicis.  The  author  was  a  learned  pubhcist, 
who,  during  twenty  years  of  his  life,  collected  authentic  documents  from 
the  archives  of  nearly  every  important  city  of  France,  to  make  up  a  com- 
plete work  on  sorcery,  magic,  and  the  power  of  various  "  demons." 
To  use  an  expression  of  Eliphas  Levi,  his  book  offers  a  most  remarkable 
collection  of  "  bloody  and  hideous  facts;  acts  of  revolting  superstition, 
arrests,  and  executions  of  stupid  ferocity."  "  Burn  every  body  !  "  the 
Inquisition  seemed  to  say — God  will  easily  sort  out  His  own  !  Poor 
fools,  hysterical  women,  and  idiots  were  roasted  alive,  without  mercy,  for 
the  crime  of  "  magic."  But,  "  at  the  same  time,  how  many  gieat  culprits 
escaped  this  unjust  Ind  sanguinary  justice  !  This  is  what  Bodin  makes 
us  fully  appreciate." 

Catherine,  the  pious  Christian — who  has  so  well  deserved  in  the  eyes 
of  the  Church  of  Christ  for  the  atrocious  and  never-to-be-forgotten  mas- 
sacre of  St.  Bartholomew' — the  Queen  Catherine,  kept  in  her  service  an 
apostate  Jacobin  priest.  Well  versed  in  the  "  black  art,"  so  fully  pat- 
ronized by  the  Medici  family,  he  had  won  the  gratitude  and  protection 
of  his  pious  mistress,  by  his  unparalleled  skill  in  killing  people  at  a  dis- 
tance, by  torturing  with  various  incantations  their  wax  simulacra.  The 
process  has  been  described  over  and  over  again,  and  we  scarcely  need 
repeat  it. 

*  "La  Demonomanie,  ou  traite  des  Sorciers."     Paris,  1587. 


Charles  was  lying  sick  of  an  incurable  disease.  The  queen-mother, 
who  had  everything  to  lose  in  case  of  his  death,  resorted  to  necromancy, 
and  consulted  the  oracle  of  the  "  bleeding  head."  This  infernal  opera- 
tion required  the  decapitation  of  a  child  who  must  be  possessed  of  great 
beauty  and  purity.  He  had  been  prepared  in  secret  for  his  first  commu- 
nion, by  the  chaplam  of  the  palace,  who  was  apprised  of  the  plot,  and  at 
midnight  of  the  appointed  day,  in  the  chamber  of  the  sick  man,  and  in 
presence  only  of  Catherine  and  a  few  of  her  confederates,  the  "  devil's 
mass  "  was  celebrated.  Let  us  give  the  rest  of  the  story  as  we  find  it  in 
one  of  Levi's  works  :  "  At  this  mass,  celebrated  before  the  image  of  the 
demon,  having  under  his  feet  a  reversed  cross,  the  sorcerer  consecrated 
two  wafers,  one  black  and  one  white.  The  white  was  given  to  the  child, 
whom  they  brought  clothed  as  for  baptism,  and  who  was  murdered  upon 
the  very  steps  of  the  altar,  immediately  after  his  communion.  His  head, 
separated  from  the  trunk  by  a  single  blow,  was  placed,  all  palpitating, 
upon  the  great  black  wafer  which  covered  the  bottom  of  the  paten,  then 
placed  upon  a  table  where  some  mysterious  lamps  were  burning.  The 
exorcism  then  began,  and  the  demon  was  charged  to  pronounce  an  ora- 
cle, and  reply  by  the  mouth  of  this  head  to  a  secret  question  that  the 
king  dared  not  speak  aloud,  and  that  had  been  confided  to  no  one.  Then 
a  feeble  voice,  a  strange  voice,  which  had  nothing  of  human  character 
about  it,  made  itself  audible  in  this  poor  little  martyr's  head."  The  sor- 
cery availed  nothing  ;  the  king  died,  and — Catherine  remained  the  faith- 
ful daughter  of  Rome  ! 

How  strange,  that  des  Mousseaux,  whx)  makes  such  free  use  of  Bodin's 
materials  to  construct  his  formidable  indictment  against  Spiritualists  and 
other  sorcerers,  should  have  overlooked  this  interesting  episode  ! 

It  is  a  well-attested  fact  that  Pope  Sylvester  II.  was  publicly  accused 
by  Cardinal  Benno  with  being  a  sorcerer  and  an  enchanter.  The  brazen 
"  oracular  head  "  made  by  his  Holiness  was  of  the  same  kind  as  the  one 
fabricated  by  Albertus  Magnus.  The  latter  was  smashed  to  pieces  by 
Thomas  Aquinas,  not  because  it  was  the  work  of  or  inhabited  by  a 
"demon,"  but  because  the  spook  who  was  fixed  inside,  by  mesmeric 
power,  talked  incessantly,  and  his  verbiage  prevented  the  eloquent  saint 
from  working  out  his  mathematical  problems.  These  heads  and  other 
talking  statues,  trophies  of  the  magical  skill  of  monks  and  bishops,  were 
fac-similes  of  the  "  animated"  gods  of  the  ancient  temples.  The  accu- 
sation against  the  Pope  was  proved  at  the  time.  It  was  also  demonstrated 
that  he  was  constantly  attended  by  "  demons  "  or  spirits.  In  the  pre- 
ceding chapter  we  have  mentioned  Benedict  IX.,  John  XX.,  and  the 
Vlth  and  Vllth  Gregory,  who  were  all  known  as  magicians.  The 
latter  Pope,  moreover,  was  the  famous  Hildebrand,  who  was  said  to  have 


been  so  expert  at  "  shaking  lightning  out  of  his  sleeve."  An  expression 
which  makes  the  venerable  spiritualistic  writer,  Mr.  Howitt,  think  that 
"it  was  the  origin  of  the  celebrated  thunder  of  the  Vatican." 

The  magical  achievements  of  the  Bishop  of  Ratisbon  and  those  of  the 
"angelic  doctor,"  Thomas  Aquinas,  are  too  well  known  to  need  repe- 
tition ;  but  we  may  explain  farther  how  the  "  illusions  "  of  the  former  were 
produced.  If  the  Catholic  bishop  was  so  clever  in  making  people  believe 
on  a  bitter  winter  night  that  they  were  enjoying  the  delights  of  a  splendid 
summer  day,  and  cause  the  icicles  hanging  from  the  boughs  of  the  trees 
in  the  garden  to  seem  like  so  many  tropical  fruits,  the  Hindu  magicians 
also  practice  such  biological  powers  unto  this  very  day,  and  claim  the 
assistance  of  neither  god  nor  devil.  Such  "  miracles  "  are  all  produced 
by  the  same  human  power  that  is  inherent  in  every  man,  if  he  only 
knew  how  to  develop  it. 

About  the  time  of  the  Reformation,  the  study  of  alchemy  and  magic 
had  become  so  prevalent  among  the  clergy  as  to  produce  great  scandal. 
Cardinal  Wolsey  was  openly  accused  before  the  court  and  the  privy- 
council  of  confederacy  with  a  man  named  Wood,  a  sorcerer,  who  said 
that  "  My  Lord  Cardinale  had  suche  a  rynge  that  what somev ere  he  askyd 
of  the  Kynges grace  that  he  hadd  yt ;  "  adding  that  "■Master  Cromwell, 
when  he  .  .  .  was  servaunt  in  my  lord  cardynales  housse  .  .  .  rede  many 
hokes  and  specyally  the  boke  of  Salamon  .  .  .  and  studied  mettells  and 
what  vertues  they  had  after  the  canon  of  Salamon!^  This  case,  with  seve- 
ral others  equally  curious,  is  to  be  found  among  the  Cromwell  papers  in 
the  Record  Office  of  the  Rolls  House. 

A  priest  named  William  Stapleton  was  arrested  as  a  conjurer,  during 
the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.,  and  an  account  of  his  adventures  is  still 
preserved  in  the  Rolls  House  records.  The  Sicilian  priest  whom 
Benvenuto  Cellini  calls  a  necromancer,  became  famous  through  his 
successful  conjurations,  and  was  never  molested.  The  remarkable 
adventure  of  Cellini  with  him  in  the  Colosseum,  where  the  priest  con- 
jured up  a  whole  host  of  devils,  is  well  known  to  the  reading  public. 
The  subsequent  meeting  of  Cellini  with  his  mistress,  as  predicted  and 
brought  about  by  the  conjurer,  at  the  precise  time  fixed  by  him,  is  to 
be  considered,  as  a  matter  of  course,  a  "  curious  coincidence."  In 
the  latter  part  of  the  sixteenth  century  there  was  hardly  a  parish  to 
be  found  in  which  the  priests  did  not  study  magic  and  alchemy.  The 
practice  of  exorcism  to  cast  out  devils  "in  imitation  of  Christ,"  who 
by  the  way  never  used  exorcism  at  all,  led  the  clergy  to  devote  them- 
selves openly  to  "sacred"  magic  in  contradistinction  to  black  art,  of 
which  latter  crime  were  accused  all  those  who  were  neither  priests  nor 


The  occult  knowledge  gleaned  by  the  Roman  Church  from  the  once 
fat  fields  of  theurgy  she  sedulously  guarded  for  her  own  use,  and  sent  to 
the  stake  only  those  practitioners  who  "  poached  "  on  her  lands  of  the 
Scieniia  Scientiarum,  and  those  whose  sins  could  not  be  concealed  by  the 
fiiar's  frock.  The  proof  of  it  lies  in  the  records  of  history.  "In  the 
course  only  of  fifteen  years,  between  1580  to  1595,  and  only  in  the  single 
province  of  Lorraine,  the  President  Remigius  burned  900  witches," 
says  Thomas  Wright,  in  his  Sorcery  and  Magic.  It  was  during  these 
days,  prolific  in  ecclesiastical  murder  and  unrivalled  for  cruelty  and 
ferocity,  that  Jean  Bodin  wrote. 

While  the  orthodox  clergy  called  forth  whole  legions  of  "demons" 
through  magical  incantations,  unmolested  by  the  authorities,  provided 
they  held  fast  to  the  established  dogmas  and  taught  no  heresy,  on  the 
other  hand,  acts  of  unparalleled  atrocity  were  perpetrated  on  poor,  unfor- 
tunate fools.  Gabriel  Malagrida,  an  old  man  of  eighty,  was  burnt  by  these 
evangelical  Jack  Ketches  in  1761.  In  the  Amsterdam  library  there  is  a 
copy  of  the  report  of  his  famous  trial,  translated  from  the  Lisbon  edition. 
He  was  accused  of  sorcery  and  illicit  intercourse  with  the  Devil,  who  had 
"disclosed  to  him  futurity."  (  ?  )  The  prophecy  imparted  by  the  Arch- 
Enemy  to  the  poor  visionary  Jesuit  is  reported  in  the  following  terms : 
"  The  culprit  hath  confessed  that  the  demon,  under  the  form  of  the  blessed 
Virgin,  having  commanded  him  to  write  the  life  of  Antichrist  (  ?  ),  told  him 
that  he,  Malagrida,  was  a  second  John,  but  more  clear  than  John  the 
Evangelist;  that  there  were  to  be  "three  Antichrists,  and  that  the  last 
should  be  born  at  Milan,  of  a  monk  and  a  nun,  in  the  year  1920 ;  that 
he  would  marry  Proserpine,  one  of  the  infernal  furies,"  etc. 

The  prophecy  is  to  be  verified  forty- three  years  hence.  Even  were  all 
the  children  born  of  monks  and  nuns  really  to  become  antichrists  if 
allowed  to  grow  up  to  maturity,  the  fact  would  seem  far  less  deplorable 
than  the  discoveries  made  in  so  many  convents  when  the  foundations 
have  been  removed  for  some  reason.  If  the  assertion  of  Luther  is  to  be 
disbelieved  on  account  of  his  hatred  for  popery,  then  we  may  name  dis- 
coveries of  the  same  character  made  quite  recently  in  Austrian  and 
Russian  Poland.  Luther  speaks  of  a  fish-pond  at  Rome,  situated  near  a 
convent  of  nuns,  which,  having  been  cleared  out  by  order  of  Pope  Greg- 
ory, disclosed,  at  the  bottom,  over  six  thousand  infant  skulls ;  and  of  a 
nunnery  at  Neinburg,  in  Austria,  whose  foundations,  when  searched,  dis- 
closed the  same  relics  of  celibacy  and  chastity  ! 

"  Ecclesia  non  novit  Sanguinem  I"  meekly  repeated  the  scarlet-robed 
cardinals.  And  to  avoid  the  spilling  of  blood  which  horrified  them,  they 
instituted  the  Holy  Inquisition.  If,  as  the  occultists  maintain,  and  science 
half  confirms,  our  most  trifling  acts  and  thoughts  are  indelibly  impressed 


upon  the  eternal  mirror  of  the  astral  ether,  there  must  be  somewhere,  in 
the  boundless  realm  of  the  unseen  universe,  the  imprint  of  a  curious 
picture.  It  is  that  of  a  gorgeous  standard  waving  in  the  heavenly  breeze 
at  the  foot  of  the  great  "white  throne"  of  the  Almighty.  On  its  crimson 
damask  face  a  cross,  symbol  of  "  the  Son  of  God  who  died  for  mankind," 
with  an  olive  branch  on  one  side,  and  a  sword,  stained  to  the  hilt  with 
human  gore,  on  the  other.  A  legend  selected  from  the  Psalms  embla- 
zoned in  golden  letters,  reading  thus  :  "  Exurge,  Domine,  et  judica  cau- 
sam  meam."  For  such  appears  the  standard  of  the  Inquisition,  on  a 
photograph  in  our  possession,  from  an  original  procured  at  the  Escurial 
of  Madrid. 

Under  this  Christian  standard,  in  the  brief  space  of  fourteen  years, 
Tomas  de  Torquemada,  the  confessor  of  Queen  Isabella,  burned  over  ten 
thousand  persons,  and  sentenced  to  the  torture  eighty  thousand  more. 
Orobio,  the  well-known  writer,  who  was  detained  so  long  in  prison,  and 
who  hardly  escaped  the  flames  of  the  Inquisition,  immortalized  this  insti- 
tution in  his  works  when  once  at  liberty  in  Holland.  He  found  no  better 
argument  against  the  Holy  Church  than  to  embrace  the  Judaic  faith  and 
submit  even  to  circumcision.  "  In  the  cathedral  of  Saragossa,"  says  a 
writer  on  the  Inquisition,  "is  the  tomb  of  a  famous  inquisitor.  Six  pillars 
surround  the  tomb ;  to  each  is  chained  a  Moor,  as  preparatory  to  being 
burned."  On  this  St.  Foix  ingenuously  observes  :  "  If  ever  the  Jack 
Ketch  of  any  country  should  be  rich  enough  to  have  a  splendid  tomb,  this 
might  serve  as  an  excellent  model !  "  To  make  it  complete,  however, 
the  builders  of  the  tomb  ought  not  to  have  omitted  a  bas-relief  of  the 
famous  horse  which  was  burnt  for  sorcery  and  witchcraft.  Granger  tells 
the  story,  describing  it  as  having  occurred  in  his  time.  The  poor  animal 
"had  been  taught  to  tell  the  spots  upon  cards,  and  the  hour  of  the  day 
by  the  watch.  Horse  and  owner  were  both  indicted  by  the  sacred  office 
for  dealing  with  the  Devil,  and  both  were  burned,  with  a  great  ceremony 
o{ auto-da-fe,  at  Lisbon,  in  1601,  as  wizards!" 

This  immortal  institution  of  Christianity  did  not  remain  without  its 
Dante  to  sing  its  praise.  "  Macedo,  a  Portuguese  Jesuit,"  says  the  author 
of  Demonologia,  "  has  discovered  the  origin  of  the  Inquisition,  in  the 
terrestrial  Paradise,  and  presumes  to  allege  that  God  was  the  first  who 
began  the  functions  of  an  inquisitor  over  Cain  and  the  workmen  of 
Babel ! " 

Nowhere,  during  the  middle  ages,  were  the  arts  of  magic  and  sorcery 
more  practiced  by  the  clergy  than  in  Spain  and  Portugal.  The  Moors 
were  profoundly  versed  in  the  occult  sciences,  and  at  Toledo,  Seville, 
and  Salamanca,  were,  once  upon  a  time,  the  great  schools  of  magic.  The 
kabalists  of  the  latter  town  were  skilled  in  all  the  abstruse  sciences ;  they 


knew  the  virtues  of  precious  stones  and  other  minerals,  and  had  extracted 
from  alchemy  its  most  profound  secrets. 

The  authentic  documents  pertaining  to  the  great  trial  of  the  Marechale 
d'Ancre,  during  the  regency  of  Marie  de  Medicis,  disclose  that  the  un- 
fortunate woman  perished  through  the  fault  of  the  priests  with  whom,  like 
a  true  Italian,  she  surrounded  herself.  She  was  accused  by  the  people 
of  Paris  of  sorcery,  because  it  had  been  asserted  that  she  had  used,  after 
the  ceremony  of  exorcism,  newly-killed  white  cocks.  Believing  herself 
constantly  bewitched,  and  being  in  very  delicate  health,  the  Marechale 
had  the  ceremony  of  exorcism  publicly  applied  to  herself  in  the  Church 
of  the  Augustins ;  as  to  the  birds,  she  used  them  as  an  application  to 
the  forehead  on  account  of  dreadful  pains  in  the  head,  and  had  been  ad- 
vised to  do  so  by  Montalto,  the  Jew  physician  of  the  queen,  and  the  Ital- 
ian priests. 

In  the  sixteenth  century,  the  Cur6  de  Barjota,  of  the  diocese  of  Calla- 
hora,  Spain,  became  the  world's  wonder  for  his  magical  powers.  His 
most  extraordinary  feat  consisted,  it  was  said,  in  transporting  himself  to 
any  distant  country,  witnessing  political  and  other  events,  and  then 
returning  home  to  predict  them  in  his  own  country.  He  had  a  familiar 
demon,  who  served  him  faithfully  for  long  years,  says  the  Chronicle,  but 
the  cur6  turned  ungrateful  and  cheated  him.  Having  been  apprised  by 
his  demon  of  a  conspiracy  against  the  Pope's  life,  in  consequence  of  an 
intrigue  of  the  latter  with  a  fair  lady,  the  cure  transported  himself  to 
Rome  (in  his  double,  of  course)  and  thus  saved  his  Holiness'  life.  After 
which  he  repented,  confessed  his  sins  to  the  gallant  Pope,  and  got  absolu- 
tion. "  On  his  return  he  was  delivered,  as  a  matter  of  form,  into  the 
custody  of  the  inquisitors  of  Logroiio,  but  was  acquitted  and  restored  to 
his  liberty  very  soon." 

Friar  Pietro,  a  Dominican  monk  of  the  fourteenth  century — the  magi- 
cian who  presented  the  famous  Dr.  Eugenic  Torralva,  a  physician  attached 
to  the  house  of  the  admiral  of  Castile,  with  a  demon  named  Zequiel — won 
his  fame  through  the  subsequent  trial  of  Torralva.  The  procedure  and 
circumstances  attendant  upon  the  extraordinary  trial  are  described  in 
the  original  papers  preserved  in  the  Archives  of  the  Inquisition.  The 
Cardinal  of  Volterra,  and  the  Cardinal  of  Santa  Cruz,  both  saw  and  com- 
municated with  Zequiel,  who  proved,  during  the  whole  of  Torralva's  life, 
to  be  a  pure,  kind,  elemental  spirit,  doing  many  beneficent  actions, 
and  remaining  faithful  to  the  physician  to  the  last  hour  of  his  life. 
Even  the  Inquisition  acquitted  Torralva,  on  that  account ;  and,  although 
an  immortality  of  fame  was  insured  to  him  by  the  satire  of  Cervantes, 
neither  Torralva  nor  the  monk  Pietro  are  fictitious  heroes,  but  historical 
personages,  recorded  in  ecclesiastical  documents  of  Rome  and  Cuenga, 


in  which  town  the  trial  of  the  physician  took  place,  Januar}'  the  29th, 

The  book  of  Dr.  W.  G.  Soldan,  of  Stuttgart,  has  become  as  famous 
in  Germany,  as  Bodin's  book  on  Denwnomania  in  France.  It  is  the 
most  complete  German  treatise  on  witchcraft  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
One  interested  to  learn  the  secret  machinery  underlying  these  thousands 
of  legal  murders,  perpetrated  by  a  clergy  who  pretended  to  believe  in  the 
Devil,  and  succeeded  in  making  others  believe  in  him,  will  find  it  divulged 
in  the  above-mentioned  work.*  The  true  origin  of  the  daily  accusations 
and  death-sentences  for  sorcery  are  cleverly  traced  to  personal  and 
political  enmities,  and,  above  all,  to  the  hatred  of  the  Catholics  toward 
the  Protestants.  The  crafty  work  of  the  Jesuits  is  seen  at  every  page  of 
the  bloody  tragedies ;  and  it  is  in  Bamberg  and  Wurzburg,  where  these 
worthy  sons  of  Loyola  were  most  powerful  at  that  time,  that  the  cases  of 
witchcraft  were  most  numerous.  On  the  next  page  we  give  a  curious  list 
of  some  victims,  many  of  whom  were  children  between  the  ages  of  seven 
and  eight  years,  and  Protestants.  "  Of  the  multitudes  of  persons  who 
perished  at  the  stake  in  Germany  during  the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth 
century  for  sorcery,  the  crjme  of  many  was  their  attachment  to  the  relig- 
ion of  Luther,"  says  T.  Wright,  "...  and  the  petty  princes  were  not 
unwilling  to  seize  upon  any  pretense  to  fill  their  coffers  .  .  .  the  persons 
most  persecuted  being  those  whose  property  was  a  matter  of  considera- 
tion. ...  At  Bamberg,  as  well  as  at  Wurzburg,  the  bishop  was  a  sover- 
eign prince  in  his  dominions.  The  Prince-Bishop,  John  George  IL,  who 
ruled  Bamberg  .  .  .  after  several  unsuccessful  attempts  to  root  out  Luth- 
eranism,  distinguished  his  reign  by  a  series  of  sanguinary  witch-trials, 
which  disgrace  the  annals  of  that  city.  .  .  .  We  may  form  some  notion 
of  the  proceedings  of  his  worthy  agent,  f  from  the  statement  of  the  most 
authentic  historians,  that  between  1625  and  1630,  not  less  than  900  trials 
took  place  in  the  two  courts  of  Bamberg  and  Zeil ;  and  a  pamphlet  pub- 
lished at  Bamberg  by  authority,  in  1659,  states  the  number  of  persons 
whom  Bishop  John  George  had  caused  to  be  burned  for  sorcery,  to  have 
been  600."  \ 

Regretting  that  space  should  prevent  our  giving  one  of  the  most 
curious  lists  in  the  world  of  burned  witches,  we  will  nevertheless  make  a 
few  extracts  from  the  original  record  as  printed  in  Hauber's  Bibliotheca 

*  Dr.  W.  G.  Soldan  :  "  Geschichte  der  Hexen  processe,  aus  den  Quellen  darges- 
tellt,"  Stuttgart,  1843. 

f  Frederick  Forner,  Suffragan  of  Bamberg,  author  of  a  treatise  against  heretics 
and  sorcerers,  under  the  title  of  "  Panoplia  Armaturoe  Dei." 

X  "  Sorcery  and  Magic,"  by  T.  Wright,  M.A.,  F.S.  A.,  etc.,  Corresponding  Mem- 
ber of  the  National  Institute  of  France,  vol.  ii.,  p.  185. 


Magica.  One  glance  at  this  horrible  catalogue  of  murders  in  Christ's 
name,  is  sufficient  to  discover  that  out  of  162  persons  burned,  more  than 
one-half  of  them  are  designated  as  strangers  (i.e.,  Protestants)  in  this 
hospitable  town  ;  and  of  the  other  half  we  find  thirty-four  children,  the 
oldest  of  whom  was  fourteen,  the  youngest  an  infant  child  of  Dr.  Schiitz. 
To  make  the  catalogue  shorter  we  will  present  of  each  of  the  twenty-nine 
burnings,  but  the  most  remarkable.* 


Old  Ancker's  widow. 
The  wife  of  Liebler. 
The  wife  of  Gutbrodt. 
The  wife  of  Hocker. 


Two  Strange  women  (names  unknown). 
The  old  wife  of  iBeutler. 


Tungersleber,  a  minstrel. 
Four  wives  of  citizens. 


A  Strange  man. 


Lutz,  an  eminent  shop-keeper. 
The  -wife  of  Baunach,  a  senator. 


The  fat  tailor's  wife. 
A  strange  man. 
A  strange  woman. 

*  Besides  these  burnings  in  Germany,  which  amount  to  many  thousands,  we  find 
some  very  interesting  statements  in  Prof.  Draper's  "  Conflict  between  Religion  and 
Science."  On  page  146,  he  says:  "  The  families  of  the  convicted  were  plunged  into 
irretrievable  ruin.  Llorente,  the  historian  of  the  Inquisition,  computes  that  Torque- 
mada  and  his  collaborators,  in  the  course  of  eighteen  years,  burned  at  the  stake 
10,220  persons,  6,S6o  in  effigy,  and  otherwise  punished  97,321  !  .  .  .  With  unutter- 
able disgust  and  indignation,  we  learn  that  the  papal  government  realized  much  money 
by  selling  to  the  rich,  dispensations  to  secure  them  from  the  Inquisition." 



A  Strange  girl  of  twelve  years  old. 
A  strange  man,  a  strange  woman. 
A  strange  bailiff  (Schultheiss). 
Three  strange  women. 


Baunach,  a  senator,  the  fattest  citizen  in  Wurzburg. 
A  strange  man. 
Two  strange  women. 


A  strange  man. 

A  mother  and  daughter. 


Steinacher,  a  very  rich  man. 

A  strange  man,  a  strange  woman. 


Two  women  and  two  men. 


Two  strange  women. 


A  little  girl  nine  or  ten  years  old. 
A  younger  girl,  her  little  sister. 


The  mother  of  the  two  little  girls  before  mentioned. 
A  girl  twenty-four  years  old. 


A  boy  twelve  years  of  age,  in  the  first  school. 
A  woman. 


A  boy  of  ten  years  of  age. 


A  boy  eleven  years  old. 
A  mother  and  daughter. 



Two  boys,  twelve  years  old. 
The  daughter  of  Dr.  Junge. 
A  girl  of  fifteen  years  of  age. 
A  strange  woman. 


A  boy  of  ten  years  of  age. 
Another  boy,  twelve  years  old. 


Gobel's  child,  the  most  beautiful  girl  in  Wurzburg. 
Two  boys,  each  twelve  years  old. 
Stepper's  little  daughter. 


A  boy  fourteen  years  old. 

The  little  son  of  Senator  Stolzenberger. 

Two  alumni. 


Stiirman,  a  rich  cooper. 
A  strange  boy. 


David  Croten's  boy,  nine  years  old. 

The  two  sons  of  the  prince's  cook,  one  fourteen,  the  other  ten  years  old. 


Two  boys  in  the  hospital. 
A  rich  cooper. 


A  strange  boy. 


Weydenbush,  a  senator. 

The  little  daughter  of  Valkenberger. 

The  little  son  of  the  town  council  bailiff. 


A  strange  boy. 
A  strange  woman. 
Another  boy. 



The  infant  daughter  of  Dr.  Schiitz. 
A  bhnd  girl. 


The  fat  noble  lady  (Edelfrau). 
A  doctor  of  divinity. 


Summary  : 

'"Strange"  men  and  women,  i.e.,  Protestants,     28 

Citizens,  apparently  all  wealthy  people,  100 
Boys,  girls,  and  little  children,  34 

In  nineteen  months,  162  persons. 

"  There  were,"  says  Wright,  "  little  girls  of  from  seven  to  ten  years 
of  age  among  the  witches,  and  seven  and  twenty  of  them  were  convicted 
and  burnt,"  at  some  of  the  other  brdnde,  or  burnings.  "  The  number; 
brought  to  trial  in  these  terrible  proceedings  were  so  great,  and  they 
were  treated  with  so  little  consideration,  that  it  was  usual  not  even  to 
take  the  trouble  of  setting  down  their  names,  but  they  were  cited  as  the 
accused  No.  i.  No.  2,  No.  3,  and  so  on.*  The  Jesuits  took  their  con- 
fessions in  private." 

What  room  is  there  in  a  theology  which  exacts  such  holocausts  as  these 
to  appease  the  bloody  appetites  of  its  priests  for  the  following  gentle 
words  : 

"  Suffer  the  little  children  to  come  unto  me,  and  forbid  them  not ;  for 
of  such  is  the  kingdom  of  Heaven."  "  Even  so  it  is  not  the  will  of  your 
Father  .  .  .  that  one  of  these  little  ones  should  perish."  "But  whoso 
shall  offend  one  of  these  little  ones  which  believe  in  me,  it  were  better 
for  him  that  a  millstone  were  hanged  about  his  neck  and  that  he  were 
drowned  in  the  depths  of  the  sea." 

We  sincerely  hope  that  the  above  words  have  proved  no  vain  threat 
to  these  child-burners. 

Did  this  butchery  in  the  name  of  their  Moloch-god  prevent  these 
treasure-hunters  from  resorting  to  the  black  art  themselves  ?  Not  in  the 
least ;  for  in  no  class  were  such  consulters  of  "  familiar  "  spirits  more 
numerous  than  among  the  clergy  during  the  fifteenth,  sixteenth,  and 
seventeenth  centuries.  True,  there  were  some  Catholic  priests  among 
the  victims,  but  though  these   were   generally  accused  of  having   "  been 

*  "  Sorcery  and  Magic  ;  "   "  The  Burnings  at  Wiirtzburg,"  p.  186. 



led  into  practices  too  dreadful  to  be  described,"  it  was  not  so.  In  the 
twenty-nine  burnings  above  catalogued  we  find  the  names  of  twelve 
vicars,  four  canons,  and  two  doctors  of  divinity  burnt  alive.  But  we 
have  only  to  turn  to  such  works  as  were  published  at  the  time  to  assure 
ourselves  that  each  popish  priest  executed  was  accused  of  "  damnable 
heresy,"  i.e.,  a  tendency  to  reformation — a  crime  more  heinous  far  than 

We  refer  those  who  would  learn  how  the  Catholic  clergy  united  duty 
with  pleasure  in  the  matter  of  exorcisms,  revenge,  and  treasure-hunting, 
to  volume  II.,  chapter  i.,  of  W.  Howitt's  History  of  the  Supernatural. 
"  In  the  book  called  Pneumatologia  Occulta  et  Vera,  all  the  forms  of 
adjuration  and  conjuration  were  laid  down,"  says  this  veteran  writer. 
He  then  proceeds  to  give  a  long  description  of  the  favorite  modus 
operandi.  The  Dogme  et  Rituel  de  la  Haute  Magie  of  the  late  Eliphas 
Levi,  treated  with  so  much  abuse  and  contempt  by  des  Mousseaux, 
tells  nothing  of  the  weird  ceremonies  and  practices  but  what  was  prac- 
ticed legally  and  with  the  tacit  if  not  open  consent  of  the  Church,  by  the 
priests  of  the  middle  ages.  The  exorcist-priest  entered  a  circle  at  mid- 
night ;  he  was  clad  in  a  new  surplice,  and  had  a  consecrated  band  hanging 
from  the  neck,  covered  with  sacred  characters.  He  wore  on  the  head  a 
tall  pointed  cap,  on  the  front  of  which  was  written  in  Hebrew  the  holy 
word,  Tetragrammaton — the  ineffable  name.  It  was  written  with  a  new 
pen  dipped  in  the  blood  of  a  white  dove.  What  the  exorcists  most 
yearned  after,  was  to  release  miserable  spirits  which  haunt  spots  where 
hidden  treasures  lie.  The  exorcist  sprinkles  the  circle  with  the  blood 
of  a  black  lamb  and  a  white  pigeon.  The  priest  had  to  adjure  the  evil 
spirits  of  hell — Acheront,  Magoth,  Asmodei,  Beelzebub,  Belial,  and  all  the 
damned  souls,  in  the  mighty  names  of  Jehovah,  Adonay,  Elohah,  and 
Sabaioth,  which  latter  was  the  God  of  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  who 
dwelt  in  the  Uiim  and  Thuramim.  When  the  damned  souls  flung  in  the 
face  of  the  exorcist  that  he  was  a  sinner,  and  could  not  get  the  treasure 
from  them,  the  priest-sorcerer  had  to  reply  that  "  all  his  sins  were  washed 
out  in  the  blood  of  Christ,*  and  he  bid  them  depart  as  cursed  ghosts  and 
damned  flies."  When  the  exorcist  dislodged  them  at  last,  the  poor  soul 
was  "  comforted  in  the  name  of  the  Saviour,  and  consigned  to  the  care  of 
good  angels"  who  were  less  powerful,  we  must  think,  than  the  exorcising 
Catholic  worthies,  "  and  the  rescued  treasure,  of  course,  was  secured  for 
the  Church." 

"  Certain  days,"  adds  Howitt,  "  are  laid  down  in  the  calendar  of  the 

*  And  retinted  in  the  blood  of  the  millions  murdered  in  his  name — in  the  no  less 
innocent  blood  than  his  own,  of  the  little  c\iA&-witches  ! 


Church  as  most  favorable  for  the  practice  of  exorcism  ;  and,  if  the  devils 
are  difficult  to  drive,  a  fume  of  sulphur,  assafoetida,  bear's  gall,  and  rue  is 
recommended,  which,  it  was  presumed,  would  outstench  even  devils." 

This  is  the  Church,  and  this  the  priesthood,  which,  in  the  nineteenth 
century,  pays  5,000  priests  to  teach  the  people  of  the  United  States  the 
infidelity  of  science  and  the  infallibility  of  the  Bishop  of  Rome  ! 

We  have  already  noticed  the  confession  of  an  eminent  prelate 
that  the  elimination  of  Satan  from  theology  would  be  fatal  to  the  per- 
petuity of  the  Church.  But  this  is  only  partially  true.  The  Prince  of 
Sin  would  be  gone,  but  sin  itself  would  survive.  If  the  Devil  were 
annihilated,  the  Articles  of  Faith  and  the  Bible  would  remain.  In  short 
there  would  still  be  a  pretended  divine  revelation,  and  the  necessity  for 
self-assumed  inspired  interpreters.  We  must,  therefore,  consider  the 
authenticity  of  the  Bible  itself  We  must  study  its  pages,  and  see  if 
they,  indeed,  contain  the  commands  of  the  Deity,  or  but  a  compendium 
of  ancient  traditions  and  hoary  myths.  We  must  try  to  interpret  them 
for  ourselves — if  possible.  As  to  its  pretended  interpreters,  the  only 
possible  assimilation  we  can  find  for  them  in  the  Bible  is  to  compare 
them  with  the  man  described  by  the  wise  King  Solomon  in  his  Proverbs, 
with  the  perpetrator  of  these  "  six  things  .  .  .  yea  seven  .  .  .  which 
doth  the  Lord  hate,"  and  which  are  an  abomination  unto  Him,  to  wit : 
"  A  proud  look,  a  lying  tongue,  and  hands  that  shed  innocent  blood ; 
an  heart  that  deviseth  wicked  imaginations,  feet  that  be  swift  in  run- 
ning to  mischief;  a  false  ivitness  that  speaketh  lies,  and  he  that  soweth 
discord  among  brethren"   [Proverbs  y'\.  16,  17,  18,  19). 

Of  which  of  these  accusations  are  the  long  line  of  men  who  have  left 
the  imprint  of  their  feet  in  the  Vatican  guiltless  ? 

"  When  the  demons,"  says  Augustine,  "  insinuate  themselves  in  the 
creatures,  they  begin  by  conforming  themselves  to  the  will  of  every  one. 
...  In  order  to  attract  men,  they  begin  by  seducing  them,  by  simula- 
ting obedience.  .  .  .  How  could  one  know,  had  he  not  been  taught  by  the 
demons  themselves,  what  they  like  or  what  they  hate  ;  the  name  which  at- 
tracts, or  that  which  forces  them  into  obedience  ;  all  this  art,  in  short,  of 
magic,  the  whole  science  of  the  magicians  ?  "  * 

To  this  impressive  dissertation  of  the  "  saint,"  we  will  add  that  no 
magician  has  ever  denied  that  he  had'  learned  the  art  from  "  spirits," 
whether,  being  a  medium,  they  acted  independently  on  him,  or  he  had 
been  initiated  into  the  science  of  "  evocation  "  by  his  fathers  who  knew 
it  before  himself.  But  who  was  it  then  that  taught  the  exorcist  ?  The  priest 

*  St.  Augustine :  "  City  of  God,"  i,  xxi.,  ch.  vi.  ;  des  Mousseaux  :  "  Moeuis  et  Pra- 
tiques des  Demons." 


who  clothes  himself  with  an  authority  not  only  over  the  magician,  but 
even  over  all  these  "  spirits,"  whom  he  calls  demons  and  devils  as  soon 
as  he  finds  them  obeying  any  one  but  himself?  He  must  have  learned 
somewhere  from  some  one  that  power  which  he  pretends  to  possess. 
P'or,  "...  how  could  one  know  had  he  not  been  taught  by  the  demons  them- 
selves .  .  .  the  name  which  attracts,  or  that  which  forces  them  into  obedi- 
ence 1 "  asks  Augustine. 

Useless  to  remark  that  we  know  the  answer  beforehand  :  "  Revela- 
tion .  .  .  divine  gift  .  .  .  the  Son  of  God ;  nay,  God  Himself,  through 
His  direct  Spirit,  who  descended  on  the  apostles  as  the  Pentecostal  fire, 
and  who  is  now  alleged  to  overshadow  every  priest  who  sees  fit  to  ex- 
orcise for  either  glory  or  a  gift.  Are  we  then  to  believe  that  the  recent 
scandal  of  public  exorcism,  performed  about  the  14th  of  October,  1876, 
by  the  senior  priest  of  the  Church  -of  the  Holy  Spirit,  at  Barcelona,  Spain, 
was  also  done   under  the   direct  superintendence  of  the   Holy  Ghost  ?  * 

*  A  correspondent  of  the  London  "  Times"  describes  the  Catalonian  exorcist  in  the 
following  lines  : 

"  About  the  14th  of  October  it  was  privately  announced  that  a  young  woman  of 
seventeen  or  eighteen  years  of  age,  of  the  lower  class,  having  long  been  afflicted  with 
'  a  hatred  of  holy  things,'  the  senior  priest  of  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Spirit  would  cure 
her  of  her  disease.  The  exhibition  was  to  be  held  in  a  church  frequented  by  the  best 
part  of  the  community.  The  church  was  dark,  but  a  sickly  light  was  shed  by  wax 
lights  on  the  sable  forms  of  some  eighty  or  a  hundred  persons  who  clustered  round  the 
presbyterio,  or  sanctuary,  in  front  of  the  altar.  Within  the  little  enclosure  or  sanc- 
tuary, separated  from  the  crowd  by  a  light  railnig,  lay,  on  a  common  bench,  with  a  little 
pillow  for  her  head  to  recline  upon,  a  poorly-clad  girl,  probably  of  the  peasant  or  ar- 
tisan class  ;  her  brother  or  husband  stood  at  her  feet  to  restrain  her  (at  times)  frantic 
kicking  by  holding  her  legs.  The  door  of  the  vestry  opened  ;  t!ie  exhibitor — I  mean 
the  priest — came  in.  The  poor  girl,  not  without  just  reason,  'had  an  aversion  to  holy 
things,'  or.  at  least,  the  400  devils  within  her  distorted  body  had  such  an  aversion,  and 
in  the  confusion  of  the  moment,  thinking  that  the  father  was  '  a  holy  thing,'  she  doubled 
up  her  legs,  screamed  out  with  twitching  mouth,  her  whole  body  writhing,  and  threw  her- 
self nearly  off  the  bench.  The  male  attendant  seized  her  legs,  the  women  supported  her 
head  and  swept  out  her  dishevelled  hair.  The  priest  advanced  and,  mingling  familiarly 
with  the  shuddering  and  horror-struck  crowd,  said,  pointing  at  the  suffering  child, 
now  sobbing  and  twitching  on  the  bench,  '  Promise  me,  my  children,  that  you  will  be 
prudent  (priidentcs),  and  of  a  truth,  sons  and  daughters  mine,  you  shall  see  marvels.' 
The  promise  was  given.  The  exhibitor  went  to  procure  stole  and  short  surplice  (esiola 
y  roquete),  and  returned  in  a  moment,  taking  his  stand  at  the  side  of  the  '  possessed 
with  the  devils,'  with  his  face  toward  the  group  of  students.  The  order  of  the  day's 
proceedings  was  a  lecture  to  the  bystanders,  and  the  operation  of  exorcising  the  devils. 
'You  know,'  said  the  priest,  '  that  so  great  is  this  girl's  aversion  to  holy  things,  myself 
included,  that  she  goes  into  convulsions,  kicks,  screams,  and  distorts  her  body  the  mo- 
ment she  arrives  at  the  corner  of  this  street,  and  her  convulsive  struggles  reach  their 
climax  when  she  enters  the  sacred  house  of  the  Most  High.'  Turning  to  the  prostrate 
shudderiiig,  most  unhappy  object  of  his  attaA,  the  priest  commenced:  '  In  the  name  of 


It  will  be  urged  that  the  "  bishop  was  not  cognizant  of  this  freak  of  the 
clergy ;  "  but  even  if  he  were,  how  could  he  have  protested  against  a  rite 
considered  since  the  days  of  the  apostles,  one  of  the  most  hofy  preroga- 
tives of  the  Church  of  Rome  ?  So  late  as  in  1852,  only  twenty-five 
years  ago,  these  rites  received  a  public  and  solemn  sanction  from  the 
Vatican,  and  a  new  Ritual  of  Exorcism  was  published  in  Rome,  Paris, 
and  other  Catholic  capitals.  Des  Mousseaux,  writing  under  the  imme- 
diate patronage  of  Father  Ventura,  the  General  of  the  Theatines  of 
Rome,  even  favors  us  with  lengthy  extracts  from  this  famous  ritual,  and 
explains  the  reason  why  it  was  enforced  again.  It  was  in  consequence 
of  the  revival  of  Magic  under  the  name  of  Modern  Spiritualism.  The 
bull  of  Pope  Innocent  VIII.  is  exhumed,  and  translated  for  the  benefit 
of  des  Mousseaux's  readers.  "We  have  heard,"  exclaims  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff,  "  that  a  great  number  of  persons  of  both  sexes  have  feared  not  to 
enter  into  relations  with  the  spirits  of  hell ;  and  that,  by  their  practice  of 
sorcery  .  .  .  they  strike  with  sterility  the  conjugal  bed,  destroy  the  germs 
of  humanity  in  the  bosom  of  the  mother,  and  throw  spells  on  them,  and 
set  a  barrier  to  the  multiplication  of  animals  .  .  .  etc.,  etc.;"  then  fol- 
low curses  and  anathemas  against  the  practice. 

This  belief  of  the  Sovereign  Pontiffs  of  an  enlightened  Christian  coun- 
try is  a  direct  inheritance  by  the  most  ignorant  multitudes  from  the  southern 
Hindu  rabble — the  "heathen."  The  diabolical  arts  of  certain  kangalins 
(witches)  and  jadugar  (sorcerers)  are  firmly  believed  in  by  these  people. 
The  following  are  among  their  most  dreaded  powers  :  to  inspire  love  and 
hatred  at  will ;  to  send  a  devil  to  take  possession  of  a  person  and  torture 

God,  of  the  saints,  of  the  blessed  Host,  of  every  holy  sacrament  of  our  Church,  I  adjure 
thee,  Rusbel,  come  out  of  her.'  (N.  B.  '  Rusbel '  is  the  name  of  a  devil,  the  devil  having 
257  names  in  Catalonia.)  Thus  adjured,  the  girl  threw  herself — in  an  agony  of  convul- 
sion, till  her  distorted  face,  foam-bespattered  lips  and  writhing  limbs  grew  well-nigh 
stiff — at  full  length  upon  the  floor,  and,  in  language  semi-obscene,  semi-violent,  screamed 
out,  'I  don't  choose  to  come  out,  you  thieves,  scamps,  robbers.'  At  last,  from  the 
quivering  lips  of  the  girl,  came  the  words,  '  I  will ; '  but  the  devil  added,  with  tra- 
ditional perversity,  '  I  will  cast  the  100  out,  but  by  the  mouth  of  the  girl.'  The  priest 
objected.  The  exit,  he  said,  of  ichd  devils  out  of  the  small  Spanisli  mouth  of  the  woman 
would  Meave  her  suffocated.'  Then  the  maddened  girl  said  she  must  undress  herself 
for  the  devils  to  escape.  This  petition  the  holy  father  refused,  *  Then  I  will  come 
out  through  the  right  foot,  but  first ' — the  girl  had  on  a  hempen  sand-al,  she  was  ob- 
viously of  the  poorest  class — '  you  must  take  off  her  sandal.'  Tlie  sandal  was  untied  ; 
the  foot  gave  a  convulsive  plunge  ;  the  devil  and  his  myrmidons  (so  the  cura  said, 
looking  round  triumphantly)  had  gone  to  their  own  place.  And,  assuied  of  this,  the 
wretched  dupe  of  a  girl  lay  quite  still.  The  bishop  was  not  cognizant  of  this  freak  of 
the  clergy,  and  the  moment  it  came  to  the  ears  of  the  civil  authorities,  the  sharpest 
means  were  taken  to  prevent  a  repetition  of  the  scandal." 


him ;  to  expel  him  ;  to  cause  sudden  death  or  an  incurable  disease ;  to 
either  strike  cattle  with  or  protect  them  from  epidemics  ;  to  compose 
philtres  that  will  either  strike  with  sterility  or  provoke  unbounded  pas- 
sions iii  men  and  women,  etc.,  etc.  The  sight  alone  of  a  man  said  to  be 
such  a  sorcerer  excites  in  a  Hindu  profound  terror. 

And  now  we  will  quote  in  this  connection  the  truthful  remark  of  a 
writer  who  passed  years  in  India  in  the  study  of  the  origin  of  such  super- 
stitions :  "  Vulgar  magic  in  India,  like  a  degenerated  infiltration,  goes 
hand-in-hand  with  the  most  ennobling  beliefs  of  the  sectarians  of  the 
Pit r is.  It  was  the  work  of  the  lowest  clergy,  and  designed  to  hold  the 
populace  in  a  perpetual  state  of  fear.  It  is  thus  that  in  all  ages  and 
under  every  latitude,  side  by  side  with  philosophical  speculations  of  the 
highest  character,  one  always  finds  the  religion  of  the  rabble."  *  In 
India  it  was  the  work  of  the  lowest  clergy  ;  in  Rome,  that  of  the  highest 
Pontiffs.  But  then,  have  they  not  as  authority  their  greatest  saint, 
Augustine,  who  declares  that  "  whoever  believes  not  in  the  evil  spirits, 
refuses  to  believe  in  Holy  Writ  ?  "  f 

Therefore,  in  the  second  half  of  the  nineteenth  century,  we  find  the 
counsel  for  the  Sacred  Congregation  of  Rites  (exorcism  of  demons  in- 
cluded). Father  Ventura  de  Raulica,  writing  thus,  in  a  letter  published 
by  des  Mousseaux,  in  1865  : 

"  We  are  in  full  magic!  and  under  false  names  ;  the  Spirit  of  lies  and  impudicity 
goes  on  perpetrating  his  horrible  deprecations.  .  .  .  The  most  grievous  feature  in  this 
is  that  among  the  most  serious  persons  they  do  not  attach  the  importance  to  the  strange 
phenomena  which  they  deserve,  these  manifestations  that  we  witness,  and  which  become 
with  every  day  more  weird,  striking,  as  well  as  most  fatal. 

"  I  cannot  sufficiently  admire  and  praise,  from  this  standpoint,  the  zeal  and  courage 
displayed  by  you  in  your  work.  The  facts  which  you  have  collected  are  calculated  to 
throw  light  and  conviction  into  the  most  skeptical  minds ;  and  after  reading  this  remark- 
able work,  written  with  so  much  learnedness  and  consciousness,  blindness  is  no  longer 

"  If  anything  could  surprise  us,  it  would  be  the  indifference  with  which  these  phe- 
nomena have  been  treated  by  false  .Science,  endeavoring,  as  she  has,  to  turn  into  ridicule 
so  grave  a  subject ;  the  childish  simplicity  exhibited  by  her  in  the  desire  to  explain  the 
facts  by  absurd  and  contradictory  hypotheses.   .   .   .   \ 

[Signed]      "  The  Father  Ventura  de  Raulica,  etc.,  etc. 

Thus  encouraged  by  the  greatest  authorities  of  the  Church  of  Rome, 
ancient  and  modern,  the  Chevalier  argues  the  necessity  and  the  efficacy  of 
exorcism  by  the  priests.     He  tries  to  demonstrate — on  faith,  as  usual 

*  Louis  JacoUiot :   "  Le  Spiritisme  dans  le  Monde,"  p.  162. 

f  St.  Augustine  ;   "  City  of  God." 

X  "  Moeurs  et  Pratiques  de?  Demons,"  p.  ii. 


that  the  power  of  the  spirits  of  hell  is  closely  related  to  certain  rites, 
words,  and  formal  signs.  "  In  the  diabolical  Catholicism,"  he  says, 
"as  well  as  in  the  divine  Catholicism,  potential  grace  is  bound  (iiee)  to 
certain  signs."  While  the  power  of  the  Catholic  priest  proceeds  from 
God,  that  of  the  Pagan  priest  proceeds  from  the  Devil.  The  Devil,  he 
adds,  "is  forced  to  submission"  before  the  holy  minister  of  God — •' ke 
dares  nnt  i.te."  * 

We  beg  the  reader  to  note  well  the  underlined  sentence,  as  we 
mean  to  test  its  truth  impartially.  We  are  prepared  to  adduce  proofs, 
undeniable  and  undenied  even  by  the  Popish  Church — forced,  as  she 
was,  into  the  confession — proofs  of  hundreds  of  cases  in  relation  to  the 
most  solemn  of  her  dogmas,  wherein  the  "  spirits  "  lied  from  beginning 
to  end.  How  about  certain  holy  relics  authenticated  by  visions  of  the 
blessed  Virgin,  and  a  host  of  saints  ?  We  have  at  hand  a  treatise  by  a 
pious  Catholic,  Jilbert  de  Nogen,  on  the  relics  of  saints.  With  honest 
despair  he  acknowledges  the  "great  number  of  false  relics,  as  well  as  - 
false  legends,"  and  severely  censures  the  inventors  of  these  lying  mira- 
cles. "  It  was  on  the  occasion  of  one  of  our  Saviour's  teeth,"  writes  the 
author  of  Demonologia,  "  that  de  Nogen  took  up  his  pen  on  this  subject, 
by  which  the  monks  of  St.  Medard  de  Soissons  pretended  to  work  mira- 
cles ;  a  pretension  which  he  asserted  to  be  as  chimerical  as  that  of  several 
persons  who  believed  they  possessed  the  navel,  and  other  parts  less 
comely,  of  the  body  of  Christ."  f 

"A  monk  of  St.  Antony,"  says  Stephens,  J  "having  been  at  Jerusa- 
lem, saw  there  several  relics,  among  which  was  a  bit  of  the  finger  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  as  sound  and  entire  as  it  had  ever  been  ;  the  snout  of  the 
seraph  that  appeared  to  St.  Francis ;  one  of  the  nails  of  a  cherub ; 
one  of  the  ribs  of  the  Verbum  caro  factum  (the  Word  made  flesh)  ;  some 
rays  of  the  star  that  appeared  to  the  three  kings  of  the  East ;  a  phial  of 
St.  Michael's  sweat,  that  exuded  when  he  was  fighting  against  the  Devil, 
etc.  '  All  which  things,'  observes  the  monkish  treasurer  of  relics,  '  I  have 
brought  with  me  home  very  devoutly.'  " 

And  if  the  foregoing  is  set  aside  as  the  invention  of  a  Protestant  enemy, 
may  we  not  be  allowed  to  refer  the  reader  to  the  History  of  England  and 
authentic  documents  which  state  the  existence  of  a  relic  not  less  extraor- 
dinary than  the  best  of  the  others  ?  Henry  III.  received  from  the  Grand 
Master  of  the  Templars  a  phial  containing  a  small  portion  of  the  sacred 
blood  of  Christ  which  he  had  shed  upon  the  cross.  It  was  attested  to  be 
genuine  by  the  seals  of  the  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  and  others.     The 

*  Des  Mousseaux  :   "Table des  Matieres." 

f  "Demonologia  ;  "   London,  1S27,  J.  Bumpus,  23  Skinner  Street. 

\  "  Traite  Preparatif  a  I'Apologie  pour  Herodote,"  c.  39. 


procession  bearing  the  sacred  phial  from  St.  Paul's  to  Westminster  Abbey 
is  described  by  the  historian:  "Two  monks  received  the  phial,  and 
deposited  it  in  the  Abbey  .  .  .  which  made  all  England  shine  with  glory, 
dedicating  it  to  God  and  St.  Edward." 

The  story  of  the  Prince  Radzivil  is  well  known.  It  was  the  undenia- 
ble decepdon  of  the  monks  and  nuns  surrounding  him  and  his  own 
confessor  which  made  the  Polish  nobleman  become  a  Lutheran.  He  felt 
at  first  so  indignant  at  the  "  heresy "  of  the  Reformation  spreading  in 
Lithuania,  that  he  travelled  all  the  way  to  Rome  to  pay  his  homage  of 
sympathy  and  veneration  to  the  Pope.  The  latter  presented  him  with  a 
precious  box  of  relics.  On  his  return  home,  his  confessor  saw  the  Virgin, 
who  descended  from  her  glorious  abode  for  the  sole  purpose  of  blessing 
these  relics  and  authenticating  them.  The  superior  of  the  neighboring 
convent  and  the  mother-abbess  of  a  nunnery  both  saw  the  same  vision, 
with  a  reenforcement  of  several  saints  and  martyrs  ;  they  prophesied  and 
"felt  the  Holy  Ghost"  ascending  from  the  box  of  relics  and  overshadow- 
ing the  prince.  A  demoniac  provided  for  the  purpose  by  the  clergy  was 
exorcised  in  full  ceremony,  and  upon  being  touched  by  the  box  immedi- 
ately recovered,  and  rendered  thanks  on  the  spot  to  the  Pope  and  the 
Holy  Ghost.  After  the  ceremony  was  over  the  guardian  of  the  treasury 
in  which  the  relics  were  kept,  threw  himself  at  the  feet  of  the  prince,  and 
confessed  that  on  their  way  back  from  Rome  he  had  lost  the  box  of  relics. 
Dreading  the  wrath  of  his  master,  he  had  procured  a  similar  box,  "which 
he  had  filled  with  the  small  bones  of  dogs  and  cats ;"  but  seeing  how  the 
prince  was  deceived,  he  preferred  confessing  his  guilt  to  such  blasphemous 
tricks.  The  prince  said  nothing,  but  continued  for  some  time  testing — 
not  the  relics,  but  his  confessor  and  the  vision-seers.  Their  mock  raptures 
made  him  discover  so  thoroughly  the  gross  impositions  of  the  monks  and 
nuns  that  he  joined  the  Reformed  Church. 

This  is  history.  Bayle  shows  that  when  the  Roman  Church  is  no 
longer  able  to  deny  that  there  have  been  false  rehcs,  she  resorts  to  soph- 
istry, and  replies  that  if  false  rehcs  have  wrought  miracles  it  is  "  because 
of  the  good  intentions  of  the  believers,  who  thus  obtained  from  God  a 
reward  of  their  good  faith  !  "  The  same  Bayle  shows,  by  numerous  in- 
stances, that  whenever  it  was  proved  that  several  bodies  of  the  same  saint, 
or  three  heads  of  him,  or  three  arms  (as  in  the  case  of  Augustine)  were  said 
to  exist  in  different  places,  and  that  they  could  not  well  be  all  authentic, 
the  cool  and  invariable  answer  of  the  Church  was  that  they  were  all 
genuine  ;  for  "  God  had  multiplied  and  miraculously  reproduced  them 
for  the  greater  glory  of  His  Holy  Church !  "  In  other  words  they  would 
have  the  faithful  believe  that  the  body  of  a  deceased  saint  may,  through 
divine  miracle,  acquire  the  physiological  peculiarities  of  a  crawfish  ! 


We  fancy  that  it  would  be  hard  to  demonstrate  to  satisfaction  that  the 
visions  of  Catholic  saints,  are,  in  any  one  particular  instance,  better  or 
more  trustworthy  than  the  average  visions  and  prophecies  of  ouf  modern 
"  mediums."  The  visions  of  Andrew  Jackson  Davis — however  our  critics 
may  sneer  at  them — are  by  long  odds  more  philosophical  and  more  com- 
patible with  modern  science  than  the  Augustinian  speculations.  When- 
ever the  visions  of  Swedenborg,  the  greatest  among  the  modern  seers, 
run  astray  from  philosophy  and  scientific  truth^  it  is  when  they  most  run 
parallel  with  theology.  Nor  are  these  visions  any  more  useless  to  either 
science  or  humanity  than  those  of  the  great  orthodox  saints.  In  the  life 
of  St.  Bernard  it  is  narrated  that  as  he  was  once  in  church,  upon  a  Christ- 
mas eve,  he  prayed  that  the  very  hour  in  which  Christ  was  born  might  be 
revealed  to  him  ;  and  when  the  "  true  and  correct  hour  came,  he  saw  the 
divine  babe  appear  in  his  manger."  What  a  pity  that  the  divine  babe  did 
not  embrace  so  favorable  an  opportunity  to  fix  the  correct  day  and  year 
of  his  death,  and  thereby  reconcile  the  controversies  of  his  putative 
historians.  The  Tischendorfs,  Lardners,  and  Colensos,  as  well  as  many 
a  Catholic  divine,  who  have  vainly  squeezed  the  marrow  out  of  historical 
records  and  their  own  brains,  in  the  useless  search,  would  at  least  have 
had  something  for  which  to  thank  the  saint. 

As  it  is,  we  are  hopelessly  left  to  infer  that  most  of  the  beatific  and 
divine  visions  of  the  Golden  Legend,  and  those  to  be  found  in  the  more 
complete  biographies  of  the  most  important  "  saints,"  as  well  as  most 
of  the  visions  of  our  own  persecuted  seers  and  seeresses,  were  produced 
by  ignorant  and  undeveloped  "  spirits  "  passionately  fond  of  personating 
great  historical  characters.  We  are  quite  ready  to  agree  with  the  Chev- 
alier des  Mousseaux,  and  other  unrelenting  persecutors  of  magic  and  spir- 
itualism in  the  name  of  the  Church,  that  modern  spirits  are  often  "  lying 
spirits  ; "  that  they  are  ever  on  hand  to  humor  the  respective  hobbies  of 
the  persons  who  communicate  with  them  at  "  circles ;  "  that  they  deceive 
them  and,  therefore,  are  not  always  good  "  spirits." 

But,  having  conceded  so  much,  we  will  now  ask  of  any  impartial 
person  :  is  it  possible  to  believe  at  the  same  time  that  the  power  given 
to  the  exorcist-priest,  that  supreme  and  divine  power  of  which  he  boasts, 
has  been  given  to  him  by  God  for  the  purpose  of  deceiving  people  ? 
That  the  prayer  pronounced  by  him  in  the  name  of  Christ,  and  which, 
forcing  the  demon  into  submission,  makes  him  reveal  himself,  is  calculated 
at  the  same  time  to  make  the  devil  confess  not  the  truth,  but  that  only 
which  it  is  the  interest  of  the  church  to  which  the  exorcist  belongs,  should 
pass  for  truth  1  And  this  is  what  invariably  happens.  Compare,  for 
instance,  the  responses  given  by  the  demon  to  Luther,  with  those 
obtained  from  the  devils  by  St.  Dominick.     The  one  argues  against  the 


private  mass,  and  upbraids  Luther  with  placing  the  Virgin  Mary  and 
saints  before  Christ,  and  thus  dishonoring  the  Son  of  God  ;  *  wiiile  the 
demons  exorcised  by  St.  Dominick,  upon  seeing  the  Virgin  whom  the 
holy  father  had  also  evoked  to  help  him,  roar  out  :  "  Oh  !  our  enemy ! 
oh  !  our  damner  !  .  .  .  why  didst  thou  descend  from  heaven  to  torment  us  ? 
Why  art  thou  so  powerful  an  intercessor  for  sinners  !  Oh  !  thou  most 
certain  and  secure  way  to  heaven  .  .  .  thou  commandest  us  and  we  are 
forced  to  confess  that  nobody  is  damned  'who  only  perseveres  in  thy  holy 
worship,  etc.,  etc."f  Luther's  "  Saint  Satan  "  assures  him  that  while 
believing  in  the  transubstantiation  of  Christ's  body  and  blood  he  had 
been  worshipping  merely  bread  and  wine  ;  and  the  devils  of  all  the 
Catholic  saints  promise  eternal  damnation  to  whomsoever  disbelieves  or 
even  so  much  as  doubts  the  dogma  ! 

Before  leaving  the  subject,  let  us  give  one  or  two  more  instances  from 
the  Chronicles  of  the  Lives  of  the  Saints,  selected  from  such  narratives 
as  are  fully  accepted  by  the  Church.  We  might  fill  volumes  with  proofs 
of  undeniable  confederacy  between  the  exorcisers  and  the  demons.  Their 
very  nature  betrays  them.  Instead  of  being  independent,  crafty  entities, 
bent  on  the  destruction  of  men's  souls  and  spirits,  the  majority  of  them 
are  simply  the  elementals  of  the  kabalists  ;  creatures  with  no  intellect 
of  their  own,  but  faithful  mirrors  of  the  will  which  evokes,  controls,  and 
guides  them.  We  will  not  waste  our  time  in  drawing  the  reader's  atten- 
tion to  doubtful  or  obscure  thaumaturgists  and  exorcisers,  but  take  as 
our  standard  one  of  the  greatest  saints  of  Catholicism,  and  select  a  bou- 
quet from  that  same  prolific  conservatory  of  pious  lies,  The  Golden 
Legend,  of  James  de  Veragine.  J 

St.  Dominick,  the  founder  of  the  famous  order  of  that  name,  is  one  of 
the  mightiest  saints  on  the  calendar.  His  order  was  the  first  that  received 
a  solemn  confirmation  from  the  Pope,§  and  he  is  well  known  in  history 
as  the  associate  and  counsellor  of  the  infamous  Simon  de  Montford,  the 
papal  general,  whom  he  helped  to  butcher  the  unfortunate  Albigenses  in 
and  near  Toulouse.  The  story  goes  that  this  saint  and  the  Church  after 
him,  claim  that  he  received  from  the  Virgin,  in  propria  persona,  a  rosary, 
whose  virtues  produced  such  stupendous  miracles  that  they  throw  entirely 
into  the  shade  those  of  the  apostles,  and  even  of  Jesus  himself.  A  man, 
says  the  biographer,  an  abandoned  sinner,  was  bold  enough  to  doubt  the 

*  De  Missa  Privata  et  Unctione  Sacerdotum. 

f  See  the  "Life  of  St.  Dominick  "  and  the  story  about  the  miraculous  Rosary; 
also  the  "  Golden  Legend." 

%  James  de  Varasse,  known  by  the  Latin  name  of  James  de  Veragine,  was  Vicar- 
General  of  the  Dominicans  and  Bishop  of  Genoa  in  1290. 

g  Thirteenth  century. 

dominick's  dialogue  with  the  devils.  75 

virtue  of  the  Dominican  rosary  ;  and  for  this  unparalleled  blasphemy  was 
punished  on  the  spot  by  having  15,000  devils  take  possession  of  him. 
Seeing  the  great  suffering  of  the  tortured  demoniac,  St.  Dominifck  forgot 
the  insult  and  called  the  devils  to  account. 

Following  is  the  colloquy  between  the  "  blessed  exorcist "  and  the 
demons : 

Question. — How  did  you  take  possession  of  this  man,  and  how  many 
are  you  ? 

Annc'cr  of  the  Devils. — We  came  into  luui  for  having  spoken  disre- 
spectfully of  the  rosary.     We  are  15,000. 

Question. — Why  did  so  many  as  15,000  enter  him  ? 

Answer. — Because  there  are  fifteen  decades  in  the  rosary  which  he 
derided,  etc. 

Dominick. — Is  not  all  true  I  have  said  of  the  virtues  of  the  rosary  ? 

Devils. — Yes  !  Yes  !  (they  emit  flames  through  the  nostrils  of  the 
demoniac).  Know  all  ye  Christians  that  Dominick  never  said  one  word 
concerning  the  rosary  that  is  not  most  true  ;  and  know  ye  further,  that 
if  you  do  not  believe  him,  great  calamities  will  befall  you. 

Dominick. — Who  is  the  man  in  the  world  the  Devil  hates  the  most  ? 

Devils. — (//z  chorus.)  Thou  art  the  very  man  (here  follow  verbose 

Dominick. — Of  which  state  of  Christians  are  there  the  most  damned? 

Devils. — In  hell  we  have  merchants,  pawnbrokers,  fraudulent  bankers, 
grocers,  Jews,  apothecaries,  etc.,  etc. 

Dominick. — Are  there  any  priests  or  monks  in  hell  ? 

Devils. — There  are  a  great  number  of  priests,  but  no  monks,  with  the 
exception  of  such  as  have  transgressed  the  rule  of  their  order. 

Dominick. — Have  you  any  Dominicans  ? 

Devils. — Alas  !  alas  !  we  have  not  one  yet,  but  we  expect  a  great 
number  of  them  after  their  devotion  is  a  little  cooled. 

We  do  not  pretend  to  give  the  questions  and  answers  literally,  for 
they  occupy  twenty-three  pages  ;  but  the  substance  is  here,  as  may  be 
seen  by  any  one  who  cares  to  read  the  Golden  Legend.  The  full  descrip- 
tion of  the  hideous  bellowings  of  the  demons,  their  enforced  glorification 
of  the  saint,  and  so  on,  is  too  long  for  this  chapter.  Suffice  it  to  say 
that  as  we  read  the  numerous  questions  offered  by  Dominick  and  the 
answers  of  the  demons,  we  become  fully  convinced  that  they  corroborate 
in  every  detail  the  unwarranted  assertions  and  support  the  interests  of 
the  Church.  The  narrative  is  suggestive.  The  legend  graphically 
describes  the  battle  of  the  exorcist  with  the  legion  from  the  bottomless 
pit.  The  sulphurous  flames  which  burst  forth  from  the  nose,  mouth, 
eyes,  and  ears,  of  the  demoniac  ;  the  sudden  appearance  of  over  a  hun- 


dred  angels,  clad  in  golden  armor  ;  and,  finally,  the  descent  of  the  blessed 
Virgin  herself,  in  person,  bearing  a  golden  rod,  with  which  she  adminis- 
ters a  sound  thrashing  to  the  demoniac,  to  force  the  devils  to  confess  that 
of  herself  which  we  s-carcely  need  repeat.  The  whole  catalogue  of  theo- 
logical' truths  uttered  by  Dominick's  devils  were  embodied  in  so  many 
articles  of  faith  by  his  Holiness,  the  present  Pope,  in  1870,  at  the  last 
CEcumenical  Council. 

From  the  foregoing  it  is  easy  to  see  that  the  only  substantial  differ- 
ence between  infidel  "mediums"  and  orthodox  saints  lies  in  the  relative 
usefulness  of  the  demons,  if  demons  we  must  call  them.  While  the  Devil 
faithfully  supports  the  Christian  exorcist  in  his  orthodox  (?)  views,  the 
modern  spook  generally  leaves  his  medium  in  the  lurch.  For,  by  lying, 
he  acts  against  his  or  her  interests  rather  than  otherwise,  and  thereby 
too  often  casts  foul  suspicion  on  the  genuineness  of  the  mediumship. 
Were  niodern  "  spirits"  devils,  they  would  evidently  display  a  little  more 
discrimination  and  cunning  than  they  do.  They  would  act  as  the  demons 
of  the  saint  which,  compelled  by  the  ecclesiastical  magician  and  by  the 
power  of  "  the  name  .  .  .  which  forces  them  into  submission,"  lie  in 
accordance  with  the  direct  interest  of  the  exorcist  and  his  church.  The 
moral  of  the  parallel  we  leave  to  the  sagacity  of  the  reader. 

"  Observe  well,"  exclaims  des  Mousseaux,  "  that  there  are  demons 
which  sometimes  will  speak  the  truth."  "  The  exorcist,"  he  adds,  quoting 
the  7?z/«t7/,  "must  command  the  demon  to  tell  him  whether  he  is  de- 
tained in  the  body  of  the  demoniac  through  some  magic  art,  or  by  signs, 
or  any  objects  which  usually  serve  for  this  evil  practice.  In  case  the 
exorcised  person  has  swallowed  the  latter,  he  must  vomit  them  back  ; 
and  if  they  are  not  in  his  body,  the  demon  must  indicate  the  proper  place 
where  they  are  to  be  found  ;  and  having  found  them  they  must  be 
burned."  *  Thus  some  demons  reveal  the  existence  of  the  bewitchment, 
tell  who  is  its  author,  and  indicate  the  means  to  destroy  the  malefice. 
But  beware  to  ever  resort,  in  such  a  case,  to  magicians,  sorcerers,  or 
mediums.  You  must  call  to  help  you  but  the  minister  of  your  Church  !" 
"The  Church  beheves  in  magic,  as  you  well  see,"  he  adds,  "  since  she 
expresses  it  so  formally.  And  those  who  disbelieve  in  magic,  can  they 
still  hope  to  share  the  faith  of  their  own  Church  ?  And  who  can  teach 
them  better?  To  whom  did  Christ  say  :  '  Go  ye  therefore,  and  teach  all 
nations  .  .  .  and  lo,  I  am  with  you  always,  even  to  the  end  of  the 
world  ?  '  "  t 

Are  we  to  believe  that  he  said  this  but  to  those  who  wear  these  black 

*  "Rituale  Romanum,"  pp.  475-478.    Parisiis,  1852. 
f  "  Moeurs  et  Pratiques  des  Demons,"  p.  177. 


or  scarlet  liveries  of  Rome  ?  Must  we  then  credit  the  story  that  this 
power  was  given  by  Christ  to  Simon  Stylites,  the  saint  who  sanctified 
himself  by  jjerching  on  a  pillar  {stylos)  sixty  feet  high,  for  thirty-six  years 
of  his  life,  without  ever  descending  from  it,  in  order  that,  among  other 
miracles  stated  in  the  Golden  Legend,  he  might  cure  a  dragon  of  a  sore 
eye  ?  "  Near  Simon's  pillar  was  the  dwelling  of  a  dragon,  so  very 
venomous  that  the  stench  was  spread  for  miles  round  his  cave."  This 
ophidian-hermit  met  with  an  accident  ;  he  got  a  thorn  in  his  eye,  and, 
hecoming  blind,  crept  to  the  saint's  pillar,  and  pressed  his  eye  against  it 
for  three  days,  without  touching  any  one.  Then  the  blessed  saint,  from 
his  aerial  seat,  "  three  feet  in  diameter,"  ordered  earth  and  water  to  be 
placed  on  the  dragon's  eye,  out  of  which  suddenly  emerged  a  thorn  (or 
stake),  a  cubit  in  length  ;  when  the  people  saw  the  "  miracle  "  they  glori- 
fied the  Creator.  As  to  the  grateful  dragon,  he  arose  and,  "  having  adored 
God  for  two  hours,  returned  to  his  cave  "  * — a  half-converted  ophidian, 
we  must  suppose. 

And  what  are  we  to  think  of  that  other  narrative,  to  disbelieve  in 
which  is  "to  risk  on^s  salvation,"  as  we  were  informed  by  a  Pope's 
missionary,  of  the  Order  of  the  P'ranciscans  ?  When  St.  Francis  preached 
a  sermon  in  the  wilderness,  the  birds  assembled  from  the  four  cardinal 
points  of  the  world.  They  warbled  and  api)lauded  every  sentence  ;  they 
sang  a  holy  mass  in  chorus  ;  finally  they  dispersed  to  carry  the  glad 
tidings  all  over  the  universe.  A  grasshopper,  profiting  by  the  absence 
of  the  Holy  Virgin,  who  generally  kept  company  with  the  saint,  remained 
perched  on  the  head  of  the  "  blessed  one  "  for  a  whole  week.  Attacked 
by  a  ferocious  wolf,  the  saint,  who  had  no  other  weapon  but  the  sign 
of  the  cross  which  he  made  upon  himself,  instead  of  running  away  from 
his  rabid  assailant,  began  arguing  with  the  beast.  Having  imparted  to 
him  the  benefit  to  be  derived  from  the  holy  religion,  St.  Francis  never 
ceased  talking  until  the  wolf  became  as  meek  as  a  lamb,  and  even 
shed  tears  of  repentance  over  his  past  sins.  Finally,  he  "  stretched  his 
paws  in  the  hands  of  the  saint,  followed  him  like  a  dog  through  all  the 
towns  in  which  he  preached,  and  became  half  a  Christian  !  "f  Wonders 
of  zoology  !  a  horse  turned  sorcerer,  a  wolf  and  a  dragori  turned  Chris- 
tians ! 

These  two  anecdotes,  chosen  at  random  from  among  hundreds,  if 
rivalled  are  not  surpassed  by  the  wildest  romances  of  the  Pagan  thau- 
maturgists,  magicians,  and  spiritualists  !  And  yet,  when  Pythagoras  is 
said  to  have  subdued  animals,  even  wild  beasts,  merely  through  a  power- 

*  See  the  narrative  selected  from  the  "  Golden  Legend,"  by  Alban  Butler, 
f  See  the  "  Golden  Legend  ; "   "  Life  of  St.  Francis;"  "Deraonologia." 


fill  mesmeric  influence,  he  is  pronounced  by  one-half  of  the  Catholics  a 
bare-faced  impostor,  and  by  the  rest  a  sorcerer,  who  worked  magic  in 
confederacy  with  the  Devil !  Neither  the  she-bear,  nor  the  eagle,  nor 
yet  the  bull  that  Pythagoras  is  said  to  have  persuaded  to  give  up  eating 
beans,  were  alleged  to  have  answered  with  human  voices  ;  while  St.  Ben- 
edict's "black  raven,"  whom  he  called  "brother,"  argues  with  him,  and 
croaks  his  answers  like  a  born  casuist.  When  the  saint  offers  him  one- 
half  of  a  poisoned  loaf,  the  raven  grows  indignant  and  reproaches  him  in 
Latin  as  though  he  had  just  graduated  at  the  Propaganda  ! 

If  it  be  objected  that  the  Golden  Legend  is  now  but  half  supported 
by  the  Church  ;  and  that  it  is  known  to  have  been  compiled  by  the  writer 
from  a  collection  of  the  lives  of  the  saints,  for  the  most  part  unauthenti- 
cated,  we  can  show  that,  at  least  in  one  instance,  the  biography  is  no 
legendary  compilation,  but  the  history  of  one  man,  by  another  one  who 
was  his  contemporary.  Jortin  and  Gibbons  demonstrated  years  ago,  that 
the  early  fathers  used  to  select  narratives,  wherewith  to  ornament  the 
lives  of  their  apocryphal  saints,  from  Ovid,  Homer,  Livy,  and  even  from 
the  unwritten  popular  legends  of  Pagan  nations.  But  such  is  not  the  case 
in  the  above  instances.  St.  Bernard  lived  in  the  twelfth  century,  a'nd  St. 
Dominick  was  nearly  contemporaneous  with  the  author  of  the  Golden 
Legend.  De  Veragine  died  in  1298,  and  Dominick,  whose  exorcisms 
and  life  he  describes  so  minutely,  instituted  his  order  in  the  first  quarter 
of  the  thirteenth  century.  Moreover,  de  Veragine  was  Vicar-General  of 
the  Dominicans  himself,  in  the  middle  of  the  same  century,  and  therefore 
described  the  miracles  wrought  by  his  hero  and  patron  but  a  few  years 
after  they  were  alleged  to  have  happened.  He  wrote  them  in  the  same 
convent ;  and  while  narrating  these  wonders  he  had  probably  fifty  persons 
at  hand  who  had  been  eye-witnesses  to  the  saint's  mode  of  living.  What 
must  we  think,  in  such  a  case,  of  a  biographer  who  seriously  describes  the 
following :  One  day,  as  the  blessed  saint  was  occupied  in  his  study,  the 
Devil  began  pestering  him,  in  the  shape  of  a  flea.  He  frisked  and  jumped 
about  the  pages  of  his  book  until  the  harassed  saint,  unwilling  as  he  was 
to  act  unkindly,  even  toward  a  devil,  felt  compelled  to  punish  him  by 
fixing  the  troublesome  devil  on  the  very  sentence  on  which  he  stopped, 
by  clasping  the  book.  At  another  time  the  same  devil  appeared  under 
the  shape  of  a  monkey.  He  grinned  so  horribly  that  Dominick,  in  order 
to  get  rid  of  him,  ordered  the  devil-monkey  to  take  the  candle  and  hold 
it  for  him  until  he  had  done  reading.  The  poor  imp  did  so,  and  held  it 
until  it  was  consumed  to  the  very  end  of  the  wick  ;  and,  notwithstanding 
his  pitiful  cries  for  mercy,  the  saint  compelled  him  to  hold  it  till  his  fin- 
gers were  burned  to  the  bones  ! 

Enough  !     The  approbation  with  which  this  book  was  received  by  the 


Church,  and  the  pecuhar  sanctity  attributed  to  it,  is  sufficient  to  show  the 
estimation  in  which  veracity  was  held  by  its  patrons.  We  may  add,  in 
conclusion,  that  the  finest  quintessence  of  Boccaccio's  Decameron,  appears 
prudery  itself  by  comparison  with  the  filthy  realism  of  the  Golden  Legend. 

We  cannot  regard  with  too  much  astonishment  the  pretensions  of  the 
Catholic  Church  in  seeking  to  convert  Hindus  and  Buddhists  to  Chris- 
tianity. While  the  "  heathen"  keeps  to  the  faith  of  his  fathers,  he  has  at 
least  the  one  redeeming  quality— that  of  not  having  apostatized  for  the 
mere  pleasure  of  exchanging  one  set  of  idols  for  another.  There  may  be 
for  him  some  novelty  in  his  embracing  Protestantism  ;  for  in  that  he  gains 
the  advantage,  at  least,  of  Hmiting  his  reUgious  views  to  their  simplest 
expression.  But  when  a  Buddhist  has  been  enticed  into  exchanging  his 
Shoe  Dagoon  for  the  Slipper  of  the  Vatican,  or  the  eight  hairs  from  the 
head  of  Gautama  and  Buddha's  tooth,  which  work  miracles,  for  the  locks 
of  a  Christian  saint,  and  a  tooth  of  Jesus,  which  work  far  less  clever 
miracles,  he  has  no  cause  to  boast  of  his  choice.  In  his  address  to  the 
Literary  Society  of  Java,  Sir  T.  S.  Raffles  is  said  to  have  narrated  the  fol- 
lowing characteristic  anecdote  :  "  On  visiting  the  great  temple  on  the 
hills  of  Nangasaki,  the  English  commissioner  was  received  with  marked 
regard  and  respect  by  the  venerable  patriarch  of  the  northern  provinces, 
a  man  eighty  years  of  age,  who  entertained  him  most  sumptuously.  On 
showing  him  round  the  courts  of  the  temple,  one  of  the  English  officers 
present  heedlessly  exclaimed,  in  surprise,  '  Jesus  Christus  ! '  The  patriarch 
turning  half  round,  with  a  placid  smile,  bowed  significantly,  with  the 
expression:  ' We  know  your  Jasus  Christus  !  Well,  don't  obtrude  him 
upon  us  in  our  temples,  and  we  remain  friends.'  And  so,  with  a  hearty 
shake  of  the  hands,  these  two  opposites  parted."  * 

There  is  scarcely  a  report  sent  by  the  missionaries  from  India,  Thibet, 
and  China,  but  laments  the  diabolical  "obscenity"  of  the  heathen  rites, 
their  lamentable  irapudicity ;  all  of  which  "  are  so  strongly  suggestive  of 
devil-worship,"  as  des  Mousseaux  tells  us.  We  can  scarcely  be  assured 
that  the  morality  of  the  Pagans  would  be  in  the  least  improved  were  they 
allowed  a  free  inquiry  into  the  life  of  say  the  psalmist-king,  the  author 
of  those  sweet  Psalms  which  are  so  rapturously  repeated  by  Christians. 
The. difference  between  David  performing  a  phallic  dance  before  the  holy 
ark — emblem  of  the  female  principle — and  a  Hindu  Vishnavite  bearing 
the  same  emblem  on  his  forehead,  favors  the  former  only  in  the  eyes  of 
those  who  have  studied  neither  the  ancient  faith  nor  their  own.  When  a 
religion  which  compelled  David  to  cut  off  and  deliver  two  hundred  fore- 
skins of  his  enemies  before  he  could  become  the  king's  son-in-law  (i  Sam. 

*  ''  The  Mythology  of  the  Hindus,"  by  Charles  Coleman.     Japan. 


xviii.)  is  accepted  as  a  standard  by  Christians,  they  would  do  well  not  to 
cast  into  the  teeth  of  heathen  the  impudicities  of  their  faiths.  Remem- 
bering the  suggestive  parable  of  Jesus,  they  ought  to  cast  the  beam  out  of 
tlieir  own  eye  before  plucking  at  the  mote  in  their  neighbor's.  The  sexual 
element  is  as  marked  in  Christianity  as  in  any  one  of  the  "heathen  reli- 
gions." Certainly,  nowhere  in  the  Vedas  can  be  found  the  coarseness  and 
downright  immodesty  of  language,  that  Hebraists  now  discover  through- 
out the  Mosaic  Bible. 

It  would  profit  little  were  we  to  dwell  much  upon  subjects  which  have 
been  disposed  of  in  such  a  masterly  way  by  an  anonymous  author  whose 
work  electrified  England  and  Germany  last  year ;  *  while  as  regards  the 
particular  topic  under  notice,  we  cannot  do  better  than  recommend  the 
scholarly  writings  of  Dr.  Inman.  Albeit  one-sided,  and  in  many  instan- 
ces unjust  to  the  ancient  heathen.  Pagan,  and  Jewish  religions,  the  fads 
treated  in  the  A?icient  and  Pagan  Christian  Symbolisrn,  are  unimpeach- 
able. Neither  can  we  agree  with  some  English  critics  who  charge  him 
with  an  intent  to  destroy  Christianity.  If  by  Christianity  is  meant  the  ex- 
ternal religious  forms  of  worshi[),  then  he  certainly  seeks  to  destroy  it,  for  in 
his  eyes,  as  well  as  in  those  of  every  truly  religious  man,  who  has  studied 
ancient  exoteric  faiths,  and  their  symbology,  Christianity  is  pure  heath- 
enism, and  Catholicism,  with  its  fetish-worshipping,  is  far  worse  and  more 
pernicious  than  Hinduism  in  its  most  idolatrous  aspect.  But  while 
denouncing  the  exoteric  forms  and  unmasking  the  symbols,  it  is  not  the 
religion  of  Christ  that  the  author  attacks,  but  the  artificial  system  of  the- 
ology. We  will  allow  him  to  illustrate  the  position  in  his  own  language, 
and  quote  from  his  preface  : 

"  When  vampires  were  discovered  by  the  acumen  of  any  observer," 
he  says,  "  they  were,  we  are  told,  ignominiously  killed,  by  a  stake  being 
driven  through  the  body ;  but  experience  showed  them  to  have  such 
tenacity  of  life  that  they  rose,  again  and  again,  notwithstanding  renewed 
impalement,  and  vi<irt  not  ultimately  laid  to  rest  till  wholly  burned.  In 
like  manner,  the  regenerated  heathendom,  which  dominates  over  the 
followers  of  Jesus  of  Nazareth,  has  risen  again  and  again,  after  being 
transfixed.  Still  cherished  by  the  many,  it  is  denounced  by  the  few. 
Amongst  other  accusers,  I  raise  my  voice  against  the  Paganism  which 
exists  so  extensively  in  ecclesiastical  Christianity,  and  will  do  my  utmost 
to  expose  the  imposture.  ...  In  a  vampire  story  told  in  Thalaba,  by 
Southey,  the  resuscitated  being  takes  the  form  of  a  dearly-beloved  maiden, 
and  the  hero  is  obliged  to  kill  her  with  his  own  hand.  He  does  so ;  but, 
whilst  he  strikes   the  form   of  the  loved  one,  he  feels  sure  that  he  slays 

*  "Supernatural  Religion." 


only  a  demon.  In  like  manner,  when  I  endeavor  to  destroy  the  current 
heathenism,  which  has  assumed  the  garb  of  Christianity,  /  do  not  attack 
real  religion*  Few  would  accuse  a  workman  of  malignancy,  who 
cleanses  from  filth  the  surface  of  a  noble  statue.  There  may  be  some 
who  are  too  nice  to  touch  a  nasty  subject,  yet  even  they  will  rejoice  when 
some  one  else  removes  the  dirt.     Such  a  scavenger  is  wanted."  f 

But  is  it  merely  Pagans  and  heathen  that  the  Catholics  persecute, 
and  about  whom,  like  Augustine,  they  cry  to  the  Deity,  "  Oh,  my  God  ! 
so  do  I  wish  Thy  enemies  to  be  slaijil"  Oh,  no  !  their  aspirations  are 
more  ISIosaic  and  Cain-like  than  that.  It  is  against  their  next  of  kin  in 
faith,  against  their  schismatic  brothers  that  they  are  now  intriguing  within 
the  walls  which  sheltered  the  murderous  Borgias.  The  larva  of  the 
infanticidal,  parricidal,  and  fratricidal  Popes  have  proved  themselves  fit 
counsellors  for  the  Cains  of  Castelfidardo  and  Mentana.  It  is  now  the 
turn  of  the  Slavonian  Christians,  the  Oriental  Schismatics — the  Philis- 
tines of  the  Greek  Church  ! 

His  Holiness  the  Pope,  after  exhausting,  in  a  metaphor  of  self-lauda- 
tion, every  point  of  assimilation  between  the  great  biblical  prophets  and 
himself,  has  finally  and  truly  compared  himself  with  the  Patriarch  Jacob 
"wrestling  against  his  God."  He  now  crowns  the  edifice  of  Catholic 
piety  by  openly  sympathizing  with  the  Turks  !  The  vicegerent  of  God 
inaugurates  his  infallibility  by  encouraging,  in  a  true  Christian  spirit,  the 
acts  of  that  Moslem  David,  the  modern  Bashi-Bazuk  ;  and  it  seems  as 
if  nothing  would  more  please  his  Holiness  than  to  be  presented  by  the 
latter  with  several  thousands  of  the  Bulgarian  or  Servian  "  foreskins." 
True  to  her  policy  to  be  all  things  to  all  men  to  promote  her  own  inter- 
ests, the  Romish  Church  is,  at  this  writing  (1876),  benevolently  viewing 
the  Bulgarian  and  Servian  atrocities,  and,  probably,  manoeuvring  with 
Turkey  against  Russia.  Better  Islam,  and  the  hitherto -hated  Crescent 
over  the  sepulchre  of  the  Christian  god,  than  the  Greek  Church  estab- 
lished at  Constantinople  and  Jerusalem  as  the  state  religion.  Like  a 
decrepit  and  toothless  ex-tyrant  in  exile,  the  Vatican  is  eager  for  any 
alliance  that  promises,  if  not  a  restoration  of  its  own  power,  at  least  the 
weakening  of  its  rival.     The  axe  its  inquisitors  once  swung,  it  now  toys 

*  Neither  do  we,  if  by  true  religion  the  woi'Id  shall  at  last  understand  the  adoration  of 
one  Supreme,  Invisible,  and  Unknown  Deity,  by  works  and  acts,  not  by  the  profession 
of  vain  human  dogmas.  But  our  intention  is  to  go  farther.  We  desire  to  demonstrate 
that  if  we  exclude  ceremonial  and  fetish  worship  from  being  regarded  as  essential  parts 
of  religion,  then  the  true  Christ-like  principles  have  been  exemplified,  and  true  Chris- 
tianity practiced  since  the  days  of  the  apostles,  exclusively  among  Buddhists  and 

\  "Ancient  Pagan  and  Modem  Christian  Symbolism,"  p.  xvi. 



with  in  secret,  feeling  its  edge,  and  waiting,  and  hoping  against  hope.  In 
her  time,  the  Popish  Church  has  lain  with  strange  bedfellows,  but  never 
before  now  sunk  to  the  degradation  of  giving  her  moral  support  to  those 
who  for  over  1200  years  spat  in  her  face,  called  her  adherents  "infidel 
dogs,"  repudiated  her  teachings,  and  denied  godhood  to  her  God  ! 

The  press  of  even  Catholic  France  is  fairly  aroused  at  this  indignity, 
and  openly  accuses  the  Ultramontane  portion  of  the  Catholic  Church 
and  the  Vatican  of  siding,  during  the  present  Eastern  struggle,  with  the 
Mahometan  against  the  Christian.  "When  the  Minister  of  Foreign 
Affairs  in  the  French  Legislature  spoke  some  mild  words  in  favor  of  the 
Greek  Christians,  he  was  only  applauded  by  the  liberal  Catholics,  and 
received  coldly  by  the  Ultramontane  party,"  says  the  French  correspon- 
dent of  a  New  York  paper. 

"  So  pronounced  was  this,  that  M.  Lemoinne,  the  well-known  editor 
of  the  great  liberal  Catholic  journal,  the  Debats,  was  moved  to  say  that 
the  Roman  Church  felt  more  sympathy  for  the  Moslem  than  the  schis- 
matic, just  as  they  preferred  an  infidel  to  the  Protestant.  '  There  is  at 
bottom,'  says  this  writer,  '  a  great  affinity  between  the  Syllabus  and  the 
Koran,  and  between  the  two  heads  of  the  faithful.  The  two  systems  are 
of  the  same  nature,  and  are  united  on  the  common  ground  of  a  one  and- 
unchangeable  theory.'  In  Italy,  in  like  manner,  the  King  and  Liberal 
Catholics  are  in  warm  sympathy  with  the  unfortunate  Christians,  while 
the  Pope  and  Ultramontane  faction  are  believed  to  be  inclining  to  the 

The  civilized  world  may  yet  expect  the  apparition  of  the  materialized 
Virgin  Mary  within  the  walls  of  the  Vatican.  The  so  often-repeated 
"  miracle  "  of  Ihe  Immaculate  Visitor  in  the  mediaeval  ages  has  recently 
been  enacted  at  Lourdes,  and  why  not  once  more,  as  a  coup  de  grace  to 
all  heretics,  schismatics,  and  infidels  ?  The  miraculous  wax  taper  is  yet 
seen  at  Arras,  the  chief  city  of  Artois ;  and  at  every  new  calamity  threat- 
ening her  beloved  Church,  the  "  Blessed  Lady  "  appears  personally,  and 
lights  it  with  her  own  fair  hands,  in  view  of  a  whole  "  biologized  "  con- 
gregation. This  sort  of  "miracle,"  says  E.  Worsley,  wrought  by  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church,  "  being  most  certain,  and  never  doubted  of  by 
any."  *  Neither  has  the  private  correspondence  with  which  the  most 
"  Gracious  Lady  "  honors  her  friends  been  doubted.  There  are  two 
precious  missives  from  her  in  the  archives  of  the  Church.  The  first  pur- 
ports to  be  a  letter  in  answer  to  one  addressed  to  her  by  Ignatius.  She 
confirms  all  things  learned  by   her   correspondent  from  "her  friend" — 

*  ' '  Discourses  of  Miracles  wrought  in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church ;  or  a  full  Refu- 
tation of  Dr.  Stillingfleet's  unjust  Exceptions  against  Miracles."  Octavo,  1676, 
p.  64. 


meaning  the  Apostle  John.  She  bids  him  hold  fast  to  his  vows,  and  adds 
as  an  inducement  :  "  I  and  John  will  come  together  and  pay  you  a 
viiitr  * 

Nothing  was  known  of  this  unblushing  fraud  till  the  letters  were  pub- 
lished at  Pans,  in  1495.  By  a  curious  accident  it  appeared  at  a  time 
when  threatening  inquiries  began  to  be  made  as  to  the  genuineness  of 
the  fourth  Synoptic.  Who  could  doubt,  after  such  a  confirmation  from 
headquarters  !  But  the  climax  of  effrontery  was  capped  in  1534,  when 
another  letter  was  received  from  the  "  Mediatrix,"  which  sounds  more  like 
the  report  of  a  lobby-agent  to  a  brother-politician.  It  was  written  in  excel- 
lent Latin,  and  was  found  in  the  Cathedral  of  Messina,  together  with  the 
image  to  which  it  alludes.     Its  contents  run  as  follows  : 

"Mary  Virgin,  Mother  of  the  Redeemer  of  the  world,  to  the  Bishop,  Clergy,  and 
the  other  faithful  of  Jlessuia,  sendeth  health  and  benediction  from  herself  and  son  :f 

"Whereas  ye  have  been  mindful  of  establishing  the  worship  of  me;  now  this  is  to 
let  you  know  that  by  so  doing  ye  have  found  great  favor  in  my  sight.  I  have  a  long 
time  reflected  with  pain  upon  your  city,  which  is  exposed  to  much  danger  from  its  con- 
tiguity to  the  fire  of  Etna,  and  I  have  often  had  words  about  it  with  my  son,  for  he 
was  vexed  with  you  because  of  your  guilty  neglect  of  my  worship,  so  that  he  would 
cot  care  a  pin  about  my  intercession.  Now,  however,  that  you  have  come  to  your 
senses,  and  have  happily  begun  to  worship  me,  he  has  conferred  upon  me  the  right  to 
become  your  everlasting  protectress ;  but,  at  the  same  time,  I  warn  you  to  mind  what 
you  are  about,  and  give  me  no  cause  of  repenting  of  my  kindness  to  you.  The  prayers 
and  festivals  instituted  in  my  honor  please  me  tremendously  {vehemetiter),  and  if  you 
faithfully  persevere  in  these  things,  and  provided  you  oppose  to  the  utmost  of  your 
power,  the  heretics  which  now-a-days  are  spreading  through  the  world,  by  which  both 
my  worship  and  that  of  the  other  saints,  male  and  female,  are  so  endangered,  you  shall 
enjoy  my  perpetual  protection. 

"  In  sign  of  this  compact,  I  send  you  down  from  Heaven  the  image  of  myself,  cast 
by  celestial  hands,  and  if  ye  hold  it  in  the  honor  to  which  it  is  entitled,  it  will  be  an 
evidence  to  me  of  your  obedience  and  your  faith.  Farewell.  Dated  in  Heaven, 
whilst  sitting  near  the  throne  of  my  son,  in  the  month  of  December,  of  the  1534th 
year  from  his  incarnation. 

"Mary  Virgin." 

The  reader  should  understand  that  this  document  is  no  anti-Catholic 
forgery.  The  author  from  whom  it  is  taken,  J  says  that  the  authenticity 
of  the  missive  "is   attested  by   the   Bishop   himself,  his   Vicar-General, 

*  After  this,  why  should  the  Roman  Catholics  object  to  the  claims  of  the  Spiritual- 
ists? If,  without  proof,  they  believe  in  the  "  materialization  "  of  Mary  and  John,  for 
Ignatius,  how  can  they  logically  deny  the  materialization  of  Katie  and  John  (King), 
when  it  is  attested  by  the  careful  experiments  of  Mr.  Crookes,  the  English  chemist,  and 
the  cumulative  testimony  of  a  large  number  of  witnesses? 

f  The  "  Mother  of  God  "  takes  precedence  therefore  of  God? 

X  See  the  "  New  Era  "  for  July,  1875.   N.  Y. 


Secretary,  and  six  Canons  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Messina,  all  of 
whom  have  signe'd  that  attestation  with  their  names,  and  confirmed  it 
upon  oath. 

"  Both  the  epistle  and  image  were  found  upon  the  high  altar,  where 
they  had  been  placed  by  angels  from  heaven." 

A  Church  must  have  reached  the  last  stages  of  degradation,  when 
such  sacrilegious  trickery  as  this  could  be  resorted  to  by  its  clergy,  and 
accepted  with  or  without  question  by  the  people. 

No  !  far  from  the  man  who  feels  the  workings  of  an  immortal  spirit 
within  him,  be  such  a  religion  !  There  never  was  nor  ever  will  be  a  truly 
philosophical  mind,  whether  of  Pagan,  heathen,  Jew,  or  Christian,  but  has 
followed  the  same  path  of  thought.  Gautama-Buddha  is  mirrored  in  the 
precepts  of  Christ ;  Paul  and  Philo  Judasus  are  faithful  echoes  of  Plato ; 
and  Ammonias  Saccas  and  Plotinus  won  their  immortal  fame  by  combin- 
ing the  teachings  of  all  these  grand  masters  of  true  philosophy.  "  Prove 
all  things ;  hold  fast  that  which  is  good,"  ought  to  be  the  motto  of  all 
brothers  on  earth.  Not  so  is  it  with  the  interpreters  of  the  Bible.  The 
seed  of  the  Reformation  was  sown  on  the  day  that,  the  second  chapter  of 
The  Catholic  Epistle  of  James,  jostled  the  eleventh  chapter  of  the  Epistle 
to  the  Hebrews  in  the  same  New  Testament.  One  who  believes  in  Paul 
cannot  believe  in  James,  Peter,  and  John.  The  Paulists,  to  remain  Chris- 
tians with  their  apostle,  must  withstand  Peter  "  to  the  face  ;  "  and  if 
Peter  "was  to  be  blamed"  and  was  wrong,  then  he  was  not  infallible. 
How  then  can  his  successor  (?)  boast  of  his  infallibility  ?  Every  kingdom 
divided  against  itself  is  brought  to  desolation  ;  and  every  house  divided 
against  itself  must  fall.  A  plurality  of  masters  has  proved  as  fatal  in  reli- 
gions as  in  politics.  What  Paul  preached,  was  preached  by  every  other 
mystic  philosopher.  "  Stand /aj/  therefore  in  the  liberty  wherewith  Christ 
hath  made  us  free,  and  be  not  entangled  again  with  the  yoke  of  bondage!" 
exclaims  the  honest  apostle-philosopher  ;  and  adds,  as  if  prophetically 
inspired  :  "  But  if  ye  bite  and  devour  one  another,  take  heed  that  ye 
be  not  consumed  one  of  another." 

That  the  Neo-platonists  were  not  always  despised  or  accused  of 
demonolatry  is  evidenced  in  the  adoption  by  the  Roman  Church  of  their 
very  rites  and  theurgy.  The  identical  evocations  and  incantations  of  the 
Pagan  and  Jewish  Kabalist,  are  now  repeated  by  the  Christian  exorcist, 
and  the  theurgy  of  lamblichus  was  adopted  word  for  word.  "  Distinct 
as  were  the  Platonists  and  Pauline  Christians  of  the  earlier  centuries," 
writes  Professor  A.  Wilder,  "many  of  the  more  distinguished  teachers 
of  the  new  faith  were  deeply  tinctured  with  the  philosophical  leaven. 
Synesius,  the  Bishop  of  Cyrene,  was  the  disciple  of  Hypatia.  St.  Anthony 
reiterated  the  theurgy  of  lamblichus.     The  Logos,  or  word  of  the  Gospd 


according  to  John,  was  a  Gnostic  personification.  Clement  of  Alexandria, 
Origen,  and  others  of  the  fathers  drank  deeply  from  the  fomitains  of 
philosophy.  The  ascetic  idea  which  carried  away  the  Church  was  like 
that  which  was  practiced  by  Plotinus  ...  all  through  the  middle  ages 
there  rose  up  men  who  accepted  the  interior  doctrines  which  were  pro- 
mulgated by  the  renowned  teacher  of  the  Academy."  * 

To  substantiate  our  accusation  that  the  Latin  Church  first  despoiled 
the  kabalists  and  theurgists  of  their  magical  rites  and  ceremonies,  before 
hurling  anathemas  upon  their  devoted  heads,  we  will  now  translate  for 
the  reader  fragments  from  the  forms  of  exorcism  employed  by  kabalists 
and  Christians.  The  identity  in  phraseology,  may,  perhaps,  disclose  one 
of  the  reasons  why  the  Romish  Church  has  always  desired  to  keep  the 
faithful  in  ignorance  of  the  meaning  of  her  Latin  prayers  and  ritual.  Only 
those  directly  interested  in  the  deception  have  had  the  opportunity  to 
compare  the  rituals  of  the  Church  and  the  magicians.  Tlie  best  Latin 
scholars  were,  until  a  comparatively  recent  date,  either  churchmen,  or 
dependent  upon  the  Church.  Common  people  could  not  read  Latin,  and 
even  if  they  could,  the  reading  of  the  books  on  magic  was  prohibited, 
under  the  penalty  of  anathema  and  excommunication.  The  cunning 
device  of  the  confessional  made  it  almost  impossible  to  consult,  even 
surreptitiously,  what  the  priests  call  3.  grimoire  (a  devil's  scrawl),  or  Ritual 
of  Magic.  To  make  assurance  doubly  sure,  the  Church  began  destroying 
or  concealing  everything  of  the  kind  she  could  lay  her  hands  upon. 

The  following  are  translated  from  the  Kabalistic  Ritual,  and  that  gen- 
erally known  as  the'  Roman  Ritual.  The  latter  was  promulgated  in 
1851  and  1852,  under  the  sanction  of  Cardinal  Engelbert,  Archbishop  of 
Malines,  and  of  the  Archbishop  of  Paris.  Speaking  of  it,  the  demonolo- 
gist  des  Mousseaux  says  :  "It  is  the  ritual  of  Paul  V.,  revised  by  the 
most  learned  of  modern  Popes,  by  the  contemporary  of  Voltaire,  Benedict 
XIV."  f 

Kabalistic.     (Jewish  and  Pagan.)  Roman  Catholic 

Exorcism  of  Salt.  Exorcism  of  Salt.  § 

The  Priest-Magician  blesses  the  Salt,  and  The  Priest  blesses  the  Salt  and   says  : 

says;     "  Creature  of  Salt,  \  in  thee  may  **  Creature  of  Salt,  I  exorcise  thee  in  the 

remain  the  wisdom  (of  God) ;  and  may  it  name  of   the  living  God  .   ,   .   become  the 

preserve  from  all  corruption  our  minds  and  health  of  the  soul  and  of  the  body  !   Every- 

*  "Paul  and  Plato." 

t  See  "  La  Magie  au  XlXme  SiWe,"  p.  168. 

%  Creature  of  salt,  air,  water,  or  of  any  object  to  be  enchanted  or  blessed,  is  a  tech 
nical  word  in  magic,  adopted  by  the  Christian  clergy. 
§  "Rom.  Rit.,"  edit,  of  1851,  pp.  291-296,  etc.,  etc. 



bodies.  Through  Hochmael  (i^XD^n,  God 
of  wisdom),  and  the  power  of  Ruach  Hoch- 
mael (Spirit  of  the  Holy  Ghost)  may  the 
Spirits  of  matter  (bad  spirits)  before  it 
recede.  .  .   .  Amen." 

Exorcism  of  Water  {and  Ashes'). 
"  Creature  of  the  Water,  I  exorcise  thee 
...  by  the  three  names  which  are  Netsah, 
Hod,  and  Jerod  (kabalistic  trinity),  in  the 
beginning  and  in  the  end,  by  Alpha  and 
Omega,  which  are  in  the  Spirit  Azoth 
(Holy  Ghost,  or  the  'Universal  Soul'),  I 
exorcise  and  adjure  thee.  .  .  .  Wandering 
eagle,  may  the  Lord  command  thee  by  the 
wings  of  the  bull  and  his  flaming  sword." 
(The  cherub  placed  at  the  east  gate  of 

Exorcism  of  an  Elemental  Spirit. 

"  Serpent,  in  the  name  of  the  Tetragram- 
maton,  the  Lord;  He  commands  thee,  by 
the  angel  and  the  lion. 

"Angel  of  darkness,  obey,  and  run  away 
with  this  holy  (exorcised)  water.  Eagle  in 
chains,  obey  this  sign,  and  retreat  before 
the  breath.  Moving  serpent,  crawl  at  my 
feet,  or  be  tortured  by  this  sacred  fire,  and 
evaporate  before  this  holy  incense.  Let 
water  return  to  water  (the  elemental  spirit 
of  water) ;  let  the  fire  burn,  and  the  air 
circulate ;  let  the  earth  return  to  earth  by 
the  virtue  of  the  Pentagi-am,  which  is  the 
Morning  Star,  and  in  the  name  of  the 
tetragrammaton  which  is  traced  in  the  cen- 
tre of  the  Cross  of  Light.     Amen." 

where  where  thou  art  thrown  may  the  un- 
clean spirit  be  put  to  flight.  .   .    .  Amen.'" 

Exorcism  of  Water. 
"Creature  of  the  water,  in  the  name  of 
the  Almighty  God,  the  Father,  the  Son, 
and  the  Holy  Ghost  .  .  .  be  exorcised. 
...  I  adjure  thee  in  the  name  of  the  Lamb 
.  .  .  (the  magician  says  bull  ox  ox — per 
alas  Tauri)  of  the  Lamb  that  trod  upon  the 
basilisk  and  the  aspic,  and  who  crushes 
under  his  foot  the  lion  and  the  dragon." 

Exorcism  of  the  Devil. 

"  O  Lord,  let  him  who  carries  along 
with  him  the  terror,  fiee,  struck  in  his  turn 
by  terror  and  defeated.  O  thou,  who  art 
the  Ancient  Serpent  .  .  .  tremble  before 
the  hand  of  him  who,  having  triumphed  of 
the  tortures  of  hell  (?)  devictis  geniitibus 
inferni,  recalled  the  souls  to  light.  .  .  . 
The  more  whilst  (hou  decay,  the  more  terri- 
ble will  be  thy  torture  ...  by  Him  who 
reigns  over  the  living  and  the  dead  .  .  . 
and  who  will  judge  the  century  by  fire, 
sacuhtm  per  ignem,  etc.  In  the  name  of 
the  Father,  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost. 
Amen."  * 

It  is  unnecessary  to  try  the  patience  of  the  reader  any  longer,  although 
we  might  multiply  examples.  It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  we  have 
quoted  from  the  latest  revision  of  the  Ritual,  that  of  1851-2.  If  we  were 
to  go  back  to  the  former  one  we  would  find  a  far  more  striking  identity, 
not  merely  of  phraseology  but  of  ceremonial  form.  For  the  purpose  of 
comparison  we  have  not  even  availed  ourselves  of  the  ritual  of  ceremo- 
nial magic  of  the  Christian  kabalists  of  the  middle  ages,  wherein  the 
language  modelled  upon  a  belief  in  the  divinity  of  Christ  is,  with  the 
exception  of  a  stray  expression  here  and  there,  identical  with  the  Catholic 

"Rom.  Rit.,"  pp.  421-435. 


Ritual.  *  The  latter,  however,  makes  one  improvement,  for  the  originality 
of  which  the  Church  should  be  allowed  all  credit.  Certainly  nothing  so 
fantastical  could  be  found  in  a  ritual  of  magic.  "  Give  place,"  apostro- 
phizing the  "  Demon,"  it  says,  "  give  place  to  Jesus  Christ  .  .  .  'CaowfiUhy, 
stinking,  and  ferocious  beast  .  .  .  dost  thou  rebel  ?  Listen  and  tremble, 
Satan  ;  enemy  of  the  faith,  enemy  of  the  human  race,  introducer  of  death 
.  .  .  root  of  all  evil,  promoter  of  vice,  soul  of  envy,  origin  of  avarice, 
cause  of  discord,  prince  of  homicide,  whom  God  curses  ;  author  of  incest 
and  sacrilege,  inventor  of  all  obscenity,  professor  of  the  most  detestable 
actions,  a7id  Grand  Master  of  Heretics  (  /  /  )  {Doctor  Hmreticorum  !  ) 
What !  .'  .  .  dost  thou  still  stand  ?  Dost  dare  to  resist,  and  thou  knowest 
that  Christ,  our  Lord,  is  coming  ?  .  .  .  Give  place  to  Jesus  Christ,  give 
place  to  the  Holy  Ghost,  which,  by  His  blessed  Apostle  Peter,  has  flung 
thee  down  before  the  public,  in  the  person  of*  Simon  the  Magician " 
(te  manifeste  stravit  in  Simone  mago).\ 

After  such  a  shower  of  abuse,  no  devil  having  the  shghtest  feeling 
of  self-respect  could  remain  in  such  company  ;  unless,  indeed,  he  should 
chance  to  be  an  Italian  Liberal,  or  King  Victor  Emmanuel  himself; 
both  of  whom,  thanks  to  Pius  IX.,  have  become  anathema-proof 

It  really  seems  too  bad  to  strip  Rome  of  all  her  symbols  at  once  ;  but 
justice  must  be  done  to  the  despoiled  hierophants.  Long  before  the 
sign  of  the  Cross  was  adopted  as  a  Christian  symbol,  it  was  employed  as 
a  secret  sign  of  recognition  among  neophytes  and  adepts.  Says  Levi : 
"The  sign  of  the  Cross  adopted  by  the  Christians  does  not  belong  exclu- 
sively to  them.  It  is  kabalistic,  and  represents  the  oppositions  and 
quaternary  equilibrium  of  the  elements.  We  see  by  the  occult  verse  of 
the  Pater,  to  which  we  have  called  attention  in  another  work,  that  there 
were  originally  two  ways  of  making  it,  or,  at  least,  two  very  different 
formulas  to  express  its  meaning — one  reserved  for  priests  and"  initiates  ; 
the  other  given  to  neophytes  and  the  profane.  Thus,  for  example,  the 
initiate,  carrying  his  hand  to  his  forehead,  said  :  To  thee ;  then  he  added, 
belong  ;  and  continued,  while  carrying  his  hand  to  the  breast — the  king- 
dom ;  then,  to  the  left  shoulder — -justice ;  to  the  right  shoulder — and 
mercy.  Then  he  joined  the  two  hands,  adding  :  throughout  the  genera- 
ting cycles  :  '  Tibi  sunt  Malchut,  et  Geburah  et  Chassed  per  ALonas' — a 
sign  of  the  Cross,  absolutely  and  magnificently  kabalistic,  which  the  pro- 
fanations of  Gnosticism  made  the  mihtant  and  official  Church  completely 
lose."  I 

•  See  "Art-Magic,"  art.  Peter  d'Abano. 

f  "Ritual,"  pp.  429-433  ;  see  "La  Magie  au  XlXme  Siecle,"  pp.  171,  172. 

X  "Dogme  et  Rituel  de  la  Haute  Magie,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  88. 


How  fantastical,  therefore,  is  the  assertion  of  Father  Ventura,  that, 
while  Augustine  was  a  Manichean,  a  philosopher,  ignorant  of  and  refu- 
sing to  humble  himself  before  the  sublimity  of  the  "  grand  Christian  rev- 
elation," he  knew  nothing,  understood  naught  of  God,  man,  or  universe; 
" .  .  .he  remained  poor,  small,  obscure,  sterile,  and  wrote  nothing,  did 
nothing  really  grand  or  useful."  But,  hardly  had  he  become  a  Chris- 
tian "...  when  his  reasoning  powers  and  intellect,  enlightened  at  the 
luminary  of  faith,  elevated  him  to  the  most  sublime  heights  of  philosophy 
and  theology."  And  his  other  proposition  that  Augustine's  genius,  as  a 
consequence,  "  developed  itself  in  all  its  grandeur  and  prodigious  fecundity 
...  his  intellect  radiated  with  that  immense  splendor  which,  reflecting 
itself  in  his  immortal  writings,  has  never  ceased  for  one  moment  during 
fourteen  centuries  to  illuminate  the  Church  and  the  world !  "  * 

Whatever  Augustine  was  as  a  Manichean,  we  leave  Father  Ventura 
to  discover  ;  but  that  his  accession  to  Christianity  established  an  everlast- 
ing enmity  between  theology  and  science  is  beyond  doubt.  While  forced 
to  confess  that  "  the  Gentiles  had  possibly  something  divine  and  true  in 
their  doctrines,"  he,  nevertheless,  declared  that  for  their  superstition, 
idolatry,  and  pride,  they  had  "  to  be  detested,  and,  unless  they  improved, 
to  be  punished  by  divine  judgment."  This  furnishes  the  clew  to  the  sub- 
sequent policy  of  the  Christian  Church,  even  to  our  day.  If  the  Gentiles 
did  not  choose  to  come  into  the  Church,  all  that  was  divine  in  their  phil- 
osophy should  go  for  naught,  and  the  divine  wrath  of  God  should  be  vis- 
ited upon  their  heads.  What  effect  this  produced  is  succinctly  stated  by 
Draper :  "  No  one  did  more  than  this  Father  to  bring  science  and 
religion  into  antagonism  ;  it  was  mainly  he  who  diverted  the  Bible  from 
its  true  office — a  guide  to  purity  of  life — and  placed  it  in  the  perilous 
position  of  being  the  arbiter  of  human  knowledge,  an  audacious  tyranny 
over  the  mind  of  man.  The  example  once  set,  there  was  no  want  of 
followers  ;  the  works  of  the  Greek  philosophers  were  stigmatized  as  pro- 
fane ;  the  transcendently  glorious  achievements  of  the  Museum  of  Alex- 
andria were  hidden  from  sight  by  a  cloud  of  ignorance,  mysticism,  and 
unintelligible  jargon,  out  of  which  there  too  often  flashed  the  destroying 
lightnings  of  ecclesiastical  vengeance."  f 

Augustine  and  Cyprian  \  admit  that  Hermes  and  Hostanes  believed 
in  one  true  god ;  the  first  two  maintaining,  as  well  as  the  two  Pagans, 
that  he  is  invisible  and  incomprehensible,  except  spiritually.  Moreover 
we  invite  any  man  of  intelligence — provided  he  be  not  a  religious  fanatic 
— after  reading  fragments  chosen  at  random  from  the  works  of  Hermes 

*  "  Conferences,"  by  Le  P^re  Ventura,  vol.  ii.,  part  i.,  p.  Ivi.,  Preface. 
\  "  Conflict  between  Religion  and  Science,"  p.  62. 
^  "  De  Baptismo  Contra  Donatistas,"  lib.  vi.,  ch.  xliv. 

WAS    "SIMON   MAGUS"   ST.    PAUL?  89 

and  Augustine  on  the  Deity,  to  decide  which  of  the  two  gives  a  more 
philosophical  definition  of  the  "  unseen  Father."  We  have  at  least  one 
writer  of  fame  who  is  of  our  opinion.  Draper  calls  the  Augustinian 
productions  a  "  rhapsodical  conversation"  with  God;  an  "incoherent 

Father  Ventura  depicts  the  saint  as  attitudinizing  before  an  astonished 
world  upon  "  the  most  sublime  heights  of  philosophy."  But  here  steps 
in  again  the  same  unprejudiced  critic,  who  passes  the  following  remarks 
on  this  colossus  of  Patristic  philosophy.  "Was  it  for  this  preposterous 
scheme,"  he  asks,  "  this  product  of  ignorance  and  audacity,  that  the 
works  of  the  Greek  philosophers  were  to  be  given  up  ?  It  was  none  too 
soon  that  the  great  critics  who  appeared  at  the  Reformation,  by  compar- 
ing the  works  of  these  writers  with  one  another,  brought  them  to  their 
proper  level,  and  taught  us  to  look  upon  them  all  with  contempt."  f 

For  such  men  as  Plotinus,  Porphyry,  lambhchus,  ApoUonius,  and 
even  Simon  Magus,  to  be  accused  of  having  formed  a  pact  with  the 
Devil,  whether  the  latter  personage  exist  or  not,  is  so  absurd  as  to  need 
but  little  refutation.  If  Simon  Magus — the  most  problematical  of  all  in 
an  historical  sense — ever  existed  otherwise  than  in  the  overheated  fancy 
of  Peter  and  the  other  apostles,  he  was  evidently  no  worse  than  any  of 
his  adversaries.  A  difference  in  religious  views,  however  great,  is  insuf- 
ficient/^r  se  to  send  one  person  to  heaven  and  the  other  to  hell.  Such 
uncharitable  and  peremptory  doctrines  might  have  been  taught  in  the 
middle  ages  ;  but  it  is  too  late  now  for  even  the  Church  to  put  forward 
this  traditional  scarecrow.  Research  begins  to  suggest  that  which,  if 
ever  verified,  will  bring  eternal  disgrace  on  the  Church  of  the  Apostle 
Peter,  whose  very  imposition  of  herself  upon  that  disciple  must  be  re- 
garded as  the  most  unverified  and  unverifiable  of  the  assumptions  of  the 
Catholic  clergy. 

The  erudite  author  of  Supernatural  Religion  assiduously  endeavors 
to  prove  that  by  Simon  Magus  we  must  understand  the  apostle  Paul, 
whose  Epistles  were  secretly  as  well  as  openly  calumniated  by  Peter, 
and  charged  with  containing  "  dysnoetic  learning."  The  Apostle  of  the 
Gentiles  was  brave,  outspoken,  sincere,  and  very  learned  ;  the  Apostle 
of  Circumcision,  cowardly,  cautious,  insincere,  and  very  ignorant.  That 
Paul  had  been,  partially,  at  least,  if  not  completely,  initiated  into  the 
theurgic  mysteries,  admits  of  little  doubt.  His  language,  the  phraseology 
so  peculiar  to  the  Greek  philosophers,  certain  expressions  used  but  by  the 
initiates,  are  so  many  sure  ear-marks  to  that  supposition.  Our  suspicion 
has  been  strengthened  by  an   able    article  in  one  of  the  New  York  peri- 

*   "Conflict,  etc.,"  p.  37.  \  Ibid. 


odicals,  entitled  Paul  and  Plato*  in  which  the  author  puts  forward  one 
remarkable  and,  for  us,  very  precious  observation.  In  his  Epistles  to  the 
Corinthians  he  shows  Paul  abounding  with  "expressions  suggested  by 
the  initiations  of  Sabazius  and  Eleusis,  and  the  lectures  of  the  (Greek) 
philosophers.  He  (Paul)  designates  himself  an  idiotes — a  person  unskil- 
ful in  the  Word,  but  not  in  the  gnosis  or  philosophical  learning.  '  We 
speak  wisdom  among  the  perfect  or  initiated,'  he  writes  ;  '  not  the  wis- 
dom of  this  world,  nor  of  the  archons  of  this  world,  but  divine  wisdom 
in  a  mystery,  secret — which  none  of  the  Archons  of  this  world  knew.'  "  \ 

What  else  can  the  apostle  mean  by  these  unequivocal  words,  but 
that  he  himself,  as  belonging  to  the  mystcs  (initiated),  spoke  of  things 
shown  and  explained  only  in  the  Mysteries  ?  The  "  divine  wisdom  in  a 
mystery  which  none  of  the  archons  of  this  world  knew,"  has  evidendy 
some  direct  reference  to  the  basileus  of  the  Eleusinian  initiation  who 
did  know.  The  basileus  belonged  to  the  staff  of  the  great  hierophant, 
and  was  an  archon  of  Athens ;  and  as  such  was  one  of  the  chief  mystce, 
belonging  to  the  interior  Mysteries,  to  which  a  very  select  and  small 
number  obtained  an  entrance.  J  The  magistrates  supervising  the  Eleu- 
sinians  were  called  archons. 

Another  proof  that  Paul  belonged  to  the  circle  of  the  "  Initiates"  lies 
in  the  following  fact.  The  apostle  had  his  head  shorn  at  Cenchrea 
(where  Lucius,  Afuleius,  was  initiated)  because  "  he  had  a  vow."  The 
fiazars — or  set  apart — as  we  see  in  the  Jewish  Scriptures,  had  to  cut 
their  hair  which  they  wore  long,  and  which  "  no  razor  touched  "  at  any 
other  time,  and  sacrifice  it  on  the  altar  of  initiation.  And  the  nazars 
were  a  class  of  Chaldean  theurgists.  We  will  show  further  that  Jesus 
belonged  to  this  class. 

Paul  declares  that :  "  According  to  the  grace  of  God  which  is  given 
unto  me,  as  a  wise  master-builder,  I  have  laid  the  foundation."  § 

This  expression,  master-builder,  used  only  ofice  in  the  whole  Bible, 
and  by  Paul,  may  be  considered  as  a  whole  revelation.  In  the  Mysteries, 
the  third  part  of  the  sacred  rites  was  called  Epopteia,  or  revelation,  recep- 
tion into  the  secrets.  In  substance  it  means  that  stage  of  divine  clairvoy- 
ance when  everything  pertaining  to  this  earth  disappears,  and  earthly  sight 
is  paralyzed,  and  the  soul  is  united  free  and  pure  with  its  Spirit,  or  God. 
But  the  real  significance  of  the  word  is  "  overseeing,"  from  o7rro/xai— 
I  see  myself.     In  Sanscrit  the  word    evdpto  has    the    same    meaning, 

*  "  Paul  and  Plato,"  by  A.  Wilder,  editor  of  "  The  Eleusinian  and  Bacchic  Mys" 
teries,"  of  Thomas  Taylor. 

\  "  Paul  and  Plato."        %  See  Taylor's  "  Eleus.  and  Bacchic  Myst." 
§  I  Corin.,  iii.  lo. 


as  well  as  to  obtain.  *  The  word  epopteia  is  a  compound  one,  from  E;ri 
— upon,  and  0-wTOfx.a.i — to  look,  or  an  overseer,  an  inspector — also  used 
for  a  master-builder.  The  title  of  master-mason,  in  Freemasonry,  is 
derived  from  this,  in  the  sense  used  in  the  Mysteries.  Therefore,  when 
Paul  entitles  himself  a  "  master-builder,"  he  is  using  a  word  pre-eminently 
kabalistic,  theurgic,  and  masonic,  and  one  which  no  other  apostle  uses. 
He  thus  declares  himself  an  adept,  having  the  right  to  initiate  others. 

If  we  search  in  this  direction,  with  those  sure  guides,  the  Grecian 
Mysteries  and  the  Kabala,  before  us,  it  will  be  easy  to  find  the  secret  reason 
why  Paul  was  so  persecuted  and  hated  by  Peter,  John,  and  James.  The 
author  of  the  Revelation  was  a  Jewish  kabalist  pur  sang,  with  all  the 
hatred  inherited  by  him  from  his  forefathers  toward  the  Mysteries,  f  His 
jealousy  during  the  life  of  Jesus  extended  even  to  Peter ;  and  it  is  but 
after  the  death  of  their  common  master  that  we  see  the  two  apostles — 
the  former  of  whom  wore  the  Mitre  and  the  Petaloon  of  the  Jewish 
Rabbis — preach  so  zealously  the  rite  of  circumcision.  In  the  eyes  of 
Peter,  Paul,  who  had  humiliated  him,  and  whom  he  felt  so  much  his 
superior  in  "Greek  learning"  and  philosophy,  must  have  naturally 
appeared  as  a  magician,  a  man  polluted  with  the  "  Gnosis"  with  the 
"  wisdom  "  of  the  Greek  Mysteries — hence,  perhaps,  "  Simon  \  the  Ma- 

As  to  Peter,  biblical  criticism  has  shown  before  now  that  he  had 
probably  no  more  to  do  with  the  foundation  of  the  Latin  Church  at 
Rome,  than  to  furnish  the  pretext  so  readily  seized  upon  by  the  cunning 
Irenasus  to  benefit  this  Church  with  the  new  name  of  the  apostle — 
Petra  or  Kiffa,  a  name  which  allowed  so  readily,  by  an  easy  play  upon 
words,  to  connect  it  with  Petroma,  the  double  set  of  stone  tablets  used 

*  In  its  most  extensive  meaning,  the  Sanscrit  word  has  the  same  literal  sense  as  the 
Greek  term  ;  both  imply  "  revelation,"  by  no  human  agent,  but  through  the  "  receiving 
of  the  sacred  drink."  In  India  the  initiated  received  the  "  Soma,"  sacred  drink,  which 
helped  to  liberate  his  soul  from  the  body ;  and  in  the  Eleusinian  Mysteries  it  was  the 
sacred  drink  offered  at  the  Epopteia.  The  Grecian  Mysteries  are  wholly  derived  from 
the  Brahmanical  Vedic  rites,  and  the  latter  from  the  ante-vedic  religious  Mysteries — 
primitive  Buddhist  philosophy. 

f  It  is  needless  to  state  that  the  Gospel  according  to  John  was  not  written  by  John 
but  by  a  Platonist  or  a  Gnostic  belonging  to  the  Neo-platonic  school. 

:j;  The  fact  that  Peter  persecuted  the  -'Apostle  to  the  Gentiles,"  under  that  name, 
does  not  necessarily  imply  that  there  was  no  Simon  Magus  individually  distinct  from 
Paul.  It  may  have  become  a  generic  name  of  abuse.  Theodoret  and  Chrysostom,  the 
earliest  and  most  prolific  commentators  on  the  Gnosticism  of  those  days,  seem  actually 
to  make  of  Simon  a  rival  of  Paul,  and  to  state  that  between  them  passed  frequent  mes- 
sages. The  former,  as  a  diligent  propagandist  of  what  Paul  terms  the  "  antitheses  of 
the  Gnosis"  (ist  Epistle  to  Timothy),  must  have  been  a  sore  thorn  in  the  side  of  the 
apostle.     There  are  sufficient  proofs  of  the  actual  existence  of  Simon  Magus. 


by  the  hierophant  at  the  initiations,  during  the  final  Mystery.  In  this, 
perhaps,  hes  concealed  the  whole  secret  of  the  claims  of  the  Vatican. 
As  Professor  Wilder  happily  suggests  :  "In  the  Oriental  countries  the 
designation  ins,  Peter  (in  Phoenician  and  Chaldaic,  an  interpreter) 
appears  to  have  been  the  title  of  this  personage  (the  hierophant).  .  .  . 
There  is  in  these  facts  some  reminder  of  the  peculiar  ciixumstances  of  the 
Mosaic  Law  .  .  .  and  also  of  the  claim  of  the  Pope  to  be  the  successor 
of  Peter,  the  hierophant  or  interpreter  of  the  Christian  religion."  * 

As  such,  we  must  concede  to  him,  to  some  extent,  the  right  to  be 
such  an  interpreter.  The  Latin  Church  has  faithfully  preserved  in 
symbols,  rites,  ceremonies,  architecture,  and  even  in  the  very  dress  of  her 
clergy,  the  tradition  of  the  Pagan  worship — of  the  public  or  exoteric 
ceremonies,  we  should  add ;  otherwise  her  dogmas  would  embody  more 
sense  and  contain  less  blasphemy  against  the  majesty  of  the  Supreme 
and  Invisible  God. 

An  inscription  found  on  the  coffin  of  Queen  Mentuhept,  of  the  elev- 
enth dynasty  (2250  B.C.),  now  proved  to  have  been  transcribed  from  the 
seventeenth  chapter  of  the  Book  of  the  Dead  (dating  not  later  than 
4500  B.C.),  is  more  than  suggestive.  This  monumental  text  contains  a 
group  of  hieroglyphics,  which,  when  interpreted,  read  thus  : 

PTR.    RF.    SU. 

Peter-        ref-         su. 

Baron  Bunsen  shows  this  sacred  formulary  mixed  up  with  a  whole 
series  of  glosses  and  various  interpretations  on  a  monument  forty  cen- 
turies old.  "  This  is  identical  with  saying  that  the  record  (the  true  inter- 
pretation) was  at  that  time  no  longer  intelligible.  .  .  .  We  beg  our 
readers  to  understand,"  he  adds,  "  that  a  sacred  text,  a  hymn,  containing 
the  words  of  a  departed  spirit,  existed  in  such  a  state  about  4,000 
years  ago  ...   as  to  be  all  but  unintelligible  to  royal  scribes."  f 

That  it  was  unintelligible  to  the  unitiated  among  the  latter  is  as  well 
proved  by  the  confused  and  contradictory  glossaries,  as  that  it-  was  a 
"  mystery  "-word,  known  to  the  hierophants  of  the  sanctuaries,  and,  more- 
over, a  word  chosen  by  Jesus,  to  designate  the  office  assigned  by  him  to 
one  of  his  apostles.  This  word,  PTR,  was  partially  interpreted,  owing 
to  another  word  similarly  written  in  another  group  of  hieroglyphics,  on  a 

*  "  Introd.  to  Eleus.  and  Bacchic  Mysteries,"  p.  x.  Had  we  not  trustworthy  kabal- 
istic  tradition  to  rely  upon,  we  might  be,  perhaps,  forced  to  question  whether  the  author- 
ship of  the  Revelation  is  to  be  ascribed  to  the  apostle  of  tliat  name.  He  seems  to 
be  termed  John  tlie  Theologist. 

\  Bunsen :  "  Egypt's  Place  in  Universal  History,"  vol.  v.,  p.  90. 


Stele,  the  sign  used  for  it  being  an  opened  eye.  *  Bimsen  mentions  as 
another  explanation  of  PTR — "  to  show."  "  It  appears  to  me,"  he  re- 
marks, "  that  oiir  PTR  is  literally  the  old  Aramaic  and  Hebrtw  '  Patar,' 
which  occurs  in  the  history  of  Joseph  as  the  specific  word  for  interpre- 
ting;  whence  also  Pitriim  is  the  term  for  interpretation  of  a  text,  a 
dream."  f  In  a  manuscript  of  the  first  century,  a  combination  of  the 
Demotic  and  Greek  texts,  J  and  most  probably  one  of  the  few  which 
miraculously  escaped  the  Christian  vandalism  of  the  second  and  third 
centuries,  when  all  such  precious  manuscripts  were  burned  as  magical, 
we  find  occurring  in  several  places  a  phrase,  which,  perhaps,  may  throw 
some  light  upon  this  question.  One  of  the  principal  heroes  of  the  manu- 
script, who  is  constantly  referred  to  as  "  the  Judean  Illmninator "  or 
Initiate,  TeXeiior^s,  is  made  to  communicate  but  with  his  Patar ;  the 
latter  being  written  in  Chaldaic  characters.  Once  the  latter  word  is 
coupled  with  the  name  Shimeon.  Several  times,  the  "  Illuminator,"  who 
rarely  breaks  his  contemplative  solitude,  is  shown  inhabiting  a  KpjW?? 
(cave),  and  teaching  the  multitudes  of  eager  scholars  standing  outside,  not 
orally,  but  through  this  Patar.  The  latter  receives  the  words  of  wisdom 
by  applying  his  ear  to  a  circular  hole  in  a  partition  which  conceals  the 
teacher  from  the  listeners,  and  then  conveys  them,  with  explanations  and 
glossaries,  to  the  crowd.  This,  with  a  slight  change,  was  the  method 
used  by  Pythagoras,  who,  as  we  know,  never  allowed  his  neophytes  to 
see  him  during  the  years  of  probation,  but  instructed  them  from  behind 
a  curtain  in  his  cave. 

But,  whether  the  "  Illuminator  "  of  the  GrEeco-Deraotic  manuscript 
is  identical  with  Jesus  or  not,  the  fact  remains,  that  we  find  him  selecting 
a  "  mystery  "-appellation  for  one  who  is  made  to  appear  later  by  the 
Catholic  Church  as  the  janitor  of  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven  and  the  inter- 
preter of  Christ's  will.  The  word  Patar  or  Peter  locates  both  master  and 
disciple  in  the  circle  of  initiation,  and  connects  them  with  the  "  Secret 
Doctrine."  The  great  hierophant  of  the  ancient  Mysteries  never  allowed 
the  candidates  to  see  or  hear  him  personally.  He  was  the  Deus-ex-Ma- 
china,  the  presiding  but  invisible  Deity,  uttering  his  will  and  instructions 
through  a  second  party  ;  and  2,000  years  later,  we  discover  that  the 
Dalai-Lamas  of  Thibet  had  been  following  for  centuries  the  same  tradition- 
al programme  during  the  most  important  religious  mysteries  of  lamaism. 

*  See  de  Rouge  :  "  Stele,"  p.  44  ;  Ptar  (videus)  is  interpreted  on  it  "  to  appear," 
with  a  sign  of  interrogation  after  it — tlie  usual  mark  of  scientific  perplexity.  In  Bunsen's 
fifth  volume  of  "'  Egypte,"  the  interpretation  following  is  "  Illuminator,"  which  is  more 

f  Bunsen's  "  Egypt,"  vol.  v.,  p.  90. 

\  It  is  the  property  of  a  mystic  whom  we  met  in  Syria. 


If  Jesus  knew  the  secret  meaning  of  the  title  bestowed  by  him  on  Simon, 
then  he  must  have  been  initiated  ;  otherwise  he  could  not  have  learned 
it ;  and  if  he  was  an  initiate  of  either  the  Pythagorean  Essenes,  the  Chal- 
dean Magi,  or  the  Egyptian  Priests,  then  the  doctrine  taught  by  him  was 
but  a  portion  of  the  '  Secret  Doctrine  "  taught  by  the  Pagan  hierophants 
to  the  few  select  adepts  admitted  within  the  sacred  adyta. 

But  we  will  discuss  this  question  further  on.  For  the  present  we  will 
endeavor  to  briefly  indicate  the  extraordinary  similarity — or  rather  iden- 
tity, we  should  say — of  rites  and  ceremonial  dress  of  the  Christian  clergy 
with  that  of  the  old  Babylonians,  Assyrians,  Phoenicians,  Egyptians,  and 
other  Pagans  of  the  hoary  antiquity. 

If  we  would  find  the  model  of  the  Papal  tiara,  we  must  search  the 
annals  of  the  ancient  Assyrian  tablets.  We  invite  the  reader  to  give  his 
attention  to  Dr.  Inman's  illustrated  work.  Ancient  Faga?i  and  Modern 
Christian  Symbolism.  On  page  sixty-four,  he  will  readily  recognize  the 
head-gear  of  the  successor  of  St.  Peter  in  the  coiffure  worn  by  gods  or 
angels  in  ancient  Assyria,  "  where  it  appears  crowned  by  an  emblem  of 
the  male  trinity  "  (the  Christian  Cross).  "  We  may  mention,  in  passing," 
adds  Dr.  Inman,  "  that,  as  the  Romanists  adopted  the  mitre  and  the 
tiara  from  '  the  cursed  brood  of  Ham,'  so  they  adopted  the  Episcopalian 
crook  from  the  augurs  of  Etruria,  and  the  artistic  form  with  which  they 
clothe  their  angels  from  the  painters  and  urn-makers  of  Magna  Grecia  and 
Central  Italy." 

Would  we  push  our  inquiries  farther,  and  seek  to  ascertain  as  much 
in  relation  to  the  nimbus  and  the  tonsure  of  the  Catholic  priest  and 
monk  ?  *  We  shall  find  undeniable  proofs  that  they  are  solar  emblems. 
Knight,  in  his  Old  England  Pictorially  Illustrated,  gives  a  drawing  by 
St.  Augustine,  representing  an  ancient  Christian  bishop,  in  a  dress  prob- 
ably identical  with  that  worn  by  the  great  "  saint  "  himself  'Y'he  pallium, 
or  the  ancient  stole  of  the  bishop,  is  the  feminine  sign  when  worn  by  a 
priest  in  worship.  On  St.  Augustine's  picture  it  is  bedecked  with  Bud- 
dhistic crosses,  and  in  its  whole  appearance  it  is  a  representation  of  the 
Egyptian  X  (^au),  assuming  slightly  the  figure  of  the  letter  Y-  "jf^^s 
lower  end  is  the  mark  of  the  masculine  triad,"  says  Inman;  "the  right 
hand  (of  the  figure)  has  the  forefinger  extended,  like  the  Assyrian  priests 
while  doing  homage  to  the  grove.  .  .  .  When  a  male  dons  the  pallium  in 
worship,  he  becomes  the  representative  of  the  trinity  in  the  unity,  the 
arba,  or  mystic  four."  f 

"Immaculate  is  our  Lady  Isis, "  is  the  legend  around  an  engraving 

*  The  Priests  of  Isis  were  tonsured. 

f  See  "  Ancient  Faiths,"  vol.  ii.,  pp.  915-918. 


of  Serapis  and  Isis,  described  by  King,  in  The  Gnostics  and  their  Re- 
mains, 'H  KYPIA  ICIC  ArNH  "...  the  very  terms  applied  afterwards  to 
that  personage  (the  Virgin  Mary)  who  succeeded  to  her  form,  tftles,  sym- 
bols, rites,  and  ceremonies.  .  .  .  Thus,  her  devotees  carried  into  the  new 
priesthood  the  former  badges  of  their  profession,  the  obligation  to  celi- 
bacy, the  tonsure,  and  the  surplice,  omitting,  unfortunately,  the  frequent 
ablutions  prescribed  by  the  ancient  creed."  "The  'Black  Virgins,'  so 
highly  reverenced  in  certain  French  cathedrals  .  .  .  proved,  when  at  last 
critically  examined,  basalt  figures  of  Isis  !  "  * 

Before  the  shrine  of  Jupiter  Amnion  were  suspended  tinkling  bells, 
from  the  sound  of  whose  chiming  the  priests  gathered  the  auguries  ;  "A 
golden  bell  and  a  pomegranate  .  .  .  round  about  the  hem  of  the  robe," 
was  the  result  with  the  Mosaic  Jews.  But  in  the  Buddhistic  system,  dur- 
ing the  religious  services,  the  gods  of  the  Deva  Loka  are  always  invoked, 
and  invited  to  descend  upon  the  altars  by  the  ringing  of  bells  suspend- 
ed in  the  pagodas.  The  bell  of  the  sacred  table  of  Siva  at  Kuhama  is 
described  in  Kailasa,  and  every  Buddhist  vihara  and  lamasery  has  its 

We  thus  see  that  the  bells  used  by  Christians  come  to  them  directly 
from  the  Buddhist  Thibetans  and  Chinese.  The  beads  and  rosaries  have 
the  same  origin,  and  have  been  used  by  Buddhist  monks  for  over  2,300 
years.  The  Linghams  in  the  Hindu  temples  are  ornamented  upon  certain 
days  with  large  berries,  from  a  tree  sacred  to  Mahadeva,  which  are  strung 
into  rosaries.  The  title  of  "  nun  "  is  an  Egyptian  word,  and  had  with  them 
the  actual  meaning ;  the  Christians  did  not  even  take  the  trouble  of  trans- 
lating the  word  Nonna.  The  aureole  of  the  saints  was  used  by  the  ante- 
diluvian artists  of  Babylonia,  whenever  they  desired  to  honor  or  deify  a 
mortal's  head.  In  a  celebrated  picture  in  Moore's  Hindoo  Pantheon,  en- 
tided,  "  Christna  nursed  by  Devaki,  from  a  highly-finished  picture,"  the 
Hindu  Virgin  is  represented  as  seated  on  a  lounge  and  nursing  Christna. 
The  hair  brushed  back,  the  long  veil,  and  the  golden  aureole  around  the 
Virgin's  head,  as  well  as  around  that  of  the  Hindu  Saviour,  are  striking. 
No  Catholic,  well  versed  as  he  might  be  in  the  mysterious  symbolism 
of  iconology,  would  hesitate  for  a  moment  to  worship  at  that  shrine  the 
Virgin  JMary,  the  mother  of  his  God  !  "  f  In  Indur  Subba,  the  south 
entrance  of  the  Caves  of  Ellora,  may  be  seen  to  this  day  the  figure  of 
Indra's  wife,  Indranee,  sitting  with  her  infant  son-god,  pointing  the  finger 
to  heaven  with  the  same  gesture  as  the  Italian  Madonna  and  child. 
In  Pagan  and  Christian  Symbolism,  the   author  gives  a  figure  from  a 

*  "  The  Gnostics  and  their  Remains,''  p.  71. 

f  See  illustration  in  Inman's  "Ancient  Pagan  and  Modern  Christian  Symbolism," 
p.  27. 


mediasval  woodcut — the  like  of  which  we  have  seen  by  dozens  in  old 
psalters— in  which  the  Virgin  Mary,  with  her  infant,  is  represented  as 
the  Queen  of  Heaven,  on  the  crescent  moon,  emblem  of  virginity. 
'•  Being  before  the  sun,  she  almost  eclipses  its  light.  Than  this,  nothing 
could  more  completely  identify  the  Christian  mother  and  child  with  Isis 
and  Horus,  Ishtar,  Venus,  Juno,  and  a  host  of  other  Pagan  goddesses, 
who  have  been  called  'Queen  of  Heaven,'  'Queen  of  the  Universe,' 
'  Mother  of  God,  '  Spouse  of  God,'  '  the  Celestial  Virgin,'  '  the  Heavenly 
Peace-Maker,'  etc."  * 

Such  pictures  are  not  purely  astronomical.  They  represent  the  male 
god  and  the  female  goddess,  as  the  sun  and  moon  in  conjunction,  "the 
union  of  the  triad  with  the  unit."  The  horns  of  the  cow  on  the  head  of 
Isis  have  the  same  significance. 

And  so  above,  below,  outside,  and  inside,  the  Christian  Church,  in 
the  priestly  garments,  and  the  religious  rites,  we  recognize  the  stamp  of 
exoteric  heathenism.  On  no  subject  within  the  wide  range  of  human 
knowledge,  has  the  world  been  more  blinded  or  deceived  with  such  per- 
sistent misrepresentation  as  on  that  of  antiquity.  Its  hoary  past  and  its 
religious  faiths  have  been  misrepresented  and  trampled  under  the  feet  of 
its  successors.  Its  hierophants  and  prophets,  mystae  and  epoptae,  f  of  the 
once  sacred  adyta  of  the  temple  shown  as  demoniacs  and  devil-worshippers. 
Donned  in  the  despoiled  garments  of  the  victim,  the  Christian  priest  now 
anathematizes  the  latter  with  rites  and  ceremonies  which  he  has  learned 
from  the  theurgists  themselves.  The  Mosaic  Bible  is  used  as  a  weapon 
against  the  people  who  furnished  it.  The  heathen  philosopher  is  cursed 
under  the  very  roof  which  has  witnessed  his  initiation  ;  and  the  "  monkey 
of  God"  (i.  e.,  the  devil  of  Tertullian),  "the  originator  and  founder  of 
magical  theurgy,  the  science  of  illusions  and  lies,  whose  father  and  author 
is  the  demon,"  is  exorcised  with  holy  water  by  the  hand  which  holds  the 
identical  lituus\  with  which  the  ancient  augur,  after  a  solemn  prayer, 
used  to  determine  the  regions  of  heaven,  and  evoke,  in  the  name  of  the 
HIGHEST,  the  minor  god  (now  termed  the  Devil),  who  unveiled  to  his  eyes 
futurity,  and  enabled  him  to  prophesy !  On  the  part  of  the  Christians 
and  the  clergy  it  is  nothing  but  shameful  ignorance,  prejudice,  and  that 
contemptible  pride  so  boldly  denounced  by  one  of  their  own  reverend 
ministers,  T.  Gross,  §  which  rails  against  all  investigation  "  as  a  useless 
or  a  criminal  labor,  when  it  must  be  feared  that  they  will  result  in  die 
overthrow  of  preestablished  systems  of  faith."  On  the  part  of  the  schol- 
ars it  is  the  same  apprehension  of  the  possible  necessity  of  having  to 

*  Ibid.,  p.  76.  f  Initiates  and  seers. 

X  The  augur's,  and  now  bishop's,  pastoral  crook.     §  "  Tlie  Heathen  Religion." 

JUSTIN   martyr's   confession   ABOUT  THEURGIC   AMULETS.  9/ 

modify  some  of  their  erroneously-established  theories  of  science.  "  Noth- 
ing but  such  pitiable  prejudice,"  says  Gross,  "  can  have  thus  misrepre- 
sented the  theology  of  heathenism,  and  distorted — nay,  caricatured — its 
forms  of  religious  worship.  It  is  time  that  posterity  should  raise  its  voice 
in  vindication  of  violated  truth,  and  that  the  present  age  should  learn  a 
little  of  that  common  sense  of  which  it  boasts  with  as  much  self-compla- 
cency as  if  the  prerogative  of  reason  was  the  birthright  only  of  modern 

All  this  gives  a  sure  clew  to  the  real  cause  of  the  hatred  felt  by  the 
early  and  mediaeval  Christian  toward  his  Pagan  brother  and  dangerous 
rival.  We  hate  but  what  we  fear.  The  Christian  thaumaturgist  once 
having  broken  all  association  with  the  Mysteries  of  the  temples  and  with 
"  these  schools  so  renowned  for  magic,"  described  by  St.  Hilarion,*  could 
certainly  expect  but  little  to  rival  the  Pagan  wonder-workers.  No 
apostle,  with  the  exception  perhaps  of  healing  by  mesmeric  power,  has 
ever  equalled  Apollonius  of  Tyana ;  and  the  scandal  created  among  the 
apostles  by  the  miracle-doing  Simon  Magus,  is  too  notorious  to  be  re- 
peated here  again.  "  How  is  it,"  asks  Justin  Martyr,  in  evident  dismay, 
"how  is  it  that  the  talismans  of  Apollonius  (the  reXecr/xaTa)  have  power 
in  certain  members  of  creation,  for  they  prevent,  as  we  see,  the  fury  of 
the  waves,  and  the  violence  of  the  winds,  and  the  attacks  of  wild  beasts  ; 
and  whilst  our  Lord's  miracles  are  preserved  by  tradition  alone,  those  of 
Apollonius  are  most  numerous,  and  actually  manifested  in  present  facts, 
so  as  to  lead  astray  all  beholders  ?  "  f  This  perplexed  martyr  solves  the 
problem  by  attributing  very  correctly  the  efficacy  and  potency  of  the 
charms  used  by  Apollonius  to  his  profound  knowledge  of  the  sympathies 
and  antipathies  (or  repugnances)  of  nature. 

Unable  to  deny  the  evident  superiority  of  their  enemies'  powers,  the 
fathers  had  recourse  to  the  old  but  ever  successful  method — that  of 
slander.  They  honored  the  theurgists  with  the  same  insinuating  calumny 
that  had  been  resorted  to  by  the  Pharisees  against  Jesus.  "Thou  hast  a 
daemon,"  the  elders  of  the  Jewish  Synagogue  had  said  to  him.  "  Thou 
hast  the  Devil,"  repeated  the  cunning  fathers,  with  equal  truth,  ad- 
dressing the  Pagan  thaumaturgist ;  and  the  widely-bruited  charge,  erected 
later  into  an  article  of  faith,  won  the  day. 

But  the  modern  heirs  of  these  ecclesiastical  falsifiers,  who  charge 
magic,  spiritualism,  and  even  magnetism  with  being  produced  by  a  demon, 
forget  or  perhaps  never  read  the  classics.  None  of  our  bigots  has  ever 
looked  with  more  scorn  on  the  abuses  of  magic  than  did  the  true  initiate 

*  "  Pferes  du  Desert  d'Orient,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  283. 
f  Justin  Martyr  :   "Quaest.,"  xxiv. 



of  old.  No  modern  or  even  medieval  law  could  be  more  severe  than 
that  of  the  hierophant.  True,  he  had  more  discrimination,  charity,  and 
justice,  than  the  Christian  clergy  ;  for  while  banishing  the  "unconscious" 
sorcerer,  the  person  troubled  with  a  demon,  from  within  the  sacred  pre- 
cincts of  the  adyta,  the  priests,  instead  of  mercilessly  burning  him,  took 
care  of  the  unfortunate  "possessed  one."  Having  hospitals  expressly 
for  that  purpose  in  the  neighborhood  of  temples,  the  ancient  "  medium," 
if  obsessed,  was  taken  care  of  and  restored  to  health.  But  with  one 
who  had,  by  conscious  witchcraft,  acquired  powers  dangerous  to  his  fellow- 
creatures,  the  priests  of  old  were  as  severe  as  justice  herself.  "  Any  per- 
son accidentally  guilty  of  homicide,  or  of  any  crime,  or  convicted  of 
'untchcraft,  was  excluded  from  the  Eleusinian  Mysteries."*  And  so  were 
they  from  all  others.  This  law,  mentioned  by  all  writers  on  the  ancient 
initiation,  speaks  for  itself.  The  claim  of  Augustine,  that  all  the  expla- 
nations given  by  the  Neo-platonists  were  invented  by  themselves  is  absurd. 
For  nearly  every  ceremony  in  their  true  and  successive  order  is  given  by 
Plato  himself,  in  a  more  or  less  covered  way.  The  Mysteries  are  as  old 
as  the  world,  and  one  well  versed  in  the  esoteric  mythologies  of  various 
nations  can  trace  them  back  to  the  days  of  the  ante-Vedic  period  in 
India.  A  condition  of  the  strictest  virtue  and  purity  is  required  from  the 
Vatou,  or  candidate  in  India  before  he  can  become  an  initiate,  whether 
he  aims  to  be  a  simple  fakir,  a  Purohita  (public  priest)  or  a  Sannyasi, 
a  saint  of  the  second  degree  of  initiation,  the  most  holy  as  the  most 
revered  of  them  all.  After  having  conquered,  in  the  terrible  trials  pre- 
hminary  to  admittance  to  the  inner  temple  in  the  subterranean  crypts  of 
his  pagoda,  the  sannyasi  passes  the  rest  of  his  life  in  the  temple,  prac- 
ticing the  eighty-four  rules  and  ten  virtues  prescribed  to  the  Yogis. 

"  No  one  who  has  not  practiced,  during  his  whole  life,  the  ten  virtues 
which  the  divine  Manu  makes  incumbent  as  a  duty,  can  be  initiated  into 
the  Mysteries  of  the  council,"  say  the  Hindu  books  of  initiation. 

These  virtues  are  :  "  Resignation  ;  the  act  of  rendering  good  for  evil ; 
temperance  ;  probity ;  purity  ;  chastity ;  repression  of  the  physical 
senses  ;  the  knowledge  of  the  Holy  Scriptures  ;  that  of  the  Superior 
soul  (spirit)  ;  worship  of  truth  ;  abstinence  from  anger."  These  virtues 
must  alone  direct  the  life  of  a  true  Yogi.  "  No  unworthy  adept  ought 
to  defile  the  ranks  of  the  holy  initiates  by  his  presence  for  twenty-four 
hours."  The  adept  becomes  guilty  after  having  once  broken  any  one 
of  these  vows.  Surely  the  exercise  of  such  virtues  is  inconsistent  with 
the  idea  one  has  of  ^«'//-worship  and  lasciviousness  of  purpose  ! 

And  now  we  will  try  to  give  a  clear  insight  into  one  of  the  chief  ob- 

*  See  Taylor's  "  Eleusinian  and  Bacchic  Mysteries ;"  Porphyry  and  others. 


jccts  of  this  work.  What  we  desire  to  prove  is,  that  underlying  every 
ancient  popular  religion  was  the  same  ancient  wisdom-doctrine,  one  and 
identical,  professed  and  practiced  by  the  initiates  of  every  country, 
who  alone  were  aware  of  its  existence  and  importance.  To  ascertain 
its  origin,  and  the  precise  age  in  which  it  was  matured,  is  now  beyond 
human  possibility.  A  single  glance,  however,  is  enough  to  assure  one 
that  it  could  not  have  attained  the  marvellous  perfection  in  which  we 
find  it  pictured  to  us  in  the  relics  of-  the  various  esoteric  systems,  except 
after  a  succession  of  ages.  A  philosophy  so  profound,  a  moral  code  so 
ennobling,  and  practical  results  so  conclusive  and  so  uniformly  demon- 
strable is  not  the  growth  of  a  generation,  or  even  a  single  epoch.  Fact 
must  have  been  piled  upon  fact,  deduction  upon  deduction,  science  have 
begotten  science,  and  myriads  of  the  brightest  human  intellects  have  re- 
flected upon  the  laws  of  nature,  before  this  ancient  doctrine  had  taken  con- 
crete shape.  The  proofs  of  this  identity  of  fundamental  doctrine  in  the 
old  religions  are  found  in  the  prevalence  of  a  system  of  initiation  ;  in 
the  secret  sacerdotal  castes  who  had  the  guardianship  of  mystical  words 
of  power,  and  a  public  display  of  a  phenomenal  control  over  natural 
forces,  indicating  association  with  preterhuman  beings.  Every  approach 
to  the  Mysteries  of  all  these  nations  was  guarded  with  the  same  jealous 
care,  and  in  all,  the  penalty  of  death  was  inflicted  upon  initiates  of  any 
degree  who  divulged  the  secrets  entrusted  to  them.  We  have  seen  that 
such  was  the  case  in  the  Eleusinian  and  Bacchic  Mysteries,  among  the 
Chaldean  Magi,  and  the  Egyptian  hierophants  ;  while  with  the  Hindus, 
from  whom  they  were  all  derived,  the  same  rule  has  prevailed  from  time  im- 
memorial. We  are  left  in  no  doubt  upon  this  point ;  for  the  Agrushada 
Parikshai  says  explicitly,  "  Every  initiate,  to  whatever  degree  he  may 
belong,  who  reveals  the  great  sacred  formula,  must  be  put  to  death." 

Naturally  enough,  this  same  extreme  penalty  was  prescribed  in  all  the 
multifarious  sects  and  brotherhoods  which  at  different  periods  have  sprung 
from  the  ancient  stock.  We  find  it  with  the  early  Essenes,  Gnostics, 
theurgic  Neo-platonists,  and  medieval  philosophers  ;  and  in  our  day,  even 
ihe  Masons  perpetuate  the  memory  of  the  old  obligations  in  the  penalties 
of  throat-cutting,  dismemberment,  and  disemboweling,  with  which  the 
candidate  is  threatened.  As  the  Masonic  "master's  word"  is  communi- 
cated only  at  "  low  breath,"  so  the  selfsame  precaution  is  prescribed  in 
the  Chaldean  Book  of  Numbers  and  the  Jewish  Mercaba.  When  initiated, 
the  neophyte  was  led  by  an  ancient  to  a  secluded  spot,  and  there  the 
latter  whispered  in  his  ear  the  great  secret.*  The  .A-Eason  swears,  under 
the  most  fricrhtful  penalties,  that  he  will  not  communicate  the  secrets  of 

*  Franck  :     "  Die  Kabbala." 


any  degree  "  to  a  brother  of  an  inferior  degree  ;  "  and  the  Agrushada 
Parikshai  says  :  "  Any  initiate  of  the  third  degree  who  reveals  before 
the  prescribed  time,  to  the  initiates  of  the  second  degree,  the  superior 
truths,  must  be  put  to  death."  Again,  the  Masonic  apprentice  consents 
to  have  his  "  tongue  torn  out  by  the  roots  "  if  he  divulge  anything  to  a 
profane ;  and  in  the  Hindu  books  of  initiation,  the  same  Agrushada 
Parikshai,  we  find  that  any  initiate  of  the  first  degree  (the  lowest)  who 
betrays  the  secrets  of  his  initiation,  to  members  of  other  castes,  for  whom 
the  science  should  be  a  closed  book,  must  have  "  \i\%  tongue  cut  out "  and 
■juffer  other  mutilations. 

As  we  proceed,  we  will  point  out  the  evidences  of  this  identity  of 
vows,  formulas,  rites,  and  doctrines,  between  the  ancient  faiths.  We  will 
also  show  that  not  only  their  memory  is  still  preserved  in  India,  but  also 
that  the  Secret  Association  is  still  alive  and  as  active  as  ever.  That,  after 
reading  what  we  have  to  say,  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  chief  pontiff  and 
hierophant,  the  Brahmdtma,  is  still  accessible  to  those  "  who  know," 
though  perhaps  recognized  by  another  name  ;  and  that  the  ramifications 
of  his  influence  extend  throughout  the  world.  But  we  will  now  return 
again  to  the  early  Christian  period. 

As  though  he  were  not  aware  that  there  was  any  esoteric  significance 
to  the  exoteric  symbols,  and  that  the  Mysteries  themselves  were  composed 
of  two  parts,  the  lesser  at  Agrse,  and  the  higher  ones  at  Eleusinia,  Cle- 
mens Alexandrinus,  with  a  rancorous  bigotry  that  one  might  expect  from 
a  renegade  Neo-platonist,  but  is  astonished  to  find  in  this  generally  honest 
and  learned  Father,  stigmatized  the  Mysteries  as  indecent  and  diabolical. 
Whatever  were  the  rites  enacted  among  the  neophytes  before  they  passed 
to  a  higher  form  of  instruction  ;  however  misunderstood  were  the  trials 
of  Katliarsis  or  purification,  during  which  they  were  submitted  to  every 
kind  of  probation  ;  and  however  much  the  immaterial  or  physical  aspect 
night  have  led  to  calumny,  it  is  but  wicked  prejudice  which  can  compel 
a  person  to  say  that  under  this  external  meaning  there  was  not  a  far 
deeper  and  spiritual  significance. 

It  is  positively  absurd  to  judge  the  ancients  from  our  own  stand- 
point of  propriety  and  virtue.  And  most  assuredly  it  is  not  for  the  Church 
— which  now  stands  accused  by  all  the  modern  symbologists  of  having 
adopted  precisely  these  same  emblems  in  their  coarsest  aspect,  and  feels 
lierself  powerless  to  refute  the  accusations — to  throw  the  stone  at  those 
who  were  her  models.  When  men  like  Pythagoras,  Plato,  and  lambli- 
chus,  renowned  for  their  severe  morality,  took  part  in  the  Mysteries,  and 
spoke  of  them  with  veneration,  it  ill  behooves  our  modern  critics  to  judge 
them  so  rashly  upon  their  merely  external  aspect.  laniblichus  explains 
the  worst ;    and   his  explanation,  for  an  unprejudiced  mind,  ought  to  be 


perfectly  plausible.  "  Exhibitions  of  this  kind,"  he  says,  "in  the  Myste- 
ries were  designed  to  free  us  from  licentious  passions,  by  gratifying  the 
sight,  and  at  the  same  time  vanquishing  all  evil  thought,  through  the  awfiu 
ja/zrfZ/y  with  which  these  rites  were  accompanied."*  "The  wisest  and 
best  men  in  the  Pagan  world,"  adds  Dr.  Warburton,  "  are  unanimous  in 
this,  that  the  Mysteries  were  instituted  pure,  and  proposed  the  noblest 
ends  by  the  worthiest  means."  f 

In  these  celebrated  rites,  although  persons  of  both  sexes  and  all 
classes  were  allowed  to  take  a  part,  and  a  participation  in  them  was  even 
obligatory,  very  few  indeed  attained  the  higher  and  final  initiation.  The 
gradation  of  the  Mysteries  is  given  us  by  Proclus  in  the  fourth  book  of  his 
Theology  of  Plato.  "  The  perfective  rite  T^ken),  precedes  in  order  the  - 
initiation — -Mtiesis — and  the  initiation,  Epopteia,  or  the  final  apocal3'pse 
(revelation)."  Theon  of  Smyrna,  in  Mathematica,  also  divides  the  mys- 
tic rites  into  five  parts  :  "  the  first  of  which  is  the  previous  purification  ; 
for  neither  are  the  Mysteries  communicated  to  all  who  are  willing  to  re- 
ceive them ;  .  .  .  there  are  certain  persons  who  are  prevented  by  the 
voice  of  the  crier  (lojpvf)  .  .  .  since  it  is  necessary  that  such  as  are  not 
expelled  from  the  Mysteries  should  first  be  refined  by  certain  purifications 
which  the  reception  of  the  sacred  rites  succeeds.  The  third  part  is  de- 
nominated epopteia  or  reception.  And  the  fourth,  which  is  the  end  and 
design  of  the  revelation,  is  the  binding  of  the  head  and  fixing  of  the 
crowns  \  .  .  .  whether  after  this  he  (the  initiated  person)  becomes  .  .  . 
an  hierophant  or  sustains  some  other  ])art  of  the  sacerdotal  office.  But 
the  fifth,  which  is  produced  from  all  these,  is  friendship  and  interior 
communion  with  God."  And  this  was  the  last  and  most  awful  of  all  the 

There  are  writers  who  have  often  wondered  at  the  meaning  of  tliis 
claim  to  a  "  friendship  and.  interior  communion  with  God."  Christian 
authors  have  denied  the  pretensions  of  the  "  Pagans"  to  such  "  commu- 
nion," affirming  that  only  Christian  saints  were  and  are  capable  of  enjoy- 
ing it ;  materialistic  skeptics  have  altogether  scoffed  at  the  idea  of  both. 
After  long  ages  of  religious  materialism  and  spiritual  stagnation,  it  has 
most  certainly  become  difficult  if  not  altogether  impossible  to  substantiate 
the  claims    of  either  party.     The   old  Greeks,  who   had    once    crowded 

*  "Mysteries  of  the  Egyptians,  Chaldeans,  and  Assyrians." 

f  "  Divine  Legation  of  Moses  ;  "  The  "  Eleusinian  Mysteries  "  as  quoted  by  Thos. 

\  This  expression  must  not  be  understood  literally ;  for  as  in  the  initiation  of  certain 
Brotherhoods  it  has  a  secret  meaning,  hinted  at  by  Pythagoras,  when  he  describes  his 
feelings  after  the  initiation  and  tells  that  he  was  crowned  by  the  gods  in  whose  pres- 
ence he  had  drunk  "the  waters  of  life  " — in  Hindu,  d-bi-hay&t,  fount  of  life. 


around  the  Agora  of  Athens,  with  its  altar  to  the  "  Unknown  God,"  are 
no  more  ;  and  their  descendants  firmly  beheve  that  they  have  found  the 
"  Unknown  "  in  the  Jewish  Jehova.  The  divine  ecstasies  of  the  early 
Christians  have  made  room  for  visions  of  a  more  modern  character,  in 
perfect  keeping  with  progress  and  civilization.  The  "  Son  of  man  "  ap- 
pearing to  the  rapt  vision  of  the  ancient  Christian  as  coming  from  the 
seventh  heaven,  in  a  cloud  of  glory,  and  surrounded  with  angels  and 
winged  seraphim,  has  made  room  for  a  more  prosaic  and  at  the  same 
time  more  business-like  Jesus.  The  latter  is  now  shown  as  making  morn- 
ing calls  upon  Mary  and  Martha  in  Bethany  ;  as  seating  himself  on  "  the 
ottomaii"  with  the  younger  sister,  a  lover  of  "ethics,"  while  Martha  goes 
off  to  the  kitchen  to  cook.  Anon  the  heated  fancy  of  a  blasphemous 
Brooklyn  preacher  and  harlequin,  the  Reverend  Dr.  Talmage,  makes  us 
see  her  rushing  back  "  with  besweated  brow,  a  pitcher  in  one  hand  and 
the  tongs  in  the  other  .  .  .  into  the  presence  of  Christ,"  and  blowing  him 
up  for  not  caring  that  her  sister  hath  left  her  "  to  serve  alone."* 

From  the  birth  of  the  solemn  and  majestic  conception  of  the  unre- 
vealed  Deity  of  the  ancient  adepts  to  such  caricatured  descriptions  of 
him  who  died  an  the  Cross  for  his  philanthropic  devotion  to  humanity, 
long  centuries  have  intervened,  and  their  heavy  tread  seems  to  have 
almost  entirely  obliterated  all  sense  of  a  spiritual  religion  from  the  hearts 
of  his  professed  followers.  No  wonder  then,  that  the  sentence  of  Proclus 
is  no  longer  understood  by  the  Christians,  and  is  rejected  as  a  "vagary" 
by  the  materialists,  who,  in  their  negation,  are  less  blasphemous  and 
atheistical  than  many  of  the  reverends  and  members  of  the  churches. 
But,  although  the  Greek  epopiai  are  no  more,  we  have  now,  in  our  own 
age,  a  people  far  more  ancient  than  the  oldest  Hellenes,  who  practice 
the  so-called  "  preterhuman  "  gifts  to  the  same  extent  as  did  their  ances- 
tors far  earlier  than  the  days  of  Troy.  It  is  to  this  people  that  we  draw 
the  attention  of  the  psychologist  and  philosopher. 

One  need  not  go  very  deep  into  the  literature  of  the  Orientalists  to 
become  convinced  that  in  most  cases  they  do  not  even   suspect  that  in 

*  This  original  and  very  long  sermon  was  preached  in  a  church  at  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. , 
on  the  15th  day  of  April,  1877.  On  the  following  morning,  the  reverend  orator  was 
called  in  the  "  Sun"  a  gibbering  charlatan  ;  but  this  deserved  epithet  will  not  prevent 
other  reverend  buffoons  doing  the  same  and  everi  worse.  And  this  is  the  religion  of 
Christ  !  Far  better  disbelieve  in  him  altogether  than  caricature  one's  God  in  such  a 
manner.  We  heartily  applaud  the  "  Sun"  for  the  following  views  :  "And  then  when 
Talmage  makes  Christ  say  to  Martha  in  the  tantrums :  '  Don't  worry,  but  sit  down  on 
this  ottoman,'  he  adds  the  climax  to  a  scene  that  the  inspired  writers  had  nothing  to 
say  about.  Talmage's  buffoonery  is  going  too  far.  If  he  were  the  worst  heretic  in 
the  land,  instead  of  being  straight  in  his  orthodoxy,  he  would  not  do  so  much  evil  to 
religion  as  he  does  by  his  familiar  blasphemies." 


the  arcane  philosophy  of  India  there  are  deptlis  whicli  they  have  not 
sounded,  and  cannot  sound,  for  they  pass  on  without  perceiving  them- 
There  is  a  pervading  tone  of  conscious  superiority,  a  ring  of  cotitempt  in 
the  treatment  of  Hindu  metaphysics,  as  thougli  the  European  mind  is 
alone  enlightened  enough  to  polish  the  rough  diamond  of  the  old  San- 
scrit writers,  and  separate  right  from  wrong  for  the  benefit  of  their  de- 
scendants. We  see  them  disputing  over  the  external  forms  of  expression 
without  a  conception  of  the  great  vital  truths  these  hide  from  the  profane 

■'As  a  rule,  the  Brahmans,"  says  JacoUiot,  "rarely  go  beyond  the 
class  of  grihesta  [priests  of  the  vulgar  castes]  and  piirahita  [exorcisers, 
divines,  prophets,  and  evocators  of  spirits].  And  yet,  we  shall  see  .  .  . 
once  that  we  have  touched  upon  the  question  and  study  of  manifestations 
and  phenomena,  that  these  initiates  of  the  first  degree  (the  lowest)  at- 
tribute to  themselves,  and  in  appearance  possess  faculties  developed  to  a 
degree  which  has  never  been  equalled  in  Europe.  As  to  the  initiates  of 
the  second  and  especially  of  the  third  category,  they  pretend  to  be 
enabled  to  ignore  time,  space,  and  to  command  life  and  death."  * 

Such  initiates  as  these  M.  Jacolliot  did  not  meet ;  for,  as  he  says  him- 
self, they  only  appear  on  the  most  solemn  occasions,  and  when  the  faith 
of  the  multitudes  has  to  be  strengthened  by  phenomena  of  a  superior 
order.  "  They  are  never  seen,  either  in  the  neighborhood  of,  or  even  in- 
side the  temples,  except  at  the  grand  quinquennial  festival  of  the  fire. 
On  that  occasion,  they  appear  about  the  middle  of  the  night,  on  a  plat- 
form erected  in  the  centre  of  the  sacred  lake,  like  so  many  phantoms, 
and  by  their  conjurations  they  illumine  the  space.  A  fiery  column  of 
light  ascends  from  around  them,  rushing  from  earth  to  heaven.  Unfa- 
miliar sounds  vibrate  through  the  air,  and  five  or  six  hundred  thousand 
Hindus,  gathered  from  every  part  of  India  to  contemplate  these  demi- 
gods, throw  themselves  with  their  faces  buried  in  the  dust,  invoking  the 
souls  of  their  ancestors."  f 

Let  any  impartial  person  read  the  Spiritisme  dans  le  Afonde,  and  he 
cannot  believe  that  this  "implacable  rationalist,"  as  Jacolliot  takes  pride 
in  terming  himself,  said  one  word  more  than  is  warranted  by  what  he  had 
seen.  His  statements  support  and  are  corroborated  by  those  of  other 
skeptics.  As  a  rule,  the  missionaries,  even  after  passing  half  a  lifetime 
in  the  country  of  "  devil-worship,"  as  they  call  India,  either  disingenu- 
ously deny  altogether  what  they  cannot  help  knowing  to  be  true,  or 
ridiculously  attribute  phenomena  to  this  power  of  the  Devil,  that  outrival 
the  "  miracles  "  of  the  apostolic  ages.     And  what  do  we  see  this  French 

*  "  Le  Spiritisme  dans  le  Monde,"  p.  6S.      f  Ibid.,  pp.  78,  79. 


author,  notwithstanding  his  incorrigible  rationalism,  forced  to  admit, 
after  having  narrated  the  greatest  wonders?  Watch  the  fakirs  as  he 
would,  he  is  compelled  to  bear  the  strongest  testimony  to  their  perfect 
honesty  in  the  matter  of  their  miraculous  phenomena.  "  Never,"  he 
says,  "  have  we  succeeded  in  detecting  a  single  one  in  the  act  of  deceit." 
One  fact  should  be  noted  by  all  who,  without  having  been  in  India,  still 
fancy  they  are  clever  enough  to  expose  the  fraud  oi pretended  magicians. 
This  skilled  and  cool  observer,  this  redoubtable  materialist,  after  his 
long  sojourn  in  India,  affirms,  "We  unhesitatingly  avow  that  we  have  not 
met,  either  in  India  or  in  Ceylon,  a  single  European,  even  among  the  old- 
est residents,  who  has  been  able  to  indicate  the  means  employed  by  these 
devotees  for  the  production  of  these  phenomena  !  " 

And  how  should  they  ?  Does  not  this  zealous  Orientalist  confess  to 
us  that  even  he,  who  had  every  available  means  at  hand  to  learn  many  of 
their  rites  and  doctrines  at  first  hand,  failed  in  his  attempts  to  make  the 
Brahmans  explain  to  him  their  secrets.  "  All  that  our  most  diligent  inqui- 
ries of  the  Pourohitas  could  elicit  from  them  respecting  the  acts  of  their 
superiors  (the  invisible  initiates  of  the  temples),  amounts  to  very  little." 
And  again,  speaking  of  one  of  the  books,  he  confesses  that,  while  purport- 
ing to  reveal  all  that  is  desirable  to  know,  it  "  falls  back  into  mysterious 
formulas,  in  combinations  of  magical  and  occult  letters,  the  secret  of 
which  it  has  been  impossible  for  us  to  penetrate,"  etc. 

The  fakirs,  although  they  can  never  reach  beyond  the  first  degree  of 
initiation,  are,  notwithstanding,  the  only  agents  between  the  living  world 
and  the  "  silent  brothers,"  or  those  initiates  who  never  cross  the  thresh- 
olds of  their  sacred  dwellings.  The  Fukara-Yogis  belong  to  the  tem- 
ples, and  who  knows  but  these  cenobites  of  the  sanctuary  have  far  more 
to  do  with  the  psychological  phenomena  which  attend  the  fakirs,  and 
have  been  so  graphically  described  by  Jacolliot,  than  the  Pitris  them- 
selves? Who  can  tell  but  that  the  fluidic  spectre  of  the  ancient  Brahman 
seen  by  Jacolliot  was  the  Scin-lecca,  the  spiritual  double,  of  one  of  these 
mysterious  sannyasi  ? 

Although  the  story  has  been  translated  and  commented  upon  by  Pro- 
fessor Perty,  of  Geneva,  still  we  will  venture  to  give  it  in  JacolHot's  own 
words  :  "  A  moment  after  tlie  disappearance  of  the  hands,  the  fakir  con- 
tinuing his  evocations  {mantras)  more  earnestly  than  ever,  a  cloud  tike 
the  first,  but  more  opalescent  and  more  opaque,  began  to  hover  near 
the  small  brasier,  which,  by  request  of  the  Hindu,  I  had  constantly  fed 
with  live  coals.  Little  by  little  it  assumed  a  form  entire  human,  and  I 
distinguished  the  spectre — for  I  cannot  call  it  otherwise — of  an  old  Brah- 
man sacrificator,  kneeling  near  the  little  brasier. 

"  He  bore  on  his  forehead  the  signs  sacred  to  Vishnu,  and  around  his 


body  the  triple  cord,  sign  of  the  initiates  of  the  priestly  caste.  He  joined 
his  hands  above  his  head,  as  during  the  sacrifices,  and  his  hps  moved  as 
if  they  were  reciting  prayers.  At  a  given  moment,  he  took  d  pinch  of 
perfumed  powder,  and  threw  it  upon  the  coals ;  it  must  have  been  a 
strong  compound,  for  a  thick  smoke  arose  on  the  instant,  and  filled  the 
two  chambers. 

"When  it  was  dissipated,  I  perceived  the  spectre,  which,  two  steps 
from  me,  was  extending  to  me  its  fieshless  hand ;  J  took  it  in  mine,  mak- 
ing a  salutation,  and  I  was  astonished  to  find  it,  although  bony  and  hard, 
warm  and  living. 

"  'Art  thou,  indeed,'  said  I  at  this  moment,  in  a  loud  voice,  '  an  ancient 
inhabitant  of  the  earth  ? ' 

"  I  had  not  finished  the  question,  when  the  word  am  (yes)  appeared 
and  then  disappeared  in  letters  of  fire,  on  the  breast  of  the  old  Brahman, 
with  an  effect  much  like  that  which  the  word  would  produce  if  written  in 
the  dark  with  a  stick  of  phosphorus. 

"  'Win  you  leave  me  nothing  in  token  of  your  visit  ?'  I  continued. 

"The  spirit  broke  the  triple  cord,  composed  of  three  strands  of  cot- 
ton, which  begirt  his  loins,  gave  it  to  me,  and  vanished  at  my  feet."  * 

"  Oh  Brahma  !  what  is  this  mystery  which  takes  place  every  night  ? 
.  .  .  When  lying  on  the  matting,  with  eyes  closed,  the  body  is  lost  sight 
of,  and  the  soul  escapes  to  enter  into  conversation  with  the  Pitris.  .  .  . 
Watch  over  it,  O  Brahma,  when,  forsaking  the  resting  body,  it  goes  away 
to  hover  over  the  waters,  to  wander  in  the  immensity  of  heaven,  and 
penetrate  into  the  dark  and  mysterious  nooks  of  the  valleys  and  grand 
forests  of  the  Hymavat  !  "     {Agroushada  Partkshai.) 

The  fakirs,  when  belonging  to  some  particular  temple,  never  act  but 
under  orders.  Not  one  of  them,  unless  he  has  reached  a  degree  of  extra- 
ordinary sanctity,  is  freed  from  the  influence  and  guidance  of  his  guru,  his 
teacher,  who  first  initiated  and  instructed  him  in  the  mysteries  of  the 
occult  sciences.  Like  the  subject  of  the  European  mesmerizer,  the  aver- 
age fakir  can  never  rid  himself  entirely  of  the  psychological  influence 
exercised  on  him  by  his  guru.  Having  passed  two  or  three  hours  in  the 
silence  and'  solitude  of  the  inner  temple  in  prayer  and  meditation,  the 
fakir,  when  he  emerges  thence,  is  mesmerically  strengthened  and  pre- 
pared ;  he  produces  wonders  far  more  varied  and  powerful  than  before 
he  entered.  The  "master"  has  laid  his  Jiands  upon  him,  and  the  fakir 
feels  strong. 

It  may  be  shown,  on  the  authority  of  many  Brahraanical  and  Buddhist 
sacred  books,  that   there   has   ever   existed   a  great  difference  between 

*  Louis  JacolUot :     "  Phenomenes  et  Manifestations." 


adepts  of  the  higher  order,  and  purely  psychological  subjects — like  many 
of  these  fakirs,  who  are  mediums  in  a  certain  qualified  sense.  True, 
the  fakir  is  ever  talking  of  Pitris,  and  this  is  natural ;  for  they  are  his 
protecting  deities.  But  are  the  Pitris  disembodied  human  beijigs  of  our 
race'l     This  is  the  question,  and  we  will  discuss  it  in  a  moment. 

We  say  that  the  fakir  may  be  regarded  in  a  degree  as  a  medium ; 
for  he  is — what  is  not  generally  known — under  the  direct  mesmeric  in- 
fluence of  a  living  adept,  his  sannyasi  or  guru.  When  the  latter  dies, 
the  power  of  the  former,  unless  he  has  received  the  last  transfer  of 
spiritual  forces,  wanes  and  often  even  disappears.  Wh}',  if  it  were  other- 
wise, should  the  fakirs  have  been  excluded  from  the  right  of  advancing 
to  the  second  and  third  degree  ?  The  lives  of  many  of  them  exempHfy 
a  degree  of  self-sacrifice  and  sanctity  unknown  and  utterly  incomprehen- 
sible to  Europeans,  who  shudder  at  the  bare  thought  of  such  self-inflicted 
tortures.  But  however  shielded  from  control  by  vulgar  and  earth-bound 
spirits,  however  wide  the  chasm  between  a  debasing  influence  and  their 
self-controlled  souls  ;  and  however  well  protected  by  the  seven-knotted  ma- 
gical bamboo  rod  which  he  receives  from  the  guru,  still  the  fakir  lives  in  the 
outer  world  of  sin  and  matter,  and  it  is  possible  that  his  soul  may  be 
tainted,  perchance,  by  the  magnetic  emanations  from  profane  objects 
and  persons,  and  thereby  open  an  access  to  strange  spirits  and  gods. 
To  admit  one  so  situated,  one  not  under  any  and  all  circumstances 
sure  of  the  mastery  over  himself,  to  a  knowledge  of  the  awful  mysteries 
and  priceless  secrets  of  initiation,  would  be  impracticable.  It  would  not 
only  imperil  the  security  of  that  which  must,  at  all  hazards,  be  guarded 
from  profanation,  but  it  would  be  consenting  to  admit  behind  the  veil  a 
fellow  being,  whose  mediumistic  irresponsibility  might  at  any  moment 
cause  him  to  lose  his  life  through  an  involuntary  indiscretion.  The  same 
law  which  prevailed  in  the  Eleusinian  Mysteries  before  our  era,  holds 
good  now  in  India. 

Not  only  must  the  adept  have  mastery  over  himself,  but  he  must  be 
able  to  control  the  inferior  grades  of  spiritual  beings,  nature-spirits,  and 
earthbound  souls,  in  short  the  very  ones  by  whom,  if  by  any,  the  fakir  is 
liable  to  be  affected.  ' 

For  the  objector  to  affirm  that  the  Brahman-adepts  and  the  fakirs  admit 
that  of  themselves  they  are  powerless,  and  can  only  act  with  the  help  of 
disembodied  human  spirits,  is  to  state  that  these  Hindus  are  unacquainted 
with  the  laws  of  their  sacred  books  and  even  the  meaning  of  the  word  Pitris. 
The  Laws  of  Mann,  the  Atharva-Veda,  and  other  books,  prove  what  we 
now  say.  "All  that  exists,"  says  the  Atharva-Veda,  "is  in  the  powei 
of  the  gods.  The  gods  are  under  the  power  of  magical  conjurations. 
The  magical  conjurations  are  under  the  control  of  the  Brahmans.     Hence 


the  gods  are  in  the  power  of  the  Brahmans."  This  is  logical,  albeit  seem- 
ingly paradoxical,  and  it  is  the  fact.  And  this  fact  will  explain  to  those 
who  have  not  hitherto  had  the  clew  (among  whom  Jacolliot  must  be  num- 
bered, as  will  appear  on  reading  his  works),  why  the  fakir  should  be  con- 
fined to  the  first,  or  lowest  degree  of  that  course  of  initiation  whose  highest 
adepts,  or  hierophants,  are  the  sannydsis,  or  members  of  the  ancient 
Supreme  Council  of  Seventy. 

Moreover,  in  Book  I.,  of  the  Hindu  Genesis,  or  Book  of  Creation 
of  Md'iu,  the  Pitris  are  called  the  lunar  ancestors  of  the  human  race. 
They  belong  to  a  race  of  beings  different  from  ourselves,  and  cannot 
properly  be  called  "  human  spirits  "  in  the  sense  in  which  the  spiritualists 
use  this  term.     This  is  what  is  said  of  them  : 

"Then  they  (the  gods)  created  the  Jackshas,  the  Rakshasas,  the 
Pisatshas,*  the  Gandarbas  f  and  the  Apsaras,  and  the  Asuras,  the  Nagas, 
the  Sarpas  and  the  Suparnas,  \  and  the  Pitris — lunar  ancestors  of  the 
human  race"  (See  Listitutes  of  Mann,  Book  I.,  sloka  37,  where  the  Pitris 
are  termed  "  progenitors  of  mankind  "). 

The  Pitris  are  a  distinct  race  of  spirits  belonging  to  the  mytho- 
logical hierarchy  or  rather  to  the  kabalistical  nomenclature,  and  must 
be  included  with  the  good  genii,  the  dasmons  of  the  Greeks,  or  the 
inferior  gods  of  tire  invisible  world  ;  and  when  a  fakir  attributes  his  phe- 
nomena to  the  Pitris,  he  means  only  what  the  ancient  philosophers  and 
theurgists  meant  when  they  maintained  that  all  the  "miracles"  were 
obtained  through  the  intervention  of  the  gods,  or  the  good  and  bad 
daemons,  who  control  the  powers  of  nature,  the  elementals,  who  are  subor- 
dinate to  the  power  of  him  "  who  knows."  A  ghost  or  human  phantom 
would  be  termed  by  a  fakir  patit,  or  chutnd,  as  that  of  a  female  human 
i^\nt  pichhalpdi,  not  pitris.  True,  pita ra  means  (plural)  fathers,  ances- 
tors ;  and  pitra-i  is  a  kinsman ;  but  these  words  are  used  in  quite  a 
different  sense  from  that  of  the  Pitris  invoked  in  the  mantras. 

To  maintain  before  a  devout  Brahman  or  a  fakir  that  any  one  can 
converse  with  the  spirits  of  the  dead,  would  be  to  shock  him  with  what 
would  appear  to  him  blasphemy.  Does  not  the  concluding  verse  of  the 
Bagavat  state  that  this  supreme  felicity  is  alone  reserved  to  the  holy 
sannyasis,  the  gurus,  and  yogis  ? 

"  Long  before  they  finally  rid  themselves  of  their  mortal  envelopes, 
the  souls  who  have  practiced  only  good,  such  as  those  of  the  sannyasis 
and  the  vanaprasthas,  acquire  the  faculty  of  conversing  with  the  souls 
which  preceded  them  to  the  swarga." 

*  Pisatshas,  diemons  of  the  race  of  the  gnomes,  the  giants  and  the  vampiies. 

\  Gandarbas,  good  djemons,  celestial  sei  aphs,  singers. 

i  Asuras  and  Nagas  are  the  Titanic  spirits  and  the  dragon  or  serpent -headed  spirits. 


In  this  case  the  Pitris  instead  of  genii  are  the  spirits,  or  rather  souls, 
of  the  departed  ones.  But  they  will  freely  communicate  only  with  those 
whose  atmosphere  is  as  pure  as  their  own,  and  to  whose  prayerful  kalassa 
(invocation)  they  can  respond  without  the  risk  of  defiling  their  own  celes- 
tial purity.  When  the  soul  of  the  invocator  has  reached  the  Sayadyam, 
or  perfect  identity  of  essence  with  the  Universal  Soul,  when  matter  is 
utterly  conquered,  then  the  adept  can  freely  enter  into  daily  and  hourly 
communion  with  those  who,  though  unburdened  with  their  corporeal  forms, 
are  still  themselves  progressing  through  the  endless  series  of  transforma- 
tions included  in  the  gradual  approach  to  the  Parani^tma,  or  the  grand 
Universal  Soul. 

Bearing  in  mind  that  the  Christian  fathers  have  always  claimed  for 
themselves  and  their  saints  the  name  of  "  friends  of  God,"  and  knowing 
that  they  borrowed  this  expression,  with  many  others,  from  the  technology 
of  the  Pagan  temples,  it  is  but  natural  to  expect  them  to  show  an  evil 
temper  whenever  alluding  to  these  rites.  Ignorant,  as  a  rule,  and  having 
had  biographers  as  ignorant  as  themselves,  we  could  not  well  expect 
them  to  find  in  the  accounts  of  their  beatific  visions  a  descriptive  beauty 
such  as  we  find  in  the  Pagan  classics.  Whether  the  visions  and  objective 
phenomena  claimed  by  both  the  fathers  of  the  desert  and  the  hierophants 
of  the  sanctuary  are  to  be  discredited,  or  accepted  as  facts,  the  splendid 
imagery  employed  by  Proclus  and  Apuleius  in  narrating  the  small  por- 
tion of  the  final  initiation  that  they  dared  reveal,  throws  completely  into 
the  shade  the  plagiaristic  tales  of  the  Christian  ascetics,  faithful  copies 
though  they  were  intended  to  be.  The  story  of  the  temptation  of  St. 
Anthony  in  the  desert  by  the  female  demon,  is  a  parody  upon  the  prelim- 
inary trials  of  the  neophyte  during  the  Mikra,  or  minor  Mysteries  of 
Agree — those  rites  at  the  thought  of  which  Clemens  railed  so  bitterly,  and 
which  represented  the  bereaved  Demeter  in  search  of  her  child,  and  her 
good-natured  hostess  Baubo.  * 

Without  entering  again  into  a  demonstration  that  in  Christian,  and 
especially  Irish  Roman  Catholic,  churches  f  the  same  apparently  in- 
decent customs  as  the  above  prevailed  until  the  end  of  the  last  century, 
we  will  recur  to  the  untiring  labors  of  that  honest  and  brave  defender  of 
the  ancient  faith,  Thomas  Taylor,  and  his  works.  However  much  dog- 
matic Greek  scholarship  may  have  found  to  say  against  his  "mistransla- 
tions," his  memory  must  be  dear  to  every  true  Platonist,  who  seeks  rather 
to  learn  the  inner  thought  of  the  great  philosopher  than  enjoy  the  mere 
external  mechanism  of  his  writings.     Better  classical  translators  may  have 

*  See  Arnolius:     "  Op.  Cit.,"  pp.  249,  250. 

f  See  Inman's  "  Ancient  Pagan  and  Modern  Christian  Symbolism." 


rendered  us,  in  more  correct  phraeeology,  Plato's  words,  but  Taylor  shows 
us  Plato's  meaning,  and  this  is  more  than  can  be  said  of  Zeller,  Jowett,  and 
their  predecessors.  Yet,  as  writes  Professor  A.  Wilder,  "  Taylor's  works 
have  met  with  favor  at  the  hands  of  men  capable  of  profound  and  recon- 
dite thinking ;  and  it  must  be  conceded  that  he  was  endowed  with  a 
superior  qualification — that  of  an  intuitive  perception  of  the  interior 
meaning  of  the  subjects  which  he  considered.  Others  may  have  known 
more  Greek,  but  he  knew  more  Plato."  * 

Taylor  devoted  his  whole  useful  life  to  the  search  after  such  old 
manuscripts  as  would  enable  him  to  have  his  own  speculations  concerning 
several  obscure  rites  in  the  Mysteries  corroborated  by  writers  who  had 
been  initiated  themselves.  It  is  with  full  confidence  in  the  assertions  of 
various  classical  writers  that  we  say  that  ridiculous,  perhaps  licentious  in 
some  cases,  as  may  appear  ancient  worship  to  the  modern  critic,  it  ought 
not  to  have  so  appeared  to  the  Christians.  During  the  mediaeval  ages,  and 
even  later,  they  accepted  pretty  nearly  the  same  without  understanding 
the  secret  import  of  its  rites,  and  quite  satisfied  with  the  obscure  and 
rather  fantastic  interpretations  of  their  clergy,  who  accepted  the  exterior 
form  and  distorted  the  inner  meaning.  We  are  ready  to  concede,  in  full 
justice,  that  centuries  have  passed  since  the  great  majority  of  the  Chris- 
tian clergy,  who  are  not  allowed  to  pry  into  Gods  mysteries  nor  seek  to 
explain  that  which  the  Church  has  once  accepted  and  established,  have 
had  the  remotest  idea  of  their  symbolism,  whether  in  its  exoteric  or  eso- 
teric meaning.  Not  so  with  the  head  of  the  Church  and  its  highest  digni- 
taries. And  if  we  fully  agree  with  Inman  that  it  is  "difficult  to  believe 
that  the  ecclesiastics  who  sanctioned  the  publication  of  such  prints  f  could 
have  been  as  ignorant  as  modern  ritualists,"  we  are  not  at  all  prepared 
to  believe  with  the  same  author  "that  the  latter,  if  they  knew  the  real 
meaning  of  the  symbols  commonly  used  by  the  Roman  Church,  would 
not  have  adopted  them." 

To  eliminate  what  is  plainly  derived  from  the  sex  and  nature  wor- 

*  Introduction  to  Taylor's  "  Eleusinian  and  Bacchic  Mysteries,"  published  by  J.  W. 

\  Illustrated  figures  "  from  an  ancient  Rosary  of  the  blessed  Virgin  Mary,  printed  at 
Venice,  1524,  with  a  license  from  the  Inquisition."  In  the  illustrations  given  by  Dr. 
Inman  the  Virgin  is  represented  in  an  Assyrian  **  grove,"  the  abomination  in  the  eyes 
of  the  Lord,  according  to  the  Bible  prophets.  "  The  book  in  question,"  says  the  author, 
"  coutains  numerous  figures,  all  resembling  closely  the  Mesopotamian  emblem  of  Ishtar. 
The  presence  of  the  woman  therein  identifies  the  two  as  symbolic  of  Isis,  or  la  nature  ; 
and  a  man  bowing  down  in  adoration  thereof  shows  the  same  idea  as  is  depicted  in 
Assyrian  sculptures,  where  males  offer  to  the  goddess  symbols  of  themselves  "  (See 
"Ancient  Pagan  and  Modern  Christian  Symbolism,"  p.  91.  Second  edition.  J.  W. 
Bouton,  publisher,  New  York). 


ship  of  the  ancient  heathens,  would  be  equivalent  to  pulling  down  the 
whole  Roman  Catholic  image-worship— the  Madonna  element — and 
reforming  the  faith  to  Protestantism.  The  enforcement  of  the  late  dogma 
of  the  Immaculation  was  prompted  by  this  very  secret  reason.  The 
science  of  symbology  was  making  too  rapid  progress.  Blind  faith  in  the 
Pope's  infallibility  and  in  the  immaculate  nature  of  the  Virgin  ar.d  of  her 
ancestral  female  lineage  to  a  certain  remove  could  alone  save  the  Church 
from  the  indiscreet  revelations  of  science.  It  was  a  clever  stroke  of 
policy  on  the  part  of  the  vicegerent  of  God.  What  matters  it  if,  by 
'■conferring  upon  her  such  an  honor,"  as  Don  Pascale  de  Franciscis 
naively  expresses  it,  he  has  made  a  goddess  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  an  Olym- 
pian Deity,  who,  having  been  by  her  very  nature  placed  in  the  impossi- 
bility of  sinning,  can  claim  no  virtue,  no  personal  merit  for  her  puritj', 
precisely  for  which,  as  we  were  taught  to  believe  in  our  younger  days,  she 
was  chosen  among  all  other  women.  If  his  Holiness  has  deprived  her  of 
this,  perhaps,  on  the  other  hand,  he  thinks  that  he  has  endowed  her  with 
at  least  one  physical  attribute  not  shared  by  the  other  virgin-goddesses. 
But  even  this  new  dogma,  which,  in  company  with  the  new  claim  to 
infallibility,  has  quasi-revolutionised  the  Christian  world,  is  not  original 
with  the  Church  of  Rome.  It  is  but  a  return  to  a  hardly-remembered 
heresy  of  the  early  Christian  ages,  that  of  the  CoUyridians,  so  called  from 
their  sacrificing  cakes  to  the  Virgin,  whom  they  claimed  to  be  Virgin- 
born.  *  The  new  sentence,  "  O,  Virgin  Mary,  coticeived  without  sin"  is 
simply  a  tardy  acceptance  of  that  which  was  at  first  deemed  a  '■^blasphemous 
heresie"  by  the  orthodox  fathers. 

To  think  for  one  moment  that  any  of  the  popes,  cardinals,  or  other 
high  dignitaries  "were  not  aware  "  from  the  first  to  the  last  of  the  exter- 
nal meanings  of  their  symbols,  is  to  do  injustice  to  their  great  learning 
and  their  spirit  of  Machiavellism.  It  is  to  forget  that  the  emissaries  of 
Rome  will  never  be  stopped  by  any  difficulty  which  can  be  skirted  by  the 
employment  of  Jesuitical  artifice.  The  policy  of  complaisant  conformity 
was  never  carried  to  greater  lengths  than  by  the  missionaries  in  Ceylon, 
who,  according  to  the  Abb6  Dubois — certainly  a  learned  and  competent 
authority — "  conducted  the  images  of  the  Virgin  and  Saviour  on  triumphal 
cars,  imitated  from  the  orgies  of  Juggernauth,  and  introduced  the  dancers 
from  the  Brahminical  rites  into  the  ceremonial  of  the  church."  f  Let  us 
at  least  thank  these  black-frocked  politicians  for  their  consistency  in 
employing  the   car  of  Juggernauth,  upon  which   the   "wicked   heathen" 

*  See  King's  "  Gnostics,"  pp.  91,  92  ;  "  Tlie  Genealogy  of  the  Blessed  Virgin 
Mary,"  by  Faustus,  Bishop  of  Riez. 

\  Prinseps  quotes  Dubois,  "Edinburgh  Review,"  April,  1851,  p.  411. 


convey  the  liiii^ham  of  Siva.  To  have  used  this  car  to  carry  in  its  turn 
the  Romish  representative  of  the  female  principle  in  nature,  is  to  show- 
discrimination  and  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  oldest  mythological  con- 
ceptions. They  have  blended  the  two  deities,  and  thus  represented,  in  a 
Christian  procession,  the  "heathen"  Brahma,  or  Nara  (the  father),  Nari 
(the  mother),  and  Viradj  (the  son). 

Says  Manu  :  "  The  Sovereign  Master  who  exists  through  himself,  di- 
vides his  body  into  two  halves,  male  and  female,  and  from  the  union  of 
tliese  two  principles  is  born  Viradj,  the  Son."* 

There  was  not  a  Christian  Father  who  could  have  been  ignorant  of 
these  symbols  in  their  physical  meaning ;  for  it  is  in  this  latter  aspect 
that  they  were  abandoned  to  the  ignorant  rabble.  Moreover,  they  all 
had  as  good  reasons  to  suspect  the  occult  symbolism  contained  in  these 
images  ;  although  as  none  of  them — Paul  excepted,  perhaps — had  been 
initiated  they  could  know  nothing  whatever  about  the  nature  of  the  final 
rites.  Any  person  revealing  these  mysteries  was  put  to  death,  regardless 
of  sex,  nationality,  or  creed.  A  Christian  father  would  no  more  be 
proof  against  an  accident  than  a  Pagan  ATysta  or  the  Mu'ctttjs. 

If  during  the  Aporreta  or  preliminary  arcanes,  there  were  some 
practices  which  might  have  shocked  the  pudicity  of  a  Christian  convert 
— though  we  doubt  the  sincerity  of  such  statements — their  mystical 
symbolism  was  all  sufficient  to  relieve  the  performance  of  any  charge  of 
licentiousness.  Even  the  episode  of  the  Matron  Baubo — whose  rather 
eccentric  method  of  consolation  was  immortalized  in  the  minor  Myste- 
ries— is  explained  by  impartial  mystagogues  quite  naturally.  Ceres- 
Demeter  and  her  earthly  wanderings  in  search  of  her  daughter  are  the 
euhemerized  descriptions  of  one  of  the  most  metaphysico-psychological 
subjects  ever  treated  of  by  human  mind.  It  is  a  mask  for  the  transcend- 
ent narrative  of  the  initiated  seers  ;  the  celestial  vision  of  the  freed  soul 
of  the  initiate  of  the  last  hour  describing  the  process  by  which  the  soul 
that  has  not  yet  been  incarnated  descends  for  the  first  time  into  matter, 
"  Blessed  is  he  who  hath  seen  those  common  C07icerns  of  the  under- 
world ;  he  knows  both  the  end  of  life  and  its  divine  origin  from  Jupiter," 
says  Pindar.  Taylor  shows,  on  the  authority  of  more  than  one  initiate, 
tliat  the  "  dramatic  performances  of  the  Lesser  Mysteries  were  designed 
by  their  founders,  to  signify  occultly  the  condition  of  the  unpurified  soul 
invested  with  an  earthly  body,  and  enveloped  in  a  material  and  physical 

*  "  Manu,"  book  I.,  sloka  32  :  Sir  W.Jones,  translating  from  the  Northern  "Manu," 
renders  this  sloka  as  follows  :  "  Having  divided  his  own  substance,  the  mighty  Power 
became  half  male,  half  female,  or  nature  active  and  passive  ;  and  from  that  female  he 
produced  Viraj. 


nature  .  .  .  that  the   soul,  indeed,    till   purified  by  philosophy,    suffers 
death  through  i-ts  union  with  the  body." 

The  body  is  the  sepulchre,  the  prison  of  the  soul,  and  many  Christian 
Fathers  held  with  Plato  that  the  soul  is  punished  through  its  union  with 
the  body.  Such  is  the  fundamental  doctrine  of  the  Buddhists  and  of 
many  Brahmanists  too.  When  Plotinus  remarks  that  "  when  the  soul 
has  descended  into  generation  (from  its  half-Axwrne  condition)  she  par- 
takes of  evil,  and  is  carried  a  great  way  into  a  state  the  opposite  of  her 
first  purity  and  integrity,  to  be  entirely  merged  in  which  is  nothing  more 
than  to  fall  into  dark  mire  ;  "  *  he  only  repeats  the  teachings  of  Gautama- 
Buddha.  If  we  have  to  believe  the  ancient  initiates  at  all,  we  must 
accept  their  interpretation  of  the  symbols.  And  if,  moreover,  we  find 
them  perfectly  coinciding  with  the  teachings  of  the  greatest  philosophers 
and  that  which  we  know  symbolizes  the  same  meaning  in  the  modern 
Mysteries  in  the  East,  we  must  believe  them  to  be  right. 

If  Demeter  was  considered  the  intellectual  soul,  or  rather  the  Astral 
soul,  half  emanation  from  the  spirit  and  half  tainted  with  matter  through 
a  succession  of  spiritual  evolutions — we  may  readily  understand  what  is 
meant  by  the  Matron  Baubo,  the  Enchantress,  who  before  she  succeeds 
in  reconciling  the  soul — Demeter,  to  its  new  position,  finds  herseff  obliged 
to  assume  the  sexual  forms  of  an  infant.  Baubo  is  matter,  the  physical 
body  ;  and  the  intellectual,  as  yet  pure  astral  soul  can  be  ensnared  into 
its  new  terrestrial  prison  but  by  the  display  of  innocent  babyhood. 
Until  then,  doomed  -to  her  fate,  Demeter,  or  Magna-mater,  the  Soul,  won- 
ders and  hesitates  and  suffers ;  but  once  having  partaken  of  the  magic 
potion  prepared  by  Baubo,  she  forgets  her  sorrows  ;  for  a  certain  time 
she  parts  with  that  consciousness  of  higher  intellect  that  she  was  pos- 
sessed of  before  entering  the  body  of  a  child.  Thenceforth  she  must 
seek  to  rejoin  it  again  ;  and  when  the  age  of  reason  arrives  for  the  child, 
the  struggle — forgotten  for  a  few  years  of  infancy — begins  again.  The 
astral  soul  is  placed  between  matter  (body)  and  the  highest  intellect 
(its  immortal  spirit  or  nous).  Which  of  those  two  will  conquer?  The 
result  of  the  battle  of  life  lies  between  the  triad.  It  is  a  question  of  a 
few  years  of  physical  enjoyment  on  earth  and — if  it  has  begotten  abuse 
— of  the  dissolution  of  the  earthly  body  being  followed  by  death  of  the 
astral  body,  which  thus  is  prevented  from  being  united  with  the  highest 
spirit  of  the  triad,  which  alone  confers  on  us  individual  imniortaUty  ;  or, 
on  the  other  hand,  of  becoming  immortal  mystse  ;  initiated  before  death 
of  the  body  into  the  divine  truths  of  the  after  life.  Demi-gods  below, 
and  GODS  above. 

*  "  Enead,"  i.,  book  viii. 



Such  was  the  chief  object  of  the  Mysteries  represented  as  diabolical 
by  theology,  and  ridiculed  by  modern  symbologists.  To  disbelieve  that 
there  exist  in  man  certain  arcane  powers,  which,  by  psychological  study 
he  can  develop  in  himself  to  the  highest  degree,  become  an  hierophant 
and  then  impart  to  others  upder  the  same  conditions  of  earthly  discipline, 
is  to  cast  an  imputation  of  falsehood  and  lunacy  upon  a  number  of  the 
best,  purest,  and  most  learned  men  of  antiquity  and  of  the  middle  ages. 
What  the  hierophant  was  allowed  to  see  at  the  last  hour  is  hardly  hinted 
at  by  them.  And  yet  Pythagoras,  Plato,  Plotinus,  lamblichus,  Proclus, 
and  many  others  knew  and  affirmed  their  reality. 

Whether  in  the  "inner  temple,"  or  through  the  study  of  theurgy  carried 
on  privately,  or  by  the  sole  exertion  of  a  whole  life  of  spiritual  labor,  they 
all  obtained  the  practical  proof  of  such  divine  possibilities  for  man  fight- 
ing his  battle  with  life  on  earth  to  win  a  life  in  the  eternity.  What  the 
last  epopteia  was  is  alluded  to  by  Plato  in  Phxdrus  (64)  ;  "  .  .  .  being 
initiated  in  those  Mysteries,  which  it  is  lawful  to  call  the  most  blessed  of 
all  mysteries  ...  we  were  freed  from  the  molestations  of  evils  which 
otherwise  await  us  in  a  future  period  of  time.  Likewise,  in  consequence 
of  this  divine  initiation,  we  became  spectators  of  entire,  simple,  immova- 
ble, and  blessed  visions,  resident  in  a  pure  light."  This  sentence  shows 
that  they  saw  visions,  gods,  spirits.  As  Taylor  correctly  observes,  from 
all  such  passages  in  the  works  of  the  initiates  it  may  be  inferred,  "  that 
the  most  sublime  part  of  the  epopteia  .  .  .  consisted  in  beholding  the 
gods  themselves  invested  with  a  resislendent  light,"  or  highest  planetary 
spirits.  The  statement  of  Proclus  upon  this  subject  is  unequivocal :  "In 
all  the  initiations  and  mysteries,  the  gods  exhibit  many  forms  of  them- 
selves, and  appear  in  o.  variety  of  shapes,  and  sometimes,  indeed,  a  form- 
less light  of  themselves  is  held  forth  to  the  view  ;  sometimes  this  light  is 
according  to  a  human  form,  and  sometimes  it  proceeds  into  a  different 
shape."  * 

"  Whatever  is  on  earth  is  the  resemblance  and  shadow  of  something 
that  is  in  the  sphere,  while  that  resplendent  thing  (the  prototype  of  the 
soul-spirit)  remaineth  in  unchangeable  condition,  it  is  well  also  with  its 
shadow.  But  when  the  resplendent  one  renioveth  far  from  its  shadow  life 
removeth  from  the  latter  to  a  distance.  And  yet,  that  very  light  is  the 
shadow  of  something  still  more  resplendent  than  itself."  Thus  speaks 
Desatir,  the  Persian  Book  of  Shet,\  thereby  showing  its  identity  of  eso- 
teric doctrines  with  those  of  the  Greek  philosophers. 

The  second  statement  of  Plato  confirms  our  belief  that  the  Mysteries 
of  the   ancients  were   identical  with    the   Initiations,   as    practiced  now 

•  "  Commentary  upon  the  Republic  of  Plato,"  p.  380.  f  Verses  33-41. 


among  the  Buddhists  and  the  Hindu  adepts.  The  highest  visions,  the 
most  truthful,  are  produced,  not  through  natural  ecstatics  or  "mediums," 
as  it  is  sometimes  erroneously  asserted,  but  through  a  regular  discipline 
of  gradual  initiations  and  development  of  psychical  powers.  The  Mystae 
were  brought  into  close  union  with  those  whom  Proclus  calls  "  mystical 
natures,"  "resplendent  gods,"  because,  as  Plato  says,  "we  were  our- 
selves pure  and  immaculate,  being  liberated  from  this  surrounding  vest- 
me?it,  which  we  denominate  body,  and  to  which  we  are  now  bound  like 
an  oyster  to  its  shell."  * 

So  the  doctrine  of  planetary  and  terrestrial  Pitris  was  revealed  en- 
tirely in  ancient  India,  as  well  as  now,  only  at  the  last  moment  of 
initiation,  and  to  the  adepts  of  superior  degrees.  Many  are  the  fakirs, 
who,  though  pure,  and  honest,  and  self-devoted,  have  yet  never  seen  the 
astral  form  of  a  purely  hutnan  pilar  (an  ancestor  or  father),  otherwise 
than  at  the  solemn  moment  of  their  first  and  last  initiation.  It  is  in  the 
presence  of  his  instructor,  the  guru,  and  just  before  the  vatou-ii^\x  is 
dispatched  into  the  world  of  the  living,  with  his  seven-knotted  bamboo 
wand  for  all  protection,  that  he  is  suddenly  placed  face  to  face  with  the 
unknown  presence.  He  sees  it,  and  falls  prostrate  at  the  feet  of  the 
evanescent  form,  but  is  not  entrusted  with  the  great  secret  of  its  evoca- 
tion ;  for  it  is  the  supreme  mystery  of  the  holy  syllable.  The  AuM  con- 
tains the  evocation  of  the  Vedic  triad,  the  Trimurti  Brahma,  Vishnu,  Siva, 
say  the  Orientalists ;  f  it  contains  the  evocation  of  something  more  real 
and  objective  than  this  triime  abstraction — we  say,  respectfully  contradict- 
ing the  eminent  scientists.  It  is  the  trinity  of  man  himself,  on  his  way 
to  become  immortal  through  the  solemn  union  of  his  inner  triune  self — • 
the  exterior,  gross  body,  the  husk  not  even  being  taken  in  consideration 
in  this  human  trinity.J     It  is,  when  this  trinity,  in  anticipation  of  the  final 

*  "  Phsedrus,"  p.  64. 

f  The  Supreme  Buddha  is  invoked  with  two  of  his  acolytes  of  the  theistic  triad, 
Dharma  and  Sanga.     This  triad  is  addressed  in  Sanscrit  in  the  following  terms : 
Namo  Buddhdya, 
Na7no  Dharmdya, 
Navto  Sang&ya, 
Aum  ! 
while  the  Thibetan  Buddhists  pronounce  their  invocations  as  follows  : 
Nan-won  Fo-tho-ye^ 
Nan-won  Tha-ma-ye, 
Nan-won  Seng-kia-ye, 
Aan  ! 
See  also  "  Journal  Asiatique,"  tome  vii.,  p.  286. 

X  The  body  of  man — his  coat  of  skin — is  an  inert  mass  of  matter,  per  se;  it  is  but 
the  sentietit  living  body  within  the  man  that  is  considered  as  the  man's  body  proper, 


triumphant  reunion  beyond  the  gates  of  corporeal  death  became  for  a 
few  seconds  a  unity,  that  the  candidate  is  allowed,  at  the  moment  of  the 
initiation,  to  behold  his  future  self.  Thus  we  read  in  the  Persian  Desa- 
tir,  of  the  "  Resplendent  one  ;  "  in  the  Greek  philosopher-initiates,  of 
the  Augoeides — the  self  shining  "  blessed  vision  resident  in  the  pure  light ;  " 
in  Porphyry,  that  Plotinus  was  united  to  his  "  god  "  six  times  during  his 
lifetime  ;  and  so  on. 

"  In  ancient  India,  the  mystery  of  the  triad,  known  but  to  the  ini- 
tiates, could  not,  under  the  penalty  of  death,  be  revealed  to  the  vulgar," 
says  Vrihaspati, 

Neither  could  it  in  the  ancient  Grecian  and  Samothracian  Mysteries. 
Nor  can  it  be  now.  It  is  in  the  hands  of  the  adepts,  and  must  remain 
a  mystery  to  the  world  so  long  as  the  materialistic  savant  regards  it  as  an 
undemonstrated  fallacy,  an  insane  hallucination,  and  the  dogmatic  theo- 
logian, a  snare  of  the  Evil  One. 

Subjective  communication  with  the  human,  god-hke  spirits  of  those  who 
have  preceded  us  to  the  silent  land  of  bhss,  is  in  India  divided  into  three 
categories.  Under  the  spiritual  training  of  a  guru  or  sannyasi,  the  vatou 
(disciple  or  neophyte)  begins  to  feel  them.  Were  he  not  under  the  imme- 
diate guidance  of  an  adept,  he  would  be  controlled  by  the  invisibles,  and 
utterly  at  their  mercy,  for  among  these  subjective  influences  he  is  unable 
to  discern  the  good  from  the  bad.  Happy  the  sensitive  who  is  sure  of 
the  purity  of  his  spiritual  atmosphere  ! 

To  this  subjective  consciousness,  which  is  the  first  degree,  is,  after 
a  time,  added  that  of  clairaudience.  This  is  the  second  degree  or  stage  of 
development.  The  sensitive — when  not  naturally  made  so  by  psycho- 
logical training — now  audibly  hears,  but  is  still  unable  to  discern  ;  and 
is  incapable  of  verifying  his  impressions,  and  one  who  is  unprotected 
the  tricky  powers  of  the  air  but  too  often  delude  with  semblances  of 
voices  and  speech.  But  the  guru's  influence  is  there  ;  it  is  the  most 
powerful  shield  against  the  intrusion  of  the  bhictnd  into  the  atmosphere 
of  the  vatou,  consecrated  to  the  pure,  human,  and  celestial  Pitris. 

The  third  degree  is  that  when  the  fakir  or  any  other  candidate  both 
feels,  hears,  and  sees  ;  and  when  he  can  at  will  produce  the  reflections 
of  the  Pitris  on  the  mirror  of  astral  light.  All  depends  upon  his  psycho- 
logical and  mesmeric  powers,  which  are  always  proportionate  to  the  in- 
tensity of  his  will.  But  the  fakir  will  never  control  the  Akasa,  the  spir- 
itual life -principle,  the  omnipotent  agent  of  every  phenomenon,  in  the 
same  deo-ree  as  an  adept  of  the  third  and  highest  initiation.     And  the 

and  it  is  that  which,  together  with  the  fontal  soul  or  purely  astral  body,  directly  con- 
nected with  the  immortal  spirit,  constitutes  the  trinity  of  man. 


phenomena  produced  by  the  will  of  the  latter  do  not  generally  run  the 
market-places  for  the  satisfaction  of  open-mouthed  investigators. 

The  unity  of  God,  the  immortality  of  the  spirit,  belief  in  salvation 
only  through  our  works,  merit  and  demerit  ;  such  are  the  principal  arti- 
cles of  faith  of  the  Wisdom-religion,  and  the  ground -work  of  Vedaisni, 
Buddhism,  Parsism,  and  such  we  find  to  have  been  even  that  of  the  an- 
cient Osirism,  when  we,  after  abandoning  the  popular  sun-god  to  the 
materialism  of  the  rabble,  confine  our  attention  to  the  Books  of  Hermes, 
the  thrice-great. 

"  The  THOUGHT  concealed  as  yet  the  world  in  silence  and  darkness. 
.  .  .  Then  the  Lord  who  exists  through  Himself,  and  who  is  not  to  be 
divulged  to  the  external  senses  of  man ;  dissipated  darkness,  and  mani- 
fested the  perceptible  world." 

"  He  that  can  be  perceived  only  by  the  spirit,  that  escapes  the 
organs  of  sense,  who  is  without  visible  parts,  eternal,  the  soul  of  all 
beings,  that  none  can  comprehend,  displayed  His  own  splendor " 
{Manu,  book  i.,  slokas,  6-7). 

Such  is  the  ideal  of  the  Supreme  in  the  mind  of  every  Hindu  phil- 

"  Of  all  the  duties,  the  principal  one  is  to  acquire  the  knowledge  of 
the  supreme  soul  (the  spirit)  ;  it  is  the  first  of  all  sciences,  for  it  alone 
confers  on  man  immortality  "   [Manu,  book  xii.,  sloka  85). 

And  our  scientists  talk  of  the  Nirvana  of  Buddha  and  the  Moksha  of 
Brahma  as  of  a  complete  annihilation  !  It  is  thus  that  the  following 
verse  is  interpreted  by  some  materialists. 

"  The  man  who  recognizes  the  Supreme  Soul,  in  his  own  soul,  as 
well  as  in  that  of  all  creatures,  and  who  is  equally  just  to  all  (whether 
man  or  animals)  obtains  the  happiest  of  all  fates,  that  to  be  finally  ab- 
sorbed in  the  bosom  of  Brahma"   (Manu,  book  xii.,  sloka  125). 

The  doctrine  of  the  Moksha  and  the  Nirvana,  as  understood  by  the 
school  of  Max  Miiller,  can  never  bear  confronting  with  numerous  texts 
that  can  be  found,  if  required,  as  a  final  refutation.  There  are  sculp- 
tures in  many  pagodas  which  contradict,  point-blank,  the  imputation. 
Ask  a  Brahman  to  explain  Moksha,  address  yourself  to  an  educated  Bud- 
dhist and  pray  him  to  define  for  you  the  meaning  of  Nirvana.  Both 
will  answer  you  that  in  every  one  of  these  religions  Nirvana  represents 
the  dogma  of  the  spirit's  immortality.  That,  to  reach  the  Nirvana 
means  absorption  into  the  great  universal  soul,  the  latter  representing  a 
state,  not  an  individual  being  or  an  anthropomorphic  god,  as  some  under- 
stand the  great  existence.  That  a  spirit  reaching  such  a  state  becomes 
a  part  of  the  integral  whole,  but  never  loses  its  individuality  for  all  that. 
Henceforth,  the  spirit  lives  spiritually,  without  any  fear  of  further  modi- 

THE   VISIONS    OF   SEERS   NOT   PROVOKED    BY   DRUGS.       11/ 

fications  of  form  ;  for  form  pertains  to  matter,  and  the  state  of  Nirvana 
implies  a  complete  purification  or  a  final  riddance  from  even  the  most 
sublimated  particle  of  matter. 

This  word,  absorbed,  when  it  is  proved  that  the  Hindus  and  Buddhists 
believe  in  the  immortality  of  the  spirit,  must  necessarily  mean  intimate 
union,  not  annihilation.  Let  Christians  call  them  idolaters,  if  they  still  dare 
do  so,  in  the  face  of  science  and  the  latest  translations  of  the  sacred 
Sanscrit  books  ;  they  have  no  right  to  present  the  speculative  philosophy 
of  ancient  sages  as  an  inconsistency  and  the  philosophers  themselves  as 
illogical  fools.  With  far  better  reason  we  can  accuse  the  ancient  Jews 
of  utter  nihilism.  There  is  not  a  word  contained  in  the  Books  of  Moses 
— or  the  prophets  either — which,  taken  literally,  implies  the  spirit's  immor- 
tality. Yet  every  devout  Jew  hopes  as  well  to  be  "gathered  into  the 
bosom  of  A-Braham." 

The  hierophants  and  some  Brahmans  are  accused  of  having  adminis- 
tered to  their  epoptai  strong  drinks  or  ansesthetics  to  produce  visions  which 
shall  be  taken  by  the  latter  as  realities.  They  did  and  do  use  sacred  bever- 
ages which,  like  the  Soma-drink,  possess  the  faculty  of  freeing  the  astral 
form  from  the  bonds  of  matter  ;  but  in  those  visions  there  is  as  little  to 
be  attributed  to  hallucination  as  in  the  glimpses  which  the  scientist,  by 
the  help  of  his  optical  instrument,  gets  into  the  microscopic  world.  A  man 
cannot  perceive,  touch,  and  converse  with  pure  spirit  through  any  of  his 
bodily  senses.  Only  spirit  alone  can  talk  to  and  see  spirit  ;  and  even 
our  astral  soul,  the  Doppelganger,  is  too  gross,  too  much  tainted  yet  with 
earthly  matter  to  trust  entirely  to  its  perceptions  and  insinuations. 

How  dangerous  may  often  become  untrained  mediumship,  and  how 
thoroughly  it  was  understood  and  provided  against  by  the  ancient  sages, 
is  perfectly  exemplified  in  the  case  of  Socrates.  The  old  Grecian  phi- 
losopher was  a  "  medium  ;  "  hence,  he  had  never  been  initiated  into  the 
Mysteries  ;  for  such  was  the  rigorous  law.  But  he  had  his  "  familiar 
spirit "  as  they  call  it,  his  daimonion ;  and  this  invisible  counsellor 
became  the  cause  of  his  death.  It  is  generally  believed  that  if  he  was 
not  initiated  into  the  Mysteries  it  was  because  he  himself  neglected  to 
become  so.  But  the  Secret  Records  teach  us  that  it  was  because  he  could 
not  be  admitted  to  participate  in  the  sacred  rites,  and  precisely,  as  we 
state,  on  account  of  his  mediumship.  There  was  a  law  against  the 
admission  not  only  of  such  as  were  convicted  of  deliberate  witchcraft  * 

*  We  really  think  that  the  word  ' '  witchcraft ' '  ought,  once  for  all,  to  be  understood 
in  the  sense  which  properly  belongs  to  it.  Witchcraft  may  be  either  conscious  or  uncon- 
scious. Certain  wicked  and  dangerous  results  may  be  obtaiatid  through  the  mesmeric 
powers  of  a  so-called  sorcerer,  who  misuses  his  potential  fluid  ;  or  again  tliey  may  be 
achieved  through  an  easy  access  of  malicious  tricky  "  spirits  "  (so  much  the  worse  if 


but  even  of  those  who  were  known  to  have  "  a  familiar  spirit."  The  law- 
was  just  and  logical,  because  a  genuine  medium  is  more  or  less  irre- 
sponsible ;  and  the  eccentricities  of  Socrates  are  thus  accounted  for  in 
some  degree.  A  medium  must  he  passive  ;  and  if  a  firm  believer  in  his 
"  spirit-guide  "  he  will  allow  himself  to  be  ruled  by  the  latter,  not  by  the 
rules  of  the  sanctuary.  A  medium  of  olden  times,  like  the  modern 
"medium"  was  subject  to  be  entranced  at  the  will  and  pleasure  of  the 
"power"  which  controlled  him;  therefore,  he  could  not  well  have  been 
entrusted  with  the  awful  secrets  of  the  final  initiation,  "never  to  be  revealed 
under  the  penalty  of  death."  The  old  sage,  in  unguarded  moments  of 
"spiritual  inspiration,"  revealed  that  which  he  had  never  learned ;  and 
was  therefore  put  to  death  as  an  atheist. 

How  then,  with  such  an  instance  as  that  of  Socrates,  in  relation  to 
the  visions  and  spiritual  wonders  at  the  epoptai,  of  the  Inner  Temple, 
can  any  one  assert  that  these  seers,  theurgists,  and  thauniaturgists  were 
all  "  spirit-mediums  ?  "  Neither  Pythagoras,  Plato,  nor  any  of  the  later 
more  important  Neo-platonists ;  neither  lamblichus,  Longinus,  Proclus, 
nor  ApoUonius  of  Tyana,  were  ever  mediums  ;  for  in  such  case  they 
would  not  have  been  admitted  to  the  Mysteries  at  all.  As  Taylor  proves 
— "  This  assertion  of  divine  visions  in  the  Mysteries  is  clearly  confirmed 
by  Plotinus.  And  in  short,  that  magical  evocation  formed  a  part  of  the 
sacerdotal  office  in  them,  and  that  this  was  universally  believed  by  all 
antiquity  long  before  the  era  of  the  later  Platonists,"  shows  that  apart 
from  natural  "  mediumship,"  there  has  existed,  from  the  beginning  of 
time,  a  mysterious  science,  discussed  by  many,  but  known  only  to  a  few. 

The  use  of  it  is  a  longing  toward  our  only  true  and  real  home — the 
after-life,  and  a  desire  to  cling  more  closely  to  our  parent  spirit ;  abuse 
of  it  is  sorcery,  witchcraft,  black  magic.  Between  the  two  is  placed  natu- 
ral "  mediumship  ;  "  a  soul  clothed  with  imperfect  matter,  a  ready  agent 
for  either  the  one'or  the  other,  and  utterly  dependent  on  its  surroundings 
of  life,  constitutional  heredity — physical  as  well  as  mental — and  on  the 
nature  of  the  "  spirits"  it  attracts  around  itself.  A  blessing  or  a  curse, 
as  fate  will  have  it,  unless  the  medium  is  purified  of  earthly  dross. 

The  reason  why  in  every  age  so  little  has  been  generally  known  of  the 
mysteries  of  initiation,  is  twofold.  The  first  has  already  been  explained 
by  more  than  one  author,  and  Hes  in  the  terrible  penalty  following  the  least 
indiscretion.  The  second,  is  the  superhuman  difficulties  and  even  dan- 
gers which  the  daring  candidate  of  old  had  to  encounter,  and  either  con- 
quer, or  die  in  the  attempt,  when,  what  is  still  worse,  he  did  not  lose  his 

human)  to  the  atmosphere  surrounding  a  medium.  How  many  thousands  of  such  irre- 
sponsible innocent  victims  have  met  infamous  deaths  through  the  tricks  of  those  Ele- 
mentai'ies  ! 


reason.  There  was  no  real  danger  to  him  whose  mind  had  become  thor- 
oughl}'  spiritualized,  and  so  prepared  for  every  terrific  sight.  He  who 
fully  recognized  the  power  of  his  immortal  spirit,  and  never  doubted  for 
one  moment  its  omnipotent  protection,  had  naught  to  fear.  But  woe  to 
the  candidate  in  whom  the  slightest  physical  fear — sickly  child  of  matter 
— made  him  lose  sight  and  faith  in  his  own  invulnerability.  He  who 
was  not  wholly  confident  of  his  moral  fitness  to  accept  the  burden  of  these 
tremendous  secrets  was  doomed. 

The  Talmud  gives  the  story  of  the  four  Tanaim,  who  are  made,  in 
allegorical  terms,  to  enter  into  the  garden  of  delights ;  i.  e.,  to  be  initia- 
ted into  the  occult  and  final  science. 

"According  to  the  teaching  of  our  holy  masters  the  names  of  the  four 
who  entered  the  garden  of  delight,  are  :  Ben  Asai,  Ben  Zoma,  Acher,  and 
Rabbi  Akiba.  .  .  . 

"Ben  Asai  looked  and — lost  his  sight. 

"Ben  Zoma  looked  and — lost  his  reason. 

"Acher  made  depredations  in  the  plantation"  (mixed  up  the  whole 
and  failed).  "  But  Akiba,  who  had  entered  in  peace,  came  out  of  it  in 
peace,  for  the  saint  whose  name  be  blessed  had  said,  '  This  old  man  is 
worthy  of  serving  us  with  glory.'  " 

"The  learned  commentators  of  the  Talmud,  the  Rabbis  of  the  s)'na- 
gogue,  explain  that  the  garden  of  delight,  in  which  those  four  personages 
are  made  to  enter,  is  but  that  mysterious  science,  the  most  terrible  of 
sciences  for  weak  intellects,  which  it  leads  directly  to  insanity"  says  A. 
Franck,  in  his  Kabbala.  It  is  not  the  pure  at  heart  and  he  who  studies 
but  with  a  view  to  perfecting  himself  and  so  more  easily  acquiring  the 
promised  immortality,  who  need  have  any  fear ;  but  rather  he  who 
makes  of  the  science  of  sciences  a  sinful  pretext  for  worldly  motives,  who 
should  tremble.  The  latter  will  never  withstand  the  kahalistic  evocations 
of  the  supreme  initiation. 

The  licentious  performances  of  the  thousand  and  one  early  Christian 
sects,  may  be  criticised  by  partial  commentators  as  well  as  the  ancient 
Eleusinian  and  other  rites.  But  why  should  they  incur  the  blame  of  the 
theologians,  the  Christians,  when  their  own  "  Mysteries"  of  "  the  divine 
incarnation  with  Joseph,  Mary,  and  the  angel "  in  a  sacred  trilogue  used 
to  be  enacted  in  more  than  one  country,  and  were  famous  at  one  time  in 
Spain  and  Southern  France?  Later,  they  fell  like  many  other  once 
secret  rites  into  the  hands  of  the  populace.  It  is  but  a  few  years  since, 
during  every  Christmas  week,  Punch-and- Judy-boxes,  containing  the  above 
named  personages,  an  additional  display  of  the  infant  Jesus  in  his  manger, 
were  carried  about  the  country  in  Poland  and  Southern  Russia.  They 
were  called  Kaliadovki,  a  word  the  correct  etymology  of  which  we  are 


unable  to  give  unless  it  is  from  the  verb  Kaliadovdt,  a  word  that  we  as 
willingly  abandon  to  learned  philologists.  We  have  seen  this  show  in 
our  days  of  childhood.  We  remember  the  three  king-Magi  represented 
by  three  dolls  in  powdered  wigs  and  colored  tights ;  and  it  is  from  recol- 
lecting the  simple,  profound  veneration  depicted  on  the  faces  of  the 
pious  audience,  that  we  can  the  more  readily  appreciate  the  honest  and 
just  remark  by  the  editor,  in  the  introduction  to  the  Eleusinian  Mysteries, 
who  says  :  "It  is  ignorance  which  leads  to  profanation.  Men  ridicule 
what  they  do  not  properly  understand.  .  .  .  The  undercurrent  of  this 
world  is  set  toward  one  goal ;  and  inside  of  human  credulity — call  it 
human  weakness,  if  you  please — is  a  power  almost  infinite,  a  holy  faith 
capable  of  apprehending  the  supremest  truths  of  all  existence." 

If  that  abstract  sentiment  called  Christian  charity  prevailed  in  the 
Church,  we  would  be  well  content  to  leave  all  this  unsaid.  We  have  no 
quarrel  with  Christians  whose  faith  is  sincere  and  whose  practice  coincides 
with  their  profession.  But  with  an  arrogant,  dogmatic,  and  dishonest 
clergy,  we  have  nothing  to  do  except  to  see  the  ancient  philosophy — 
antagonized  by  modern  theology  in  its  puny  offspring — Spiritualism — 
defended  and  righted  so  far  as  we  are  able,  so  that  its  grandeur  and  suffi- 
ciency may  be  thoroughly  displayed.  It  is  not  alone  for  the  esoteric 
philosophy  that  we  fight ;  nor  for  any  modern  system  of  moral  philoso- 
phy, but  for  the  inalienable  right  of  private  judgment,  and  especially  for 
the  ennobhng  idea  of  a  future  life  of  activity  and  accountabiHty. 

We  eagerly  applaud  such  commentators  as  Godfrey  Higgins,  Inman, 
Payne  Knight,  King,  Dunlap,  and  Dr.  Newton,  however  much  they  disa- 
gree with  our  own  mystical  views,  for  their  diligence  is  constantly  being 
rewarded  by  fresh  discoveries  of  the  Pagan  paternity  of  Christian  sym- 
bols. But  otherwise,  all  these  learned  works  are  useless.  Their  re- 
searches only  cover  half  the  ground.  Lacking  the  true  key  of  interpreta- 
tion they  see  the  symbols  only  in  a  physical  aspect.  They  have  no  pass- 
word to  cause  the  gates  of  mystery  to  swing  open  ;  and  ancient  spiritual 
philosophy  is  to  them  a  closed  book.  Diametrically  opposed  though 
they  be  to  the  clergy  in  their  ideas  respecting  it,  in  the  way  of  interpreta- 
tion they  do  little  more  than  their  opponents  for  a  questioning  public. 
Their  labors  tend  to  strengthen  materialism  as  those  of  the  clergy, 
especially  the  Romish  clergy,  do  to  cultivate  belief  in  diabolism. 

If  the  study  of  Hermetic  philosophy  held  out  no  other  hope  of  reward, 
it  would  be  more  than  enough  to  know  that  by  it  we  may  learn  with  what 
perfection  of  justice  the  world  is  governed.  A  sermon  upon  this  text  is 
preached  by  every  page  of  history.  Among  all  there  is  not  one  that  con- 
veys a  deeper  moral  than  the  case  of  the  Roman  Church.  The  divine 
law  of  compensation  was  never  more  strikingly  exemplified  than  in  the 


fact  that  by  her  own  act  she  has  deprived  herself  of  the  only  possible  key 
to  her  own  religious  mysteries.  The  assumption  of  Godfrey  Hi^gins  that 
there  are  two  doctrines  maintained  in  the  Roman  Church,  one  for  the 
masses  and  the  other — the  esoteric — for  the  "  perfect,"  or  the  initiates,  as 
in  the  ancient  Mysteries,  appears  to  us  unwarranted  and  rather  fantastic. 
They  have  lost  the  key,  we  repeat ;  otherwise  no  terrestrial  power  could 
have  prostrated  her,  and  except  a  superficial  knowledge  of  the  means  of 
producing  "  miracles,"  her  clergy  can  in  no  way  be  compared  in  their 
wisdom  with  the  hierophants  of  old. 

In  burning  the  works  of  the  theurgists  ;  in  proscribing  those  who  affect 
their  study  ;  in  affixing  the  stigma  of  demonolatry  to  magic  in  general, 
Rome  has  left  her  exoteric  worship  and  Bible  to  be  helplessly  riddled  by 
every  free-thinker,  her  sexual  emblems  to  be  identified  with  coarseness, 
and  her  priests  to  unwittingly  turn  magicians  and  even  sorcerers  in  their 
exorcisms,  which  are  but  necromantic  evocations.  Thus  retribution,  by 
the  exquisite  adjustment  of  divine  law,  is  made  to  overtake  this  scheme  of 
cruelty,  injustice,  and  bigotry,  through  her  own  suicidal  acts. 

True  philosophy  and  divine  truth  are  convertible  terms.  A  religion 
which  dreads  the  light  cannot  be  a  religion  based  on  either  truth  or  phil- 
osophy— hence,  it  must  be  false.  The  ancient  Mysteries  were  mysteries 
to  the  profane  only,  whom  the  hierophant  never  sought  nor  would  accept  as 
proselytes;  to  the  initiates  the  Mysteries  became  explained  as  soon  as  the 
final  veil  was  withdrawn.  No  mind  like  that  of  Pythagoras  or  Plato  would 
have  contented  itself  with  an  unfathomable  and  incomprehensible  mystery, 
like  that  of  the  Christian  dogma.  There  can  be  but  one  truth,  for  two 
small  truths  on  the  same  subject  can  but  constitute  one  great  error. 
Among  thousands  of  exoteric  or  popular  conflicting  religions  which  have 
been  propagated  since  the  days  when  the  first  men  were  enabled  to  inter- 
change their  ideas,  not  a  nation,  not  a  people,  nor  the  most  abject  tribe, 
but  after  their  own  fashion  has  believed  in  an  Unseen  God,  the  First 
Cause  of  unerring  and  immutable  laws,  and  in  the  inunortality  of  our  spirit. 
No  creed,  no  false  philosophy,  no  religious  exaggerations,  could  ever  de- 
stroy that  feehng.  It  must,  therefore,  be  based  upon  an  absolute  truth. 
On  the  other  hand,  every  one  of  the  numberless  religions  and  religious 
sects  views  the  Deity  after  its  own  fashion ;  and,  fathering  on  the  un- 
known its  own  speculations,  it  enforces  these  purely  human  outgrowths 
of  overheated  imagination  on  the  ignorant  masses,  and  calls  them  "re- 
velation." As  the  dogmas  of  every  religion  and  sect  often  differ  radically, 
they  cannot  be  true.     And  if  untrue,  what  are  they  ? 

"The  greatest  curse  to  a  nation,"  remarks  Dr.  Inman,  "is  not  a  baa 
religion,  but  a  form  of  faith  which  prevents  manly  inquiry.  I  know  of 
no  nation  of  old  that  was  priest-ridden  which  did  not  fall  under  the  swords 


of  those  who  did  not  care  for  hierarchs.  .  .  .  The  greatest  danger  is  to 
be  feared  from  those  ecclesiastics  who  wink  at  vice,  and  encourage  it  as 
a  means  whereby  they  can  gain  power  over  their  votaries.  So  long  as 
every  man  does  to  other  men  as  he  would  that  they  should  do  to  him, 
and  allows  no  one  to  interfere  between  him  and  his  Maker,  all  will  go  well 
with  the  world."  * 

"  Ancient  Pagan  and  Modem  Christian  Symbolism,"  preface,  p.  34. 


*'KlNG. — Let  us  from  point  to  point  this  story  know." 

—Airs  Well  That  Ends  iVell.— Act  v.,  Scene  3. 

"  He  is  the  One,  self-proceeding  :  and  from  Him  all  things  proceed. 
And  in  them  He  Himself  exerts  His  activi^  :  no  mortal 
Beholds  Him,  but  He  beholds  all !  " — Orphic  Hymn. 

''And  Athens,  O  Athena,  is  thy  own  ! 
Great  Goddess  hear  !  and  on  my  darkened  mind 
Pour  thy  pure  light  in  measure  unconfined  : 
That  sacred  light,  O  all-proceeding  Queen, 
Which  beams  eternal  from  thy  face  serene. 
My  soul,  while  wand'ring  on  the  earth,  inspire 
With  thy  own  blessed  and  impulsive  fire  !  " 

— Proclus  :  Taylor  :  To  Mi*ierzia. 

"  '^ow  faith  is  the  substance  of  things.  ...  By  faith  the  harlot  Rahab  perished  not  with  them  that 
believed  not,  when  she  had  received  the  sj>ies  in  peace" — Hebreivs  xi.  1,31. 

"  What  doth  it  profit,  my  brethren,  though  a  man  hath  faith,  and  have  not  works  ?  Can  vxyth 
save  hint  ?  .  .  .  Likewise  also  was  not  Rahab  the  harlot  justified  by  luorks,  when  she  had  received 
the  messengers,  and  had  sent  them  out  another  way  ?  " — James  ii.  14,  25. 

CLEMENT  describes  Basilides,  the  Gnostic,  as  "  a  philosopher 
devoted  to  the  contemplation  of  divine  things."  This  very 
appropriate  expression  may  be  applied  to  many  of  the  founders  of  the 
more  important  sects  which  later  were  all  engulfed  in  one — that  stupen- 
dous compound  of  unintelligible  dogmas  enforced  by  Irenceus,  Tertullian, 
and  others,  which  is  now  termed  Christianity.  If  these  must  be  called 
heresies,  tlien  early  Christianity  itself  must  be  included  in  the  number. 
Basilides  and  Valentinus  preceded  Irenseus  and  Tertullian  ;  and  the 
two  latter  Fathers  had  less  facts  than  the  two  former  Gnostics  to  show 
that  their  heresy  was  plausible.  Neither  divine  right  nor  truth  brought 
about  the  triumph  of  their  Christianity  ;  fate  alone  was  propitious.  We 
can  assert,  with  entire  plausibilit)',  that  there  is  not  one  of  all  these 
sects — KabaJism,  Judaism,  and  our  present  Christianity  included — but 
sprang  from  the  two  main  branches  of  that  one  mother-trunk,  the  once 
universal  religion,  which  antedated  the  Vedaic  ages — we  speak  of  that 
prehistoric  Buddlrism  which  merged  later  into  Brahmanism. 

The  religion  which  the  primitive  teaching  of  the  early  few  apostles 
most  resembled — a  religion  preached  by  Jesus  himself — is  the  elder  of 
these  two,  Buddhism.  The  latter  as  taught  in  its  primitive  purity,  and 
carried  to  perfection  by  the  last  of   the  Buddhas,  Gautama,  based  its 


moral  ethics  on  three  fundamental  principles.  It  alleged  that  i,  every 
thing  existing,  exists  from  natural  causes ;  2,  that  virtue  brings  its  own 
reward,  and  vice  and  sin  their  own  punishment ;  and,  3,  that  the  state 
of  man  in  this  world  is  probationary.  We  might  add  that  on  these  three 
principles  rested  the  universal  foundation  of  every  religious  creed  ;  God, 
and  individual  immortality  for  every  man — if  he  could  but  win  it. 
However  puzzling  the  subsequent  theological  tenets ;  however  seem- 
ingly incomprehensible  the  metaphysical  abstractions  which  have  con- 
vulsed the  theology  of  every  one  of  the  great  rehgions  of  mankind  as 
soon  as  it  was  placed  on  a  sure  footing,  the  above  is  found  to  be  the 
essence  of  every  religious  philosophy,  with  the  exception  of  later  Chris- 
tianity. It  was  that  of  Zoroaster,  of  Pythagoras,  of  Plato,  of  Jesus, 
and  even  of  Moses,  albeit  the  teachings  of  the  Jewish  law-giver  have 
been  so  piously  tampered  with. 

We  will  devote  the  present  chapter  mainly  to  a  brief  survey  of  the 
numerous  sects  which  have  recognized  themselves  as  Christians  ;  that  is 
to  say,  that  have  believed  in  a  Christos,  or  an  anointed  one.  We  will 
also  endeavor  to  explain  the  latter  appellation  from  the  kabalistic  stand- 
point, and  show  it  reappearing  in  every  religious  system.  It  might  be 
profitable,  at  the  same  time,  to  see  how  much  the  earliest  apostles — Paul 
and  Peter,  agreed  in  their  preaching  of  the  new  Dispensation.  We  will 
begin  with  Peter. 

We  must  once  more  return  to  that  greatest  of  all  the  Patristic  frauds ; 
the  one  which  has  undeniably  helped  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  to  its 
unmerited  supremacy,  viz.  :  the  barefaced  assertion,  in  the  teeth  of  histor- 
ical evidence,  that  Peter  suffered  martyrdom  at  Rome.  It  is  but  too 
natural  that  the  Latin  clergy  should  cling  to  it,  for,  with  the  exposure  of 
the  fraudulent  nature  of  this  pretext,  the  dogma  of  apostolic  succession 
must  fall  to  the  ground. 

There  have  been  many  able  works  of  late,  in  refutation  of  this  pre- 
posterous claim.  Among  others  we  note  Mr.  G.  Reber's,  The  Christ  of 
Paul,  which  overthrows  it  quite  ingeniously.  The  author  proves,  i,  that 
there  was  no  church  established  at  Rome,  until  the  reign  of  Antoninus 
Pius  ;  2,  that  as  Eusebius  and  Irensus  both  agree  that  Linus  was  the 
second  Bishop  of  Rome,  into  whose  hands  "  the  blessed  apostles  "  Peter 
and  Paul  committed  the  church  after  building  it,  it  could  not  have  been  at 
any  other  time  than  between  a.d.  64  and  68  ;  3,  that  this  interval  of 
years  happens  during  the  reign  of  Nero,  for  Eusebius  states  that  Linus 
held  this  ofiice  twelve  years  [Ecclesiastical  History,  book  iii.,  c.  13), 
entering  upon  it  a.d.  69,  one  year  after  the  death  of  Nero,  and  dying 
himself  in  8r.  After  that  the  author  maintains,  on  very  solid  grounds, 
that  Peter  could  not  be  in  Rome   a.d.  64,  for  he  was  then  in  Babylon ; 


wherefrom  he  wrote  his  first  Epistle,  the  date  of  which  is  fixed  by  Dr. 
Lardner  and  other  critics  at  precisely  this  year.  But  we  believe  that  his 
best  argument  is  in  proving  that  it  was  not  in  the  character  of  the 
cowardly  Peter  to  risk  himself  in  such  close  neighborhood  with  Nero, 
who  "  was  feeding  the  wild  beasts  of  the  Amphitheatre  with  the  flesh  and 
bones  of  Christians  "  *  at  that  time. 

Perhaps  the  Church  of  Rome  was  but  consistent  in  choosing  as  her 
titular  founder  the  apostle  who  thrice  denied  his  master  at  the  moment 
of  danger ;  and  the  only  one,  moreover,  except  Judas,  who  provoked 
Christ  in  such  a  way  as  to  be  addressed  as  the  "  Enemy."  "  Get  thee 
behind  me,    Satan  !  "    exclaims  Jesus,  rebuking   the  taunting  apostle,  f 

There  is  a  tradition  in  the  Greek  Church  which  has  never  found  favor 
at  the  Vatican.  The  former  traces  its  origin  to  one  of  the  Gnostic  lead- 
ers— Basilides,  perhaps,  who  lived  under  Trajan  and  Adrian,  at  the  end 
of  the  first  and  the  beginning  of  the  second  century.  With  regard  to  this 
particular  tradition,  if  the  Gnostic  is  Basilides,  then  he  must  be  accepted 
as  a  sufficient  authority,  having  claimed  to  have  been  a  disciple  of  the 
Apostle  Matthew,  and  to  have  had  for  master  Glaucias,  a  disciple  of  St. 
Peter  himself.  Were  the  narrative  attributed  to  him  authenticated,  the 
London  Committee  for  the  Revision  of  the  Bible  would  have  to  add  a  new 
verse  to  Matthew,  Mark,  and  John,  who  tell  the  story  of  Peter's  denial 
of  Christ. 

This  tradition,  then,  of  which  we  have  been  speaking,  affirms  that, 
when  frightened  at  the  accusation  of  the  servant  of  the  high  priest,  the 
apostle  had  thrice  denied  his  master,  and  the  cock  had  crowed,  Jesus, 
who  was  then  passing  through  the  hall  in  custody  of  the  soldiers,  turned, 
and,  looking  at  Peter,  said  :  "  Verily,  I  say  unto  thee,  Peter,  thou  shalt 
deny  me  throughout  the  coming  ages,  and  never  stop  until  thou  shalt  be 
old,  and  shalt  stretch  forth  thy  hands,  and  another  shall  gird  thee  and 
carry  thee  whither  thou  wouldst  not."  The  latter  part  of  this  sentence, 
say  the  Greeks,  relates  to  the  Church  of  Rome,  and  prophesies  her  con- 
stant apostasy  from  Christ,  under  the  mask  of  false  religion.  Later,  it 
was  inserted  in  the  twenty-first  chapter  of  Jolin,  but  the  whole  of  this 
chapter  had  been  pronounced  a  forgery,  even  before  it  was  found  that  this 
Gospel  was  never  written  by  John  the  Apostle  at  all. 

The  anonymous  author  of  Supernatural  Religion,  a  work  which  in  two 
years  passed  through  several  editions,  and  which  is  alleged  to  have  been 
written  by  an  eminent  theologian,  proves  conclusively  the  spuriousness 
of  the  four  gospels,  or  at  least  their  complete  transformation  in  the  hands 

*  "  The  Christ  of  Faul,"  p.  123. 
\  Gospel  according  to  Marlj,  viii.  33. 


of  the  too-zealous  Iren»us  and  his  champions.  The  fourth  gospel  is 
completely  upset  by  this  able  author  ;  the  extraordinary  forgeries  of  the 
Fathers  of  the  early  centuries  are  plainly  demonstrated,  and  the  relative 
value  of  the  synoptics  is  discussed  with  an  unprecedented  power  of  logic. 
The  work  carries  conviction  in  its  every  line.  From  it  we  quote  the  fol- 
lowing :  "  We  gain  infinitely  more  than  we  lose  in  abandoning  belief  in 
the  reality  of  Divine  Revelation.  Whilst  we  retain,  pure  and  unimpaired, 
the  treasure  of  Christian  morahty,  we  relinquish  nothing  but  the  debasing 
elements  added  to  it  by  human  superstition.  We  are  no  longer  bound 
to  believe  a  theology  which  outrages  reason  and  moral  sense.  We  are 
freed  from  base  anthropomorphic  views  of  God  and  His  government  of 
the  Universe,  and  from  Jewish  Mythology  we  rise  to  higher  conceptions 
of  an  infinitely  wise  and  beneficent  Being,  hidden  from  our  finite  minds,  it 
is  true,  in  the  impenetrable  glory  of  Divinity,  but  whose  laws  of  wondrous 
comprehensiveness  and  perfection  we  ever  perceive  in  operation  around 
us.  .  .  .  The  argument  so  often  employed  by  theologians,  that  Divine 
revelation  is  necessary  for  man,  and  that  certain  views  contained  in  that, 
revelation  are  required  for  our  moral  consciousness,  is  purely  imaginary, 
and  derived  from  the  revelation  which  it  seeks  to  maintain.  The  only 
thing  absolutely  necessary  for  man  is  Truth,  and  to  that,  and  that  alone, 
must  our  moral  consciousness  adapt  itself."  * 

We  will  consider  farther  in  what  light  was  regarded  the  Divine  reve- 
lation of  the  Jewish  Bible  by  the  Gnostics,  who  yet  believed  in  Christ  in 
their  own  way,  a  far  better  and  less  blasphemous  one  than  the  Roman 
Cathohc.  The  Fathers  have  forced  on  the  behevers  in  Christ  a  BiUe, 
the  laws  prescribed  in  which  he  was  the  first  to  break ;  the  teachings  of 
which  he  utterly  rejected  ;  and  for  which  crimes  he  was  finally  crucified. 
Of  whatever  else  the  Christian  world  can  boast,  it  can  hardly  claim  logic 
and  consistency  as  its  chief  virtues. 

The  fact  alone  that  Peter  remained  to  the  last  an  "  apostle  of  the  cir- 
cumcision," speaks  for  itself.  Whosoever  else  might  have  built  the  Church 
of  Rome  it  was  not  Peter.  If  such  were  the  case,  the  successors  of  this 
apostle  would  have  to  submit  themselves  to  circumcision,  if  it  were  but 
for  the  sake  of  consistency,  and  to  show  that  the  claims  of  the  popes  are 
not  utterly  groundless.  Dr.  Inman  asserts  that  report  says  that  "in  our 
Christian  times  popes  have  to  be  privately  perfect,"  f  but  we  do  not  know 
whether  it  is  carried  to  the  extent  of  the  Levitical  Jewish  law.  The  first 
fifteen  Christian  bishops  of  Jerusalem,  commencing  with  James  and  in- 
cluding Judas,  were  all  circumcised  Jews.  \ 

*  "  Supernatural  Religion,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  489. 

\  "  Ancient  Pagan  and  Modern  Christian  Symbolism,"  p.  28. 

%  See  Eusebius,  "  E\.  H,,"  bk.  iv.,  ch.  v.  ;  "  Sulpicius  Severus,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  31. 

WHO   AND    WHAT   WAS    PETER?  12/ 

In  the  Sepher  Toldos  Jeshu*  a  Hebrew  manuscript  of  great  anti- 
quity, the  version  about  Peter  is  different.  Simon  Peter,  it  says,  was  one 
of  their  own  brethren,  though  he  had  somewhat  departed  from  the  laws, 
and  the  Jewish  hatred  and  persecution  of  the  apostle  seems  to  have 
existed  but  in  the  fecund  imagination  of  the  fathers.  The  author  speaks 
of  him  with  great  respect  and  fairness,  calling  him  '=  a  faithful  servant  of 
the  living  God,"  who  passed  his  life  in  austerity  and  meditation,  "living 
in  Babylon  at  the  summit  of  a  tower,"  composing  hymns,  and  preaching 
charity.  He  adds  that  Peter  always  recommended  to  the  Christians  not 
to  molest  the  Jews,  but  as  soon  as  he  was  dead,  behold  another  preacher 
went  to  Rome  and  pretended  that  Simon  Peter  had  altered  the  teachings 
of  his  master.  He  invented  a  burning  hell  and  threatened  every  one 
with  it ;  promised  miracles,  but  worked  none. 

How  much  there  is  in  the  above  of  fiction  and  how  much  of  truth,  it 
is  for  others  to  decide  ;  but  it  certainly  bears  more  the  evidence  of  sin- 
cerity and  fact  on  its  face,  than  the  fables  concocted  by  the  fathers  to 
answer  their  end. 

We  may  the  mot'e  readily  credit  this  friendship  between  Peter  and  his 
late  co-religionists  as  we  find  in  Theodoret  the  following  assertion  :  "  The 
Nazarenes  are  Jews,  honoring  the  anointed  (Jesus)  as  a  juit  tnan  and 
using  the  Evangel  according  to  Peter."  f  Peter  was  a  Nazarene,  accord- 
ing to  the  Talmud.  He  belonged  to  the  sect  of  the  later  Nazarenes, 
which  dissented  from  the  followers  of  John  the  Baptist,  and  became  a 
rival  sect ;  and  which — as  tradition  goes — was  instituted  by  Jesus  himself 

History  finds  the  first  Christian  sects  to  have  been  either  Nazarenes  like 
John  the  Baptist ;  or  Ebionites,  among  whom  were  many  of  the  relatives 
of  Jesus  ;  or  Essenes  (lessaens)  the  Therapeutfe,  healers,  of  which  the 
Nazaria  were  a  branch.  All  these  sects,  which  only  in  the  days  of  Ire- 
njeus  began  to  be  considered  heretical,  were  more  or  less  kabalistic. 
They  believed  in  the  expulsion  of  demons  by  magical  incantations,  and 
practiced  this  method;  Jervis  terms  the  Nabatheans  and  other  such  sects 
"  wandering  Jewish  exorcists,"  |  the  Arabic  word  Naba,  meaning  to  wan- 
der, and  the  Hebrew  saj  naba,   to  prophesy.     The  Talmud  indiscrimi- 

*  It  appears  that  the  Jews  attribute  a  very  high  antiquity  to  "  Sepher  Toldos 
Jeshu,"  It  was  mentioned  for  the  first  time  by  Martin,  about  the  beginning  of  the 
thirteenth  century,  for  the  Talmudists  took  great  care  to  conceal  it  from  the  Christians. 
Levi  says  that  Porchetus  Salvaticus  published  some  portions  of  it,  which  were  used  by 
Luther  (see  vol.  viii. ,  Jena  Ed.).  The  Hebrew  text,  which  was  missing,  was  at  last 
found  by  Miinster  and  Buxtorf,  and  published  in  i6Si,  by  Christopher  Wagenseilius, 
in  Nuremberg,  and  in  Frankfort,  in  a  collection  entitled  "  Tela  Ignea  Satanse,"  or 
The  Burning  Darts  of  Satan  ("  See  Levi's  Science  des  Esprits"). 

f  Theodoret :   "  Heretic.  Fab.,"  lib.  ii.,  ii. 

\  Jervis  W.  Jervis  :   "  Genesis,"  p.  324. 


nately  calls  all  the  Christians  Nozari.  *  All  the  Gnostic  sects  equally 
believed  in  magic.  Irenseus,  in  describing  the  followers  of  Basilides, 
says,  '■'  They  use  images,  invocations,  incantations,  and  all  other  things 
pertaining  unto  magic."  Dunlap,  on  the  authority  of  Lightfoot,  shows 
that  Jesus  was  called  Nazaraios,  in  reference  to  his  humble  and  mean 
external  condition;  "for  Nazaraios  means  separation,  alienation  from 
other  men."  f 

The  real  meaning  of  the  word  nazar  -its.  signifies  to  vow  or  conse- 
crate one's  self  to  the  service  of  God.  As  a  noun  it  is  a  diadem  or 
emblem  of  such  consecration,  a  head  so  consecrated.  \  Joseph  was 
styled  a  nazar.  §  "  The  head  of  Joseph,  the  vertex  of  the  nazar  among 
his  brethren."  Samson  and  Samuel  (iibmb  ^n-ib-j;  Semes-on  and  Sem- 
va-el)  are  described  alike  as  nazars.  Porphyry,  treating  of  Pythagoras, 
says  that  he  was  purified  and  initiated  at  Babylon  by  Zar-adas,  the  head 
of  the  sacred  college.  May  it  not  be  surmised,  therefore,  that  the  Zoro- 
Aster  was  the  nazar  of  Ishtar,  Zar-adas  or  Na-Zar-Ad,  ||  being  the  same 
with  change  of  idiom  ?  Ezra,  or  x-ity,  was  a  priest  and  scribe,  a  hiero- 
phant ;  and  the  first  Hebrew  colonizer  of  Judea  wsfs  V^aiit  Zeru-Babel 
or  the  Zoro  or  nazar  of  Babylon. 

The  Jewish  Scriptures  indicate  two  distinct  worships  and  religions 
among  the  Israelites;  that  of  Bacchus-worship  under  the  mask  of  Jeho- 
vah, and  that  of  the  Chaldean  initiates  to  whom  belonged  some  of  the 
nazars,  the  theurgists,  and  a  few  of  the  prophets.  The  headquarters  of 
these  were  always  at  Babylon  and  Chaldea,  where  two  rival  schools  of 
Magians  can  be  distinctly  shown.  Those  who  would  doubt  the  state- 
ment will  have  in  such  a  case  to  account  for  the  discrepancy  between 
history  and  Plato,  who  of  all  men  of  his  day  was  certainly  one  of  the 
best  informed?  Speaking  of  the  Magians,  he  shows  them  as  instructing 
the  Persian  kings  of  Zoroaster,  as  the  son  or  priest  of  Oromasdes ;  and 
yet  Darius,  in  the  inscription  at  Bihistun,  boasts  of  having  restored  the 
cultus  of  Ormazd  and  put  down  the  Magian  rites  !  Evidently  there  were 
two  distinct  and  antagonistic  Magian  schools.  The  oldest  and  the  most 
esoteric  of  the  two  being  that  which,  satisfied  with  its  unassailable  knowl- 
edge and  secret  power,  was  content  to  apparently  rehnquish  her  exoteric 
popularity,  and  concede  her  supremacy  into  the  hands  of  the  reforming 
Darius.  The  later  Gnostics  showed  the  same  prudent  policy  by  accom- 
modating themselves  in  every  country  to  the  prevailing  religious  forms, 
still  secretly  adhering  to  their  own  essential  doctrines. 

*  "Lightfoot,"  501.  f  Dunlap  :   "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  x. 

X  Jeremiah  vii.  29  :  "  Cut  off  thine  hair,  O  Jerusalem,  and  cast  it  away,  and  take 
up  a  lamentation  on  high  places." 

§  Genesis  xlix.  26.  |  Nazareth  ? 


There  is  another  hypothesis  possible,  which  is  that  Zero-Ishtar  was 
the  high  priest  of  the  Chaldean  worship,  or  Magian  hierophant.  When 
the  Aryans  of  Persia,  under  Darius  Hystaspes,  overthrew  the  Magian 
Gomates,  and  restored  the  Masdean  worship,  there  ensued  an  amalgama- 
tion by  which  the  Magian  Zoro-astar  became  the  Zara-tushra  of  the 
Vendidad.  This  was  not  acceptable  to  the  other  Aryans,  who  adopted 
the  Vedic  religion  as  distinguished  from  that  of  Avesta.  But  this  is  but 
an  hypothesis. 

And  whatever  Moses  is  now  believed  to  have  been,  we  will  demon- 
strate that  he  was  an  initiate.  The  Mosaic  rehgion  was  at  best  a  sun-and 
serpent  worship,  diluted,  perhaps,  with  some  slight  monotheistic  notions 
before  the  latter  were  forcibly  crammed  into  the  so-called  "  inspired  Scrip- 
tures "  by  Ezra,  at  the  time  he  was  alleged  to  have  r^rwritten  the  Mosaic 
books.  At  all  events  the  Book  of  A'umbers  was  a  later  book  ;  and  there 
the  sun-and-serpent  worship  is  as  plainly  traceable  as  in  any  Pagan  story. 
The  tale  of  the  fiery  serpents  is  an  allegory  in  more  than  one  sense. 
The  "  serpents "  were  the  Levites  or  Ophites,  who  were  Moses'  body- 
guard (see  Exodus  xxxii.  26);  and  the  command  of  the  "Lord"  to 
Moses  to  hang  the  heads  of  the  people  "  before  the  Lord  against  the 
sun,"  which  is  the  emblem  of  this  Lord,  is  unequivocal. 

The  nazars  or  prophets,  as  well  as  the  Nazarenes,  were  an  anti- 
Bacchus  caste,  in  so  far  that,  in  common  with  all  the  initiated  prophets, 
they  held  to  the  spirit  of  the  symbolical  religions  and  offered  a  strong 
opposition  to  the  idolatrous  and  exoteric  practices  of  the  dead  letter. 
Hence,  the  frequent  stoning  of  the  prophets  by  the  populace  and  under 
the  leadership  of  those  priests  who  made  a  profitable  living  out  of  the 
popular  superstitions.  Otfried  Miiller  shows  how  much  the  Orphic  Mys- 
teries differed  from  the  foprilar  rites  of  Bacchus,*  although  the  Orphikoi 
are  known  to  have  followed  the  worship  of  Bacchus.  The  system  of  the 
purest  morality  and  Of  a  severe  asceticism  promulgated  in  the  teachings 
of  Orpheus,  and  so  strictly  adhered  to  by  his  votaries,  are  incompatible 
with  the  lasciviousness  and  gross  immorality  of  the  popular  rites.  The 
fable  of  Aristceus  pursuing  Eurydike  into  the  woods  where  a  serpent  occa- 
sions her  death,  is  a  very  plain  allegory,  which  was  in  part  explained  at 
the  earliest  times.  Aristseus  is  brutal  power,  pursuing  Eurydike,  the 
esoteric  doctrine,  into  the  woods  where  the  serpent  (emblem  of  every 
sun-god,  and  worshipped  under  its  grosser  aspect  even  by  the  Jews) 
kills  her  ;  i.e.,  forces  truth  to  become  still  more  esoteric,  and  seek 
shelter  in  the  Underworld,  which  is  not  the  hell  of  our  theologians. 
Moreover,    the  fate   of  Orpheus,  torn   to   pieces  by   the   Bacchantes,  is 

*  Otfried  Miiller  :  "  Historical  Greek  Literature,"  pp.  230-240. 


another  allegory  to  show  that  the  gross  and  popular  rites  are  always 
more  welcome  than  divine  but  simple  truth,  and  proves  the  great  diflfer- 
ence  that  must  have  existed  between  the  esoteric  and  the  popular  wor- 
ship. As  the  poems  of  both  Orpheus  and  Musfeus  were  said  to  have  been 
lost  since  the  earliest  ages,  so  that  neither  Plato  nor  Aristotle  recognized 
anything  authentic  in  the  poems  extant  in  their  time,  it  is  difficult  to  say  with 
precision  what  constituted  their  peculiar  rites.  Still  we  have  the  oral  tra- 
dition, and  every  infei^ence  to  draw  therefrom  ;  and  this  tradition  points  to 
Orpheus  as  having  brought  his  doctrines  from  India.  As  one  whose 
religion  was  that  of  the  oldest  Magians — hence,  that  to  which  belonged 
the  initiates  of  all  countries,  beginning  with  Moses,  the  "  sons  of  the 
Prophets,"  and  the  ascetic  nazars  (who  must  not  be  confounded  with 
those  against  whom  thundered  Hosea  and  other  prophets)  to  the  Essenes. 
This  latter  sect  were  Pythagoreans  before  they  rather  degenerated,  than 
became  perfected  in  their  system  by  the  Buddhist  missionaries,  whom 
Pliny  tells  us  established  themselves  on  the  shores  of  the  Dead  Sea,  ages 
before  his  time,  '■'■per  sceculorum  millia."  But  if,  on  the  one  hand,  these 
Buddhist  monks  were  the  first  to  establish  monastic  communities  and  in- 
culcate the  strict  observance  of  dogmatic  conventual  rule,  on  the  other 
they  were  also  the  first  to  enforce  and  popularize  those  stern  virtues  so 
exemplified  by  Sakya-muni,  and  which  were  previously  exercised  only  in 
isolated  cases  of  well-known  philosophers  and  their  followers  ;  virtues 
preached  two  or  three  centuries  later  by  Jesus,  practiced  by  a  few  Chris- 
tian ascetics,  and  gradually  abandoned,  and  even  entirely  forgotten  by 
the  Christian  Church. 

The  initiated  nazars  had  ever  held  to  this  rule,  which  had  to  be  fol- 
lowed before  them  by  the  adepts  of  every  age  ;  and  the  disciples  of 
John  were  but  a  dissenting  branch  of  the  Essenes.  Therefore,  we  cannot 
well  confound  them  with  all  the  nazars  spoken  of  in  the  Old  Testament, 
and  who  are  accused  by  Hosea  with  having  separated  or  consecrated 
themselves  to  Bosheth  n»2  (see  Hebrew  text)  ;  which  implied  the  great- 
est possible  abomination.  To  infer,  as  some  critics  and  theologians  do, 
that  it  means  to  separate  one's  self  to  chastity  or  continence,  is  either  to 
advisedly  pervert  the  true  meaning,  or  to  be  totally  ignorant  of  the 
Hebrew  language.  The  eleventh  verse  of  the  first  chapter  of  Micah 
half  explains  the  word  in  its  veiled  translation  :  "  Pass  ye  away,  thou 
inhabitant  of  Saphir,  etc.,"  and  in  the  original  text  the  word  is  Bosheth. 
Certainly  neither  Baal,  nor  lahoh  Kadosh,  with  his  Kadeshim,  was  a  god 
of  ascetic  virtue,  albeit  the  Septuaginia  terms  them,  as  well  as  the  galli 
— the  perfected  priests — TereXeo-yuti-ous,  the  initiated  and  the  consecrated.* 

See  "  Movers,"  p.  6S3. 


The  great  Sod  of  the  Kadeshim,  translated  in  Psalm  Ixxxix.  7,  by 
"assembly  of  the  saints,"  was  anything  but  a  mystery  of  tl^^e  '■'■sancti- 
fied" in  the  sense  given  to  the  latter  word  by  Webster. 

The  Nazireate  sect  existed  long  before  the  laws  of  Moses,  and  origin- 
ated among  people  most  inimical  to  the  "cliosen"  ones  of  Israel,  viz., 
the  people  of  Galilee,  the  ancient  oUa-podrida  of  idolatrous  nations, 
where  was  built  Nazara,  the  present  Nazareth.  It  is  in  Nazara  that  the 
ancient  Nazori'a  or  Nazireates  held  their  "  Mysteries  of  Life  "  or  "  assem- 
blies," as  the  word  now  stands  in  the  translation,*  which  were  but  the 
secret  mysteries  of  initiation,  f  utterly  distinct  in  their  practical  form 
from  the  popular  M\steries  which  were  held  at  Byblus  in  honor  of  Adonis. 
While  the  true  initiates  of  the  ostracised  Galilee  were  worshipping  the 
true  God  and  enjoying  transcendent  visions,  what  were  the  "chosen" 
ones  about  ?  Ezekiel  tells  it  to  us  (chap,  viii)  when,  in  describing  what 
he  saw,  he  says  that  the  form  of  a  hand  took  him  by  a  lock  of  his  head 
and  transported  him  from  Chaldea  unto  Jerusalem.  "And  there  stood 
seventy  men  of  the  senators  of  the  house  of  Israel.  .  .  .  '  Son  of  man, 
hast  thou  seen  what  the  ancients  ...  do  in  the  dark  ?  '  "  inquires  the 
"  Lord."  "  At  the  door  of  the  house  of  the  Lord  .  .  .  behold  there  sat 
women  weeping  for  Taiiimuz  "  (Adonis).  We  really  cannot  suppose  that 
the  Pagans  have  ever  surpassed  the  "  chosen"  people  in  certain  shameful 
abominations  of  which  their  own  prophets  accuse  them  so  profusely.  To 
admit  this  truth,  one  hardly  needs  even  to  be  a  Hebrew  scholar  ;  let  him 
read  the  Bible  in  English  and  meditate  over  the  language  of  the  "  holy" 

This  accounts  for  the  hatred  of  the  later  Nazarenes  for  the  orthodox 
Jews — followers  of  the  exoteric  Mosaic  Law — who  are  ever  taunted  by 
this  sect  with  being  the  worshippers  of  lurbo-Adunai,  or  Lord  Bacchus. 
Passing  under  the  disguise  of  Adoni-Iaclwh  (original  text,  Isaiah  Ixi.  i), 
lahoh  and  Lord  Sabaoth,  the  Baal-Adonis,  or  Bacchus,  worshipped  in 
the  groves  and  public  sods  or  Mysteries,  under  the  poUshing  hand  of  Ezra 
becomes  finally  the  later-vowelled  Adonai  of  the  Massorah — the  One 
and  Supreme  God  of  the  Christians  ! 

"  Thou  shalt  not  worship  the  Sun  who  is  named  Adunai,  says  the 
Codex  of  the  Nazarenes  ;  whose  name  is  also  Kadush  \  and  El-El.  This 
Adunai  will  elect  to  himself  a  nation  and  congregate  in  crowds  (his  wor- 
ship will  be  exoteric)  .  .  .  Jerusalem  will  become  the  refuge  and  city  of 
the  Abortive,  who  shall  perfect  themselves  (circumcise)  with  a  sword 
.  .  .  and  shall  adore  Adunai."  § 

*  "  Codex  Nazarasus,"  ii.,  305.  f  See  Lucian  :  "  De  Syria  Dea." 

^:See  Psalm  Lxx.xix.  18.  §  "  Codex  Nazarxus,"  i.  47. 


The  oldest  Nazarenes,  who  were  the  descendants  of  the  Scripture 
iiazars,  and  whose  last  prominent  leader  was  John  the  Baptist,  although 
never  very  orthodox  in  the  sight  of  the  scribes  and  Pharisees  of  Jerusalem 
were,  nevertheless,  respected  and  left  unmolested.  Even  Herod  '-feared 
the  multitude  "  because  they  regarded  John  as  a  prophet  {Matthew  xiv. 
5).  But  the  followers  of  Jesus  evidently  adhered  to  a  sect  which  became 
a  still  more  exasperating  thorn  in  their  side.  It  appeared  as  a  heresy 
within  another  heresy ;  for  while  the  nazars  of  the  olden  times,  the 
"  Sons  of  the  Prophets,"  were  Chaldean  kabalists,  the  adepts  of  the  new 
dissenting  sect  showed  themselves  reformers  and  innovators  from  the 
first.  The  great  similitude  traced  by  some  critics  between  the  rites  and 
observances  of  the  earliest  Christians  and  those  of  the  Essenes  may  be 
accounted  for  without  the  slightest  difficulty.  The  Essenes,  as  we  re- 
marked just  now,  were  the  converts  of  Buddhist  missionaries  who  had 
overrun  Egypt,  Greece,  and  even  Judea  at  one  time,  since  the  reign  of 
Asoka  the  zealous  propagandist ;  and  while  it  is  evidently  to  the  Essenes 
that  belongs  the  honor  of  having  had  the  Nazarene  reformer,  Jesus,  as 
a  pupil,  still  the  latter  is  found  disagreeing  with  his  early  teachers  on 
several  questions  of  formal  observance.  He  cannot  strictly  be  called 
an  Essene,  for  reasons  which  we  will  indicate  further  on,  neither  was  he 
a  nazar,  or  Nazaria  of  the  older  sect.  What  Jesus  was,  may  be  found  in 
the  Codex  Nazarizus,  in  the  unjust  accusations  of  the  Bardesanian  Gnos- 

"  Jesu  is  Nebu,  the  false  Messiah,  the  destroyer  of  the  old  orthodox 
religion,"  says  the  Codex.  *  He  is  the  founder  of  the  sect  of  the  new 
nazars,  and,  as  the  words  clearly  imply,  a  follower  of  the  Buddhist 
doctrine.  In  Hebrew  the  word  naba  ttas  means  to  speak  of  inspiration  ; 
and  las  is  nebo,  a  god  of  wisdom.  But  Nebo  is  also  Mercury,  and  Mer- 
cury is  Buddha  in  the  Hindu  monogram  of  planets.  Moreover,  we  find 
the  Talmudists  holding  that  Jesus  was  inspired  by  the  genius  of  Mer- 
cury, f 

The  Nazarene  reformer  had  undoubtedly  belonged  to  one  of  these 
sects ;  though,  perhaps,  it  would  be  next  to  impossible  to  decide 
absolutely  which.  But  what  is  self-evident  is  that  he  preached  the 
philosophy  of  Buddha-Sakyamfini.  Denounced  by  the  later  prophets, 
cursed  by  the  Sanhedrim,  the  nazars — they  were  confounded  with  others 
of  that  name  "  who  separated  themselves  unto  that  shame,"  J  they  were 
secretly,  if  not  openly  persecuted  by  the   orthodox  synagogue.     It  be- 

*  Ibid.  ;  Norberg  :  "  Onomasticon,"  74. 

f  Alph.  de  Spire :  "  Fortalicium  Fidei,"  ii.,  2. 

\  Hosea  ix.  10. 


comes  clear  why  Jesus  was  treated  with  such  contempt  from  the  first, 
and  deprecatingly  called  "  the  Galilean."  Nathaniel  inquires — "  Can 
tliere  any  good  thing  come  out  of  Nazareth  ?  "  {John  i.  46)  at  the  very 
beginning  of  his  career  ;  and  merely  because  he  knows  him  to  be  a 
nazar.  Does  not  this  clearly  hint,  that  even  the  older  nazars  were  not 
really  Hebrew  religionists,  but  rather  a  class  of  Chaldean  theurgists  ? 
Besides,  as  the  Niw  Testament  is  noted  for  its  mistranslations  and  trans- 
parent falsifications  of  texts,  we  may  justly  suspect  that  the  word  Nazareth 
was  substituted  for  that  of  nasaria,  or  nozari.  That  it  originally  read 
"  Can  any  good  thing  come  from  a  nozari,  or  Nazarene  ;  "  a  follower  of 
St.  John  the  Baptist,  with  whom  we  see  him  associating  from  his  first 
appearance  on  the  stage  of  action,  after  having  been  lost  sight  of  for  a 
period  of  nearly  twenty  years.  The  blunders  of  the  Old  Testament  ■i.-r^ 
as  nothing  to  those  of  the  gospels.  Nothing  shows  better  than  these  self- 
evident  contradictions  the  system  of  pious  fraud  upon  which  the  super- 
structure of  the  Messiahship  rests.  "This  is  Elias  which  was  for  to 
come,"  says  Matthew  of  John  the  Baptist,  thus  forcing  an  ancient  kabal- 
istic  tradition  into  the  frame  of  evidence  (xi.  14).  But  when  address- 
ing the  Baptist  himself,  they  ask  him  {/ohni.  16),  "Art  thou  Elias?" 
"  And  he  saith  lam  not  /  "  Which  knew  best — John  or  his  biographer  ? 
And  which  is  divine  revelation  ? 

The  motive  of  Jesus  was  evidently  like  that  of  Gautama-Buddha,  to 
benefit  humanity  at  large  by  producing  a  religious  reform  which  should 
give  it  a  religion  of  pure  ethics  ;  the  true  knowledge  of  God  and  nature 
having  remained  until  then  solely  in  the  hands  of  the  esoteric  sects,  and 
their  adepts.  As  Jesus  used  oil  and  the  Essenes  never  used  aught  but 
pure  water,*  he  cannot  be  called  a  strict  Essene.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  Essenes  were  also  "  set  apart ;"  they  were  healers  {assaya)  and  dwelt 
in  the  desert  as  all  ascetics  did. 

But  although  he  did  not  abstain  from  wine  he  could  have  remained  a 
Nazarene  all  the  same.  For  in  chapter  vi.  of  Numbers,  we  see  that 
after  the  priest  has  waved  a  part  of  the  hair  of  a  Nazorite  for  a  wave- 
offering  before  the  Lord,"  "after  that  a  Nazarene  may  drink  wine" 
(v.  20).  The  bitter  denunciation  by  the  reformer  of  the  people  who 
would  be  satisfied  with  nothing  is  worded  in  the  following  exclamation  : 
"John  came  neither  eating  nor  drinking  and  they  say:  'He  hath  a 
devil.'  .  .  .  The  Son  of  Man  came  eating  and  drinking,  and  they  say  : 
'  Behold  a  man  gluttonous  and  a  wine-bibber.'  "  And  yet  he  was  an  Essene 
and  Nazarene,  for  we  not  only  find  him  sending  a  message  to  Herod,  to 
say  that  he  was  one  of  those  who  cast  out  demons,  and  who  performed 

*   "  The  Essenes  considered  oil  as  a  defilement,"  says  Josephus:  "  Wars,"  ii.,  p.  7. 


cures,  but  actually  calling  himself  a  prophet  and  declaring  himself  equal 
to  the  other  prophets.  * 

The  author  of  Sod  shows  Matthew  trying  to  connect  the  appella- 
tion of  Nazarene  with  a  prophecy,  f  and  inquires  "  Why  then  does 
Matthew  state  that  the  prophet  said  he  should  be  called  NazariaV 
Simply  "because  he  belonged  to  that  sect,  and  a  prophecy  would  con- 
firm his  claims  to  the  Messiahship.  .  .  .  Now  it  does  not  appear  that 
the  prophets  anywhere  state  that  the  Messiah  will  be  called  a  Nazarene:'\ 
The  fact  alone  that  Matthew  tries  in  the  last  verse  of  chapter  ii.  to 
strengthen  his  claim  that  Jesus  dwelt  in  Nazareth  merely  to  fulfil  a 
prophecy,  does  more  than  weaken  the  argument,  it  upsets  it  entirely ;  for 
the  first  two  chapters  have  sufficiently  been  proved  later  forgeries. 

Baptism  is  one  of  the  oldest  rites  and  was  practiced  by  all  the  nations 
in  their  Mysteries,  as  sacred  ablutions.  Dunlap  seems  to  derive  the 
name  of  the  nazars  from  nazah,  sprinkling  ;  Bahak-Zivo  is  the  genius 
who  called  the  world  into  existence  §  out  of  the  "  dark  water,"  say  the 
Nazarenes ;  and  Richardson's  Persian,  Arabic,  and  English  Lexicon 
asserts  that  the  word  Bahak  means  "raining."  But  the  Bahak-Zivo  of 
the  Nazarenes  cannot  be  traced  so  easily  to  Bacchus,  who  "  was  the 
rain-god,"  for  the  nazars  were  the  greatest  opponents  of  Bacchus-wor- 
ship. "  Bacchus  is  brought  up  by  the  Hyades,  the  rain-nymphs,"  says 
Preller  ;  ||  who  shows,  furthermore,  that  f  at  the  conclusion  of  the  religious 
Mysteries,  the  priests  baptized  (washed)  their  monuments  and  anointed 
them  with  oil.  All  this  is  but  a  very  indirect  proof.  The  Jordan  bap- 
tism need  not  be  shown  a  substitution  for  tlie  exoteric  Bacchic  rites  and 
the  libations  in  honor  of  Adonis  or  Adoni — whom  the  Nazarenes  abhorred 
— in  order  to  prove  it  to  have  been  a  sect  sprung  from  the  "  Mysteries" 
of  the  "  Secret  Doctrine  ;  "  and  their  rites  can  by  no  means  be  con- 
founded with  those  of  the  Pagan  populace,  who  had  simply  fallen  into  the 
idolatrous  and  unreasoning  faith  of  all  plebeian  multitudes.  John  was  the 
prophet  of  these  Nazarenes,  and  in  Galilee  he  was  termed  "the  Saviour," 
but  he  was  not  the  founder  of  that  sect  which  derived  its  tradition  from 
the  remotest  Chaldeo-Akkadian  theurgy. 

"  The  early  plebeian  Israelites  were  Canaanites  and  Phoenicians,  with 

*  Luke  xiii.  32. 

f  Matthew  ii.  We  must  bear  in  mind  that  the  Gospel  according  to  Matthew  in 
the  New  Testament  is  not  the  original  Gospel  of  the  apostle  of  that  name.  The  au- 
thentic Evangel  was  for  centuries  in  the  possession  of  the  Nazarenes  and  the  Ebionites, 
as  we  show  further  on  the  admission  of  St.  Jerome  himself,  who  confesses  that  he  had 
to  ask  permission  of  the  Nazarenes  to  translate  it. 

X  Dunlap  :   "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man."      §   "  Codex  Nazarceus,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  233. 

II  Preller  :  vol.  i.,  p.  415.  •[  Ibid.,  vol.  i.,  p.  490. 


the  same  worship  of  the  Phallic  gods — Bacchus,  Baal  or  Adon,  lacchos 
— lao  or  Jehovah  ; "  but  even  among  them  there  had  always  been  a 
class  of  initiated  adepts.  Later,  the  character  of  this  plebe  was  modified 
by  Assyrian  conquests  ;  and,  finally,  the  Persian  colonizations  superim- 
posed the  Pharisean  and  Eastern  ideas  and  usages,  from  which  the  Old 
Testament  and  the  Mosaic  institutes  were  derived.  The  Asmonean 
priest-kings  promulgated  the  canon  of  the  Old  Testament  in  contradis- 
tinction to  the  Apocrypha  or  Secret  Books  of  the  Alexandrian  Jews — 
kabalists.*  Till  John  Hyrcanus  they  were  Asideans  (Chasidim)  and 
Pharisees  (Parsees),  but  then  they  became  Sadducees  or  Zadokites — as- 
serters  of  sacerdotal  rule  as  contradistinguished  from  rabbinical.  The 
Pharisees  were  lenient  and  intellectual,  the  Sadducees,  bigoted  and  cruel. 

Says  the  Codex:  "John,  son  of  the  AbaSaba-Zacharia,  conceived 
by  his  mother  Anasabet  in  her  hundredth  year,  had  baptized  for /i?;Yj'-/wf 
years  \  when  Jesu  Messias  came  to  the  Jordan  to  be  baptized  with  John's 
baptism.  .  .  .  But  \l&  ^'\}1  pervert  John! s  doctrine,  (ihzx\^'^<g  the  baptism 
of  the  Jordan,  and  perverting  the  sayings  of  justice."  \ 

The  baptism  was  changed  from  water  to  that  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  un- 
doubtedly in  consequence  of  the  ever-dominant  idea  of  the  Fathers  to 
institute  a  reform,  and  make  the  Christians  distinct  from  St.  John's 
Nazarenes,  the  Nabatheans  and  Ebionites,  in  order  to  make  room  for 
new  dogmas.  Not  only  do  the  Synoptics  tell  us  that  Jesus  was  baptizing 
the  same  as  John,  but  John's  own  disciples  complained  of  it,  though  surely 
Jesus  cannot  be  accused  of  following  a  purely  Bacchic  rite.  The  paren- 
thesis in  verse  2d  of  John  iv.,  "...  though  Jesus  himself  baptized  not," 
is  so  clumsy  as  to  show  upon  its  face  that  it  is  an  interpolation. 
Matthew  makes  John  say  that  he  that  should  come  after  him  would  not 
baptize  them  with  water  "but  with  the  Holy  Ghost  and  fire."  Mark, 
Luke,  and  John  corroborate  these  words.  Water,  fire,  and  spirit,  or  Holy 
Ghost,  have  all  their  origin  in  India,  as  we  will  show. 

*  The  word  Apocrypha  was  very  erroneously  adopted  as  doubtful  and  spurious. 
The  word  means  hidden  and  secret ;  but  that  which  is  secret  may  be  often  more  true 
than  that  which  is  revealed. 

f  The  statement,  if  reliable,  would  show  that  Jesus  was  between  fifty  and  sixty  years 
old  when  baptized ;  for  the  Gospels  make  him  but  a  few  months  younger  than  John. 
The  kabalists  say  that  Jesus  was  over  forty  years  old  when  first  appearing  at  the  gates 
of  Jerusalem.  The  present  copy  of  the  *'  Codex  Nazar^us  "  is  dated  in  the  year  1042, 
but  Dunlap  finds  in  Irenceus  (2d  century)  quotations  from  and  ample  references  to  this 
book.  "  The  basis  of  the  material  common  to  Irenceus  and  the  ''  Codex  Nazarasus" 
must  be  at  least  as  early  as  the  first  century,"  says  the  author  in  his  preface  to  "  Sod, 
the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  i. 

X  "  Codex  Nazarseus,"  vol.  i.,  p.  109;  Dunlap:  Ibid.,  xxiv. 


Now  there  is  one  very  strange  peculiarity  about  this  sentence.  It  is 
flatly  denied  in  Acts  xix.  2-5.  ApoUos,  a  Jew  of  Alexandria,  belonged 
to  the  sect  of  St.  John's  disciples  ;  he  had  been  baptized,  and  instructf;d 
others  in  the  doctrines  of  the  Baptist.  And  yet  when  Paul,  cleverly 
profiting  by  his  absence  at  Corinth,  finds  certain  disciples  of  Apollos' 
at  Ephesus,  and  asks  them  whether  they  received  the  Holy  Ghost, 
he  is  naively  answered,  "  We  have  not  so  much  as  heard  whether 
there  be  any  Holy  Ghost  !  "  "Unto  what  then  were  you  baptized?" 
he  inquires.  '■'■  Unto  John' s  baptisjn"  they  say.  Then  Paul  is  made  to 
repeat  the  words  attributed  to  John  by  the  Synoptics  ;  and  these  men 
"  were  baptized  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus,"  exhibiting,  moreover, 
at  the  same  instant,  the  usual  polyglot  gift  which  accompanies  the  descent 
of  the  Holy  Ghost. 

How  then  ?  St.  John  the  Baptist,  who  is  called  the  "  precursor,"  that 
"  the  prophecy  might  be  fulfilled,"  the  great  prophet  and  martyr, 
whose  words  ought  to  have  had  such  an  importance  in  the  eyes  of  his 
disciples,  announces  the  "  Holy  Ghost  "  to  his  listeners  ;  causes  crowds 
to  assemble  on  the  shores  of  the  Jordan,  where,  at  the  great  ceremony 
of  Christ's  baptism,  the  promised  "Holy  Ghost"  appears  within  the 
opened  heavens,  and  the  multitude  hears  the  voice,  and  yet  there  are 
disciples  of  St.  John  who  have  "  never  so  much  as  heard  whether  there  be 
any  Holy  Ghost !  " 

Verily  the  disciples  who  wrote  the  Codex  Nazarmtcs  were  right.  Only 
it  is  not  Jesus  himself,  but  those  who  came  after  him,  and  who  concocted 
the  Bible  to  suit  themselves,  that  '■'■perverted  John's  doctrine,  changed 
the  baptism  of  the  Jordan,  and  perverted  the  sayings  of  justice." 

It  is  useless  to  object  that  the  present  Codex  was  written  centuries 
after  the  direct  apostles  of  John  preached.  So  were  our  Gospels.  When 
this  astounding  interview  of  Paul  with  the  "  Baptists"  took  place,  Barde- 
sanes  had  not  yet  appeared  among  them,  and  the  sect  was  not  considered 
a  "  heresy."  Moreover,  we  are  enabled  to  judge  how  little  St.  John's 
promise  of  the  "Holy  Ghost,"  and  the  appearance  of  the  "Ghost"  him- 
self, had  affected  his  disciples,  by  the  displeasure  shown  by  them  toward  the 
disciples  of  Jesus,  and  the  kind  of  rivalry  manifested  from  the  first.  Nav, 
so  httle  is  John  himself  sure  of  the  identity  of  Jesus  with  the  expected 
Messiah,  that  after  the  famous  scene  of  the  baptism  at  the  Jordan,  and  the 
oral  assurance  by  the  Holy  Ghost  Himself  that  "  This  is  my  beloved  Son" 
{MattheTv  iii.  17),  we  find  "the  Precursor,"  in  Matthew  xi.,  sending 
two  of  his  disciples  from  his  prison  to  inquire  of  Jesus  :  "  Art  thou  he 
that  should  come,  or  do  we  look  for  another  !  !  " 

This  flagrant  contradiction  alone  ought  to  have  long  ago  satisfied 
reasonable  minds  as  to  the  putative  divine  inspiration  of  the  A'ew  Testa- 


inent.  But  we  may  offer  another  question  :  If  baptism  is  the  sign  of 
regeneration,  and  an  ordinance  instituted  by  Jesus,  why  do  not  Christians 
now  baptize  as  Jesus  is  here  represented  as  doing,  "  with  the  Holy  Ghost 
and  with  fire,"  instead  of  following  the  custom  of  the  Nazarenes?  In 
making  these  palpable  interpolations,  what  possible  motive  could  Irenseus 
have  had  except  to  cause  people  to  believe  that  the  appellation  of  Naza- 
rene,  which  Jesus  bore,  came  only  from  his  father's  residence  at  Nazareth, 
and  not  from  his  affihation  with  the  sect  of  Nazaria,  the  healers  ? 

This  expedient  of  Irenasus  was  a  most  unfortunate  one,  for  from  time 
immemorial  the  prophets  of  old  had  been  thundering  against  the  baptism 
of  fire  as  practiced  by  their  neighbors,  which  imparted  the  "spirit  of 
prophecy,"  or  the  Holy  Ghost.  But  the  case  was  desperate  ;  the  Christians 
were  universally  called  Nazoreens  and  lessaens  (according  to  Epiphanius), 
and  Christ  simply  ranked  as  a  Jewish  prophet  and  healer — so  self  styled, 
so  accepted  by  his  own  disciples,  and  so  regarded  by  their  followers.  In 
such  a  state  of  things  there  was  no  room  for  either  a  new  hierarchy  or  a 
new  God-head;  and  since  Irenseus  had  undertaken  the  business  of  man- 
ufacturing both,  he  had  to  put  together  such  materials  as  were  available, 
and  fill  the  gaps  with  his  own  fertile  inventions. 

To  assure  ourselves  that  Jesus  was  a  true  Nazarene — albeit  with  ideas 
of  a  new  reform — we  must  not  search  for  the  proof  in  the  translated 
Gospels,  but  in  such  original  versions  as  are  accessible.  Tischendorf, 
ill  his  translation  from  the  Greek  o{  Luke'w.  34,  has  it  "  lesou  Nazarene  ;" 
and  in  the  Syriac  it  reads  "  lasoua,  thou  Nazaria."  Thus,  if  we  take  in 
account  all  that  is  puzzling  and  incomprehensible  in  the  four  Gospels, 
revised  and  corrected  as  they  now  stand,  we  shall  easily  see  for  ourselves 
that  the  true,  original  Christianity,  such  as  was  preached  by  Jesus,  is  to 
be  found  only  in  the  so-called  Syrian  heresies.  Only  from  them  can  we 
extract  any  clear  notions  about  what  was  primitive  Christianity. 
Such  was  the  faith  of  Paul,  when  Tertullus  the  orator  accused  the  apostle 
before  the  governor  Felix.  What  he  complained  of  was  that  they  had 
found  "  that  man  a  mover  of  sedition  ...  a  ringleader  of  the  sect  of  the 
Nazarenes ;"  *  and,  while  Paul  denies  every  other  accusation,  he  con- 
fesses that  "  after  the  way  which  they  call  heresy,  so  worship  I  the  God  of 
my  fathers."  f  This  confession  is  a  whole  revelation.  It  shows  :  i, 
that  Paul  admitted  belonging  to  the  sect  of  the  Nazarenes ;  2,  that  he 
worshipped  the  God  of  his  fathers,  not  the  trinitarian  Christian  God,  of 
whom  he  knows  nothing,  and  who  was  not  invented  until  after  his  death; 
and,  3,  that  this  unlucky  confession  satisfactorily  explains  why  the  \.xe.2^- 
im,  Acts  of  the  Apostles,   together  with  John's   Hevelation,  vihich  atone 

*  Acts  xxiv.  5.  \  Ibid.,  14. 


period  was  utterly  rejected,  were  kept  out  of  the  canon  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment for  such  a  length  of  tmie. 

At  Byblos,  the  neophytes  as  well  as  the  hierophants  were,  after  par- 
ticipating in  the  Mysteries,  obliged  to  fast  and  remain  in  solitude  for 
some  time.  There  was  strict  fasting  and  preparation  before  as  well  as 
after  the  Bacchic,  Adonian,  and  Eleusinian  orgies  ;  and  Herodotus  hints, 
with  fear  and  veneration  about  the  lake  of  Bacchus,  in  which  "  they 
(the  priests)  made  at  night  exhibitions  of  his  life  and  sufferings."*  In 
the  Mithraic  sacrifices,  during  the  initiation,  a  preHminary  scene  of  death 
was  simulated  by  the  neophyte,  and  it  preceded  the  scene  showing  him 
himself  "  being  born  again  by  the  rite  of  baptism:'  A  portion  of  tiiis 
ceremony  is  still  enacted  in  the  present  day  by  the  Masons,  when  the 
neophyte,  as  the  Grand  Master  Hiram  Abiff,  hes  dead,  and  is  raised  by 
the  strong  grip  of  the  Hon's  paw. 

The  priests  were  circumcised.  The  neophyte  could  not  be  initiated 
without  having  been  present  at  the  solemn  Mysteries  of  the  Take. 
The  Nazarenes  were  baptized  in  the  Jordan  ;  and  could  not  be  baptized 
elsewhere  ;  they  were  also  circumcised,  and  had  to  fast  before  as  well  as 
after  the  purification  by  baptism.  Jesus  is  said  to  have  fasted  in  the 
wilderness  for  forty  days,  immediately  after  his  baptism.  To  the  present 
day,  there  is  outside  every  temple  in  India,  a  lake,  stream,  or  a  reservoir 
full  of  holy  water,  in  which  the  Brahmans  and  the  Hindu  devotees  bathe 
daily.  Such  places  of  consecrated  water  are  necessary  to  every  temple. 
The  bathing  festivals,  or  baptismal  rites,  occur  twice  every  year ;  in  Octo- 
ber and  April.  Each  lasts  ten  days  ;  and,  as  in  ancient  Egypt  and  Greece, 
the  statues  of  their  gods,  goddesses,  and  idols  are  immersed  in  water 
by  the  priests  ;  the  object  of  the  ceremony  being  to  wash  away  from 
them  the  sins  of  their  worshippers  which  they  have  taken  upon  them- 
selves, and  which  pollute  them,  until  washed  off  by  holy  water. 
During  the  Aratty,  the  bathing  ceremony,  the  principal  god  of  every 
temple  is  carried  in  solemn  procession  to  be  baptized  in  the  sea.  The 
Brahman  priests,  carrying  the  sacred  images,  are  followed  generally  by 
the  Maharajah — barefoot,  and  nearly  naked.  Three  times  the  priests 
enter  the  sea  ;  the  third  time  they  carry  with  them  the  whole  of  the 
images.  Holding  them  up  with  prayers  repeated  by  the  whole  congre- 
gation, the  Chief  Priest  plunges  the  statues  of  the  gods  thrice  in  the 
name  of  the  mystic  trinity,  into  the  water  ;  after  which  they  are  purified.f 
The  Orphic  hymn  calls  water  the  greatest  purifier  of  men  and  gods. 

*  *'  Herodotus,"  U. ,  p.  170. 

f  Tlie  Hindu  High  Pontiff — the  Chief  of  the  Namburis,  who  lives  in  the  Cochin 
Land,  is  generally  present  during  these  festivals  of  "Holy  Water"  immersions.  lie 
travels  sometimes  to  very  great  distances  to  preside  over  the  ceremony. 


Our  Nazarene  sect  is  known  to  have  existed  some  150  years  B.C., 
and  to  have  lived  on  the  banks  of  the  Jordan,  and  on  the  eastern  shore 
of  the  Dead  Sea,  according  to  Phny  and  Josephus.  *  But  in  King's 
Gnostics,  we  find  quoted  another  statement  by  Josephus  from  verse  13, 
which  says  that  the  Essenes  had  been  established  on  the  shores  of 
the  Dead  Sea  "for  thousands  of  ages"  before  Pliny's  time,  f 

According  to  Munk  the  term  "  Galilean  "  is  nearly  synonymous  with 
that  of  "  Nazarene  ;  "  furthermore,  he  shows  the  relations  of  the  former 
with  the  Gentiles  as  very  intimate.  The  populace  had  probably  grad- 
ualVy  adopted,  in  their  constant  intercourse,  certain  rites  and  modes  of 
worship  of  the  Pagans  ;  and  the  scorn  with  which  the  Galileans  were 
regarded  by  the  orthodox  Jews  is  attributed  by  him  to  the  same  cause. 
Their  friendly  relations  had  certainly  led  them,  at  a  later  period,  to 
adopt  the  "  Adonia,"  or  the  sacred  rites  over  the  body  of  the  lamented 
Adonis,  as  we  find  Jerome  fairly  lamenting  this  circumstance.  "  Over 
Bethlehem,"  he  says,  "  the  grove  of  Tharamuz,  that  is  of  Adonis,  was 
casting  its  shadow  !  And  in  the  groito  where  formerly  the  infant  Jesus 
cried,  the  lover  of  Venus  was  being  mourned."  \ 

Mt  was  after  the  rebellion  of  Bar  Cochba,  that  the  Roman  Emperor 
estabhshed  the  Mysteries  of  Adonis  at  the  Sacred  Cave  in  Bethlehem  ; 
and  who  knows  but  this  was  the  petra  or  rock-temple  on  which  the 
church  was  built  ?  The  Boar  of  Adonis  was  placed  above  the  gate  of 
Jerusalem  which  looked  toward  Bethlehem. 

Munk  says  that  the  "  Nazireate  was  an  institution  established  before 
the  laws  of  Musah.  "  §  This  is  evident ;  as  we  find  this  sect  not  only 
mentioned  but  minutely  described  in  Numbers  (chap.  vi.).  In  the 
commandment  given  in  this  chapter  to  Moses  by  the  "  Lord,"  it  is  easy 
to  recognize  the  rites  and  laws  of  the  Priests  of  Adonis.  ||  The  absti- 
nence and   purity  strictly  prescribed   in  both  sects  are  identical.     Both 

*  "  Ant.  Jud. ,"  xiii.,  p.  g  ;    xv.,  p.  10. 

f  King  thinks  it  a  great  exaggeration  and  is  inclined  to  believe  that  these  Essenes, 
who  were  most  undoubtedly  Buddhist  monks,  were  "  merely  a  continuation  of  the 
associations  known  as  Sons  of  the  Prophets."  "  The  Gnostics  and  their  Remains," 
p.  22. 

I  St.  Jerome:  "Epistles,"  p.  49  (ad.  Poulmam) ;  see  Dunlap's  "Spirit-His- 
tory," p.  218. 

§  ■'  Munk,"  p.  169. 

I  Bacchus  and  Ceres — or  the  mystical  Wine  and  Bread,  used  during  the  Mysteries, 
become,  in  the  "  Adonia,"  Adonis  and  Venus.  Movers  shows  that  "  lao  is  Bacchus," 
p.  550;  and  his  authority  is  Lydics  de  Mens  (^S-J^) ;  "  Spir.  Hist.,"  p.  195.  /an 
is  a  Sun-god  and  the  Jewish  Jehovah  ;  the  intellectual  or  Central  Sun  of  the  kabal- 
ists.     See  Julian  in  Proclus.     But  this  "  lao"  is  not  the  Mystery-god. 


allowed  their  hair  to  grow  long  *  as  the  Hindu  ccenobites  and  fakirs  do 
to  this  day,  while  other  castes  shave  their  hair  and  abstain  on  certain 
days  from  wine.  The  prophet  Elijah,  a  Nazarene,  is  described  in  2 
Kings,  and  by  Josephus  as  "  a  hairy  man  girt  wit4i  a  girdle  of  leather."  f 
And  John  the  Baptist  and  Jesus  are  both  represented  as  wearing  very 
long  hair.  \  John  is  "  clothed  with  camel's  hair"  and  wearing  a  girdle 
of  hide,  and  Jesus  in  a  long  garment  "without  any  seams"  .  .  .  "and 
very  white,  like  snow,"  says  Mark  ;  the  very  dress  worn  by  the  Nazarene 
Priests  and  the  Pythagorean  and  Buddhist  Essenes,  as  described  by 

If  we  carefully  trace  the  terms  nazar,  and  nazaret,  throughout  the 
best  known  works  of  ancient  writers,  we  will  meet  them  in  connection 
with  "Pagan"  as  well  as  Jewish  adepts.  Thus,  Alexander  Polyhistor 
says  of  Pythagoras  that  he  was  a  disciple  of  the  Assyrian  Nazaret,  whom 
some  suppose  to  be  Ezekiel.  Diogenes  Laertius  states  most  positively 
that  Pythagoras,  after  being  initiated  into  all  the  Mysteries  of  the  Greeks 
and  barbarians,  "  went  into  Egypt  and  afterward  visited  the  Chaldeans 
and  Magi ;  "  and  Apuleius  maintains  that  it  was  Zoroaster  who  instructed 

Were  we  to  suggest  that  the  Hebrew  nazars,  the  railing  prophets  of 
the  "  Lord,"  had  been  initiated  into  the  so-called  Pagan  mysteries,  and 
belonged  (or  at  least  a  majority  of  them)  to  the  same  Lodge  or  circle  of 
adepts  as  those  who  were  considered  idolaters  ;  that  their  "  circle  of 
prophets  "  was  but  a  collateral  branch  of  a  secret  association,  which  we 
may  well  term  "  international,"  what  a  visitation  of  Christian  wrath  would 
we  not  incur !     And  still,  the  case  looks  strangely  suspicious. 

Let  us  first  recall  to  our  mind  that  which  Ammianus  Marcellinus,  and 
other  historians  relate  of  Darius  Hystaspes.  The  latter,  penetrating  into 
Upper  India  (Bactriana),  learned  pure  rites,  and  stellar  and  cosniical 
sciences  from  Brachmans,  and  communicated  them  to  the  Magi.  Now 
Hystaspes  is  shown  in  history  to  have  crushed  the  Magi ;  and  intro- 
duced— or  rather  forced  upon  them — the  pure  religion  of  Zoroaster,  that 
of  Ormazd.     How  is  it,  then,  that  an  inscription  is  found  on  the  tomb 

*  Josephus:   "Ant.  Jud.,"  iv.,  p.  4. 

flbid. ,  ix.  ;  2  Kings,  i.  8. 

X  In  relation  to  the  well-known  fact  of  Jesus  wearing  his  hair  long,  and  being  always 
so  represented,  it  becomes  quite  startling  to  find  how  little  the  unknown  Editor  of  the 
"  Acts  "  knew  about  the  Apostle  Paul,  since  he  makes  him  say  in  i  Corinthians  xi.  14, 
"  Doth  not  Nature  itself  teach  you,  that  if  a  man  have  long  hair,  it  is  a  shame  unto 
Aim  ?  "  Certainly  Paul  could  never  have  said  such  a  thing  !  Therefore,  if  the  pas- 
sage is  genuine,  Paul  knew  nothing  of  the  prophet  whose  doctrines  he  had  embraced 
and  for  which  he  died  ;  and  if  false — how  much  more  reliable  is  what  remains  ? 


of  Darius,  stating  that  he  was  "  teacher  and  hierophant  of  magic,  or 
magianism  ?  "  Evidently  there  must  be  some  historical  mistake,  and 
history  confesses  it.  In  this  imbroglio  of  names,  Zoroaster,  the  teacher 
and  instructor  of  Pythagoras,  can  be  neither  the  Zoroaster  nor  Zarathustra 
who  instituted  sun-worship  among  the  Parsees  ;  nor  he  who  appeared  at 
the  court  of  Gushtasp  (Hystaspes)  the  alleged  father  of  Darius;  nor, 
again,  the  Zoroaster  who  placed  his  magi  above  the  kings  themselves. 
The  oldest  Zoroastrian  scripture — the  Avesta — does  not  betray  the 
slightest  traces  of  the  reformer  having  ever  been  acquainted  with  any  of 
the  nations  that  subsequently  adopted  his  mode  of  worship.  He  seems 
utterly  ignorant  of  the  neighbors  of  Western  Iran,  the  Medes,  the  Assyri- 
ans, the  Persians,  and  others.  If  we  had  no  other  evidences  of  the  great 
antiquity  of  the  Zoroastrian  religion  than  the  discovery  of  the  blunder 
committed  by  some  scholars  in  our  own  century,  who  regarded  King 
Vistaspa  (Gushtasp)  as  identical  with  the  father  of  Darius,  whereas  the 
Persian  tradition  points  directly  to  Vistaspa  as  to  the  last  of  the  line  of 
Kaianian  princes  who  ruled  in  Bactriana,  it  ought  to  be  enough,  for  the 
Assyrian  conquest  of  Bactriana  took  place  1,200  years  B.C.* 

Therefore,  it  is  but  natural  that  we  should  see  in  the  appellation  of 
Zoroaster  not  a  name  but  a  generic  term,  whose  significance  must  be  left 
to  philologists  to  agree  upon.  Guru,  in  Sanscrit,  is  a  spiritual  teacher  ; 
and  as  Zuruastara  means  in  the  same  language  he  who  worships  the  sun, 
why  is  it  impossible,  that  by  some  natm-al  change  of  language,  due  to  the 
great  number  of  different  nations  which  were  converted  to  the  sun 
worship,  the  word  guru-astara,  the  spiritual  teacher  of  sun-worship,  so 
closely  resembling  the  name  of  the  founder  of  this  religion,  became  grad- 
ually transformed  in  its  primal  form  of  Zuryastara  or  Zoroaster  ?  The 
opinion  of  the  kabalists  is  that  there  was  but  one  Zarathustra  and  many 
guruastars  or  spiritual  teachers,  and  that  one  such  o'?/r«,  or  rather  huru- 
aster,  as  he  is  called  in  the  old  manuscripts,  was  the  instructor  of  Pythag- 
oras. To  philology  and  our  readers  we  leave  the  explanation  for  what  it 
is  worth.  Personally  we  believe  in  it,  as  we  credit  on  this  subject  kab- 
alistic  tradition  far  more  than  the  explanation  of  scientists,  no  two  of 
whom  have  been  able  to  agree  up  to  the  present  year. 

Aristotle  states  that  Zoroaster  lived  6,000  years  before  Christ ;  Her- 
mippus  of  Alexandria,  who  is  said  to  have  read  the  genuine  books  of  the 
Zoroastrians,  although  Alexander  the  Great  is  accused  of  having  destroyed 

*  Max  Miiller  has  sufficiently  proved  the  case  in  his  lecture  on  the  "  Zend-Avesta." 
He  calls  Gushtasp  "the  mythical  pupil  of  Zoroaster."  Mythical,  perhaps,  only  be- 
cause the  period  in  which  he  lived  and  learned  with  Zoroaster  is  too  remote  to  allow 
our  modern  science  to  speculate  upon  it  with  any  certainty. 


them,  shows  Zoroaster  as  the  pupil  of  Azonak  (Azon-ach,  or  the  Azon- 
God)  and  as  having  lived  5,000  years  before  the  fall  of  Troy.  Er  or  Eros, 
whose  vision  is  related  by  Plato  in  the  Republic,  is  declared  by  Clement 
to  have  been  Zordusth.  While  the  Magus  who  dethroned  Cambyses 
was  a  Mede,  and  Darius  proclaims  that  he  put  down  the  Magian  rites  to 
establish  those  of  Ormazd,  Xanthus  of  Lydia  declares  Zoroaster  to  have 
been  the  chief  of  the  Magi  ! 

Wliich  of  them  is  wrong  ?  or  are  they  all  right,  and  only  the  modern 
interpreters  fail  to  explain  the  difference  between  the  Reformer  and  his 
apostles  and  followers  ?  This  blundering  of  our  commentators  reminds  us 
of  that  of  Suetonius,  who  mistook  the  Christians  for  one  Christo.s,  or 
Crestos,  as  he  spells  it,  and  assured  his  readers  that  Claudius  banished 
him  for  the  disturbance  he  made  among  the  Jews. 

Finally,  and  to  return  again  to  the  nazars,  Zaratus  is  mentioned  by 
Pliny  in  the  following  words  :  "  He  was  Zoroaster  and  Nazaret."  As 
Zoroaster  is  called  princeps  of  the  Magi,  and  nazar  signifies  separated  or 
consecrated,  is  it  not  a  Hebrew  rendering  of  mag  ?  Volney  believes  so. 
The  Persian  word  Na-zaruan  means  millions  of  years,  and  refers  to  the 
Chaldean  "Ancient  of  Days."  Hence  the  name  of  the  Nazars  or  Naza- 
renes,  who  were  consecrated  to  the  service  of  the  Supreme  one  God,  the 
kabalistic  En-Soph,  or  the  Ancient  of  Days,  the  "Aged  of  the  aged." 

But  the  word  nazar  may  also  be  found  in  India.  In  Hindustani 
nazar  is  sight,  internal  or  supernatural  vision  ;  nazar  band-i  means  fas- 
cination, a  mesmeric  or  magical  spell ;  and  nazaran  is  the  word  for  sight- 
seeing or  vision. 

Professor  Wilder  thinks  that  as  the  word  Zeruana  is  nowhere  to  be 
found  in  the  Avesta,  but  only  in  the  later  Parsi  books,  it  came  from  the 
Magians,  who  composed  the  Persian  sacred  caste  in  the  Sassan  period, 
but  were  originally  Assyrians.  "  Turan,  of  the  poets,"  he  says,  "  I  con- 
sider to  be  Aturia,  or  Assyria ;  and  that  Zohak  (Az-dahaka,  Dei-okes,  or 
Astyages),  the  Serpent-king,  was  Assyrian,  Median,  and  Babylonian — 
when  those  countries  were  united." 

This  opinion  does  not,  however,  in  the  least  implicate  our  statement 
that  the  secret  doctrines  of  the  Magi,  of  the  pre-Vedic  Buddhists,  of  the 
hierophants  of  the  EgyjHian  Thoth  or  Hermes,  and  of  the  adepts  of  what- 
ever age  and  nationality,  including  the  Chaldean  kabahsts  and  the  Jewish 
nazars,  were  identical  from  the  beginning.  When  we  use  the  term  Bud- 
dhists, we  do  not  mean  to  imply  by  it  either  the  exoteric  Buddhism  insti- 
tuted by  the  followers  of  Gautama-Buddha,  nor  the  modern  Buddhistic 
religion,  but  the  secret  philosophy  of  Sakyamuni,  which  in  its  essence  is 
certainly  identical  with  the  ancient  wisdom-religion  of  the  sanctuary,  the 
pre  Vedic  Brahmanism.     The  "schism"  of  Zoroaster,  as  it  is  called,  is  a 


direct  proof  of  it.  For  it  was  no  schism,  strictl)'  speaking,  but  merely  a 
partially-public  exposition  of  strictly  monotheistic  religious  truths,  hitherto 
taught  only  in  the  sanctuaries,  and  that  he  had  learned  from  the  Brah- 
mans.  Zoroaster,  the  primeval  institutor  of  sun-worship,  cannot  be  called 
the  founder  of  the  dualistic  system  ;  neither  was  he  the  first  to  teach  the 
unity  of  God,  for  he  taught  but  what  he  had  learned  himself  with  the 
Brahmans.  And  that  Zarathustra  and  his  followers,  the  Zoroastrians, 
"  had  been  settled  in  India  before  they  immigrated  into  Persia,"  is  also 
proved  by  Max  Miiller.  "  That  the  Zoroastrians  and  their  ancestors 
started  from  India,"  he  says,  "  during  the  Vaidik  period,  can  be  proved 
as  distinctly  as  that  the  inhabitants  of  Massilia  started  from  Greece. 
.  .  .  Many  of  the  gods  of  the  Zoroastrians  come  out  ...  as  mere  reflec- 
tions and  deflections  of  the  primitive  and  authentic  gods  of  the  Veda."  * 

If,  now,  we  can  prove — and  we  can  do  so  on  the  evidence  of  the 
Kabala  and  the  oldest  traditions  of  the  wisdom-religion,  the  philosophy 
of  the -old  sanctuaries — that  all  these  gods,  whether  of  the  Zoroastrians 
or  of  the  Veda,  are  but  so  many  personated  occult  powers  of  nature,  the 
faithful  servants  of  the  adepts  of  secret  wisdom — Magic — we  are  on 
secure  ground. 

Thus,  whether  we  say  that  Kabalisra  and  Gnosticism  proceeded  from 
Masdeanism  or  Zoroastrianism,  it  is  all  the  same,  unless  we  meant  the 
exoteric  worship — which  we  do  not.  Likewise,  and  in  this  sense,  we  may 
echo  King,  the  author  of  the  Gnostics,  and  several  other  archceologists, 
and  maintain  that  both  the  former  proceeded  from  Buddhism,  at  once 
the  simplest  and  most  satisfying  of  philosophies,  and  which  resulted 
in  one  of  the  purest  religions  of  the  world.  It  is  only  a  matter  of  chron- 
ology to  decide  which  of  these  religions,  differing  but  in  external  form, 
is  the  oldest,  therefore  the  least  adulterated.  But  even  this  bears  but  very 
indirectly,  if  at  all,  on  the  subject  we  treat  of.  Already  some  time  before 
our  era,  the  adepts,  except  in  India,  had  ceased  to  congregate  in  large 
communities  ;  but  whether  among  the  Essenes,  or  the  Neo-platonists,  or, 
again,  among  the  innumerable  struggling  sects  born  but  to  die,  the  same 
doctrines,  identical  in  substance  and  spirit,  if  not  always  in  form,  are 
encountered.  By  Buddhism,  therefore,  we  mean  that  religion  signifying 
literally  the  doctrine  of  wisdom,  and  which  by  many  ages  antedates  the 
metaphysical  philosophy  of  Siddhirtha  Sakyamuni. 

After  nineteen  centuries  of  enforced  eliiuinations  from  the  canonical 
books  of  every  sentence  which  might  put  the  investigator  on  the  true  path, 
it  has  become  very  difficult  to  show,  to  the  satisfaction  of  exact  science, 
that  the  "  Pagan "    worshippers  of  Adonis,   their  neighbors,    the  Naza- 

♦  Max  Miiller  :     "  Zend  Avesta,"  83. 


renes,  and  the  Pythagorean  Essenes,  the  healing  Therapeutes,*  the  Ebio- 
nites,  and  other  sects,  were  all,  with  very  slight  differences,  followers  of 
the  ancient  theurgic  Mysteries.  And  yet  by  analogy  and  a  close  study 
of  the  hidden  sense  of  their  rites  and  customs,  we  can  trace  their  kin- 

It  was  given  to  a  contemporary  of  Jesus  to  become  the  means  of 
pointing  out  to  posterity,  by  his  interpretation  of  the  oldest  literature  of 
Israel,  how  deeply  the  kabalistic  philosophy  agreed  in  its  esoterism  with 
that  of  the  profoundest  Greek  thinkers.  This  contemporary,  an  ardent 
disciple  of  Plato  and  Aristotle,  was  Philo  Judsus.  While  explaining  the 
Mosaic  books  according  to  a  purely  kabalistic  method,  he  is  the  famous 
Hebrew  writer  whom  Kingsley  calls  the  Father  of  New  Platonism. 

It  is  evident  that  Philo's  Therapeutes  are  a  branch  of  the  Essenes. 
Their  name  indicates  it — 'Etrcraroi,  Asaya,  physician.  Hence,  the  con- 
tradictions, forgeries,  and  other  desperate  expedients  to  reconcile  the 
prophecies  of  the  Jewish  canon  with  the  Galilean  nativity  and  god- 

Luke,  wlio  was  a  physician,  is  designated  in  the  Syriac  texts  as 
Asaia,  the  Essaian  or  Essene.  Josephus  and  Philo  Judaeus  have  suf- 
ficiently described  this  sect  to  leave  no  doubt  in  our  mind  that  the  Naza- 
rene  Reformer,  after  having  received  his  education  in  their  dwellings  in 
the  desert,  and  been  duly  initiated  in  the  Mysteries,  preferred  the  free 
and  independent  life  of  a  wandering  Nazaria,  and  so  separated  or  ina- 
zarenized  himself  from  them,  thus  becoming  a  travelling  Therapeute,  a 
Nazaria,  a  healer.  Every  Therapeute,  before  quitting  his  community, 
had  to  do  the  same.  Both  Jesus  and  St.  John  the  Baptist  preached  the 
end  of  the  Age  ;  f  which  proves  their  knowledge  of  the  secret  computa- 
tion of  the  priests  and  kabalists,  who  with  the  chiefs  of  the  Essene  com- 
munities alone  had  the  secret  of  the  duration  of  the  cycles.  The  latter 
were  kabalists  and  theurgists  ;  "  they  had  their  mystic  books,  and  pre- 
dicted future  events,"  says  Munk.  J 

Diinlap,  whose  personal  researches  seem  to  have  been  quite  success- 
ful in  that  direction,  traces  the  Essenes,  Nazarenes,  Dositheans,  and  some 
other  sects  as  having  all  existed  before  Christ :  "  They  rejected  pleas- 
ures, despised  riches,  loved  one  another,  and  more  than  other  sects,  neg- 

*  Philo  :   "  De  Vita.  Contemp." 

\  Tlie  real  meaning  of  the  division  into  ages  is  esoteric  and  Buddhistic.  So  httle 
did  the  uninitiated  Christians  understand  it  that  they  accepted  the  words  of  Jesus  liter- 
ally and  firmly  l^elieved  that  he  meant  the  end  of  the  world.  There  had  been  many 
prophecies  about  the  forthcoming  age.  Virgil,  in  the  fourth  Eclogue,  mentions  the 
Metatron — a  new  offspring,  with  whom  the  iron  age  shall  end  and  s.  golden  one  arise. 

X  "  Palestine,"  p.  525,  et  seq. 


lected  wedlock,  deeming   the  conquest  of  the  passions  to  be  virtuous,"  * 
he  says. 

These  are  all  virtues  preached  by  Jesus ;  and  if  we  are  to  take  the 
gospels  as  a  standard  of  truth,  Christ  was  a  metempsychosist  "  or  i-e-in- 
carnationist — again  like  these  same  Essenes,  whom  we  see  were  Pythag- 
oreans in  all  their  doctrines  and  habits.  lamblichus  asserts  that  the 
Samian  philosopher  spent  a  certain  time  at  Carmel  with  them,  f  In  his 
discourses  and  sermons,  Jesus  always  spoke  in  parables  and  used  meta- 
phors with  his  audience.  This  habit  was  again  that  of  the  Essenians 
and  the  Nazarene^  ;  the  Galileans  who  dwelt  in  cities  and  villages  were 
never  known  to  use  such  allegorical  language.  Indeed,  some  of  his 
disciples  being  Galileans  as  well  as  himself,  felt  even  surprised  to  find 
him  using  with  the  people  such  a  form  of  expression.  "  Why  speakest 
thou  unto  them  in  parables  ?  "  J  they  often  inquired.  "  Because,  it  is 
given  unto  you  to  know  the  j\[ysteries  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  but  to 
them  it  is  not  given,"  was  the  reply,  which  was  that  of  an  initiate. 
"  Therefore,  I  speak  unto  them  in  parables  ;  because,  they  seeing,  see 
not,  and  hearing,  they  hear  not,  neither  do  they  understand."  Moreover, 
we  find  Jesus  expressing  his  thoughts  still  clearer — and  in  sentences 
which  are  purely  Pythagorean — when,  during  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount, 
he  says  : 

"  Give  ye  not  that  which  is  sacred  to  the  dogs, 
Neither  cast  ye  your  pearls  before  swine  ; 
Eor  the  swine  will  tread  them  under  their  feet 
And  the  dogs  will  turn  and  rend  you." 

Professor  A.  Wilder,  the  editor  of  Taylor's  Eleusinian  Mysteries, 
observes  "  a  like  disposition  on  the  part  of  Jesus  and  Paul  to  classify 
their  doctrines  as  esoteric  and  exoteric,  the  Mysteries  of  the  Kingdom  of 
God  '  for  the  apostles,'  and  '  parables '  for  the  multitude.  '  AVe  speak 
wisdom,'  says  Paul,  'among  them  that  are  perfect'  (or  initiated)."  § 

In  the  Eleusinian  and  other  Mysteries  the  participants  were  always 
divided  into  two  classes,  the  neophytes  and  the  perfect.  The  former 
were  sometimes  admitted  to  the  preliminary  initiation  :  the  dramatic 
performance  of  Ceres,  or  the  soul,  descending  to  Hades.  |     But  it  was 

*  "Sod,"  vol.  ii..    Preface,  p.  xi. 

\  "  Vit.  Pythag."  Munk  derives  the  name  of  the  lessaiis  or  Essenes  from  the  Syriac 
Asaya — the  healers,  or  physicians,  thus  showing  their  identity  with  the  Egyptian  Thera- 
peutae.     "  Palestine,"  p.  515. 

X  Matthew  xiii.  10. 

§  "  Eleusinian  Mysteries,"  p.  15. 

1  This  descent  to  Hades  signified  the  inevitable  fate  of  each  soul  to  be  united  for  a 
time  with  a  terrestrial  body.     This  union,  or  dark  prospect  for  the  soul  to  find  itself 


given  only  to  the  "perfect"  to  enjoy  and  learn  the  Mysteries  of  the 
divine  Elysium,  the  celestial  abode  of  the  blessed  ;  this  Elysium  being 
unquestionably  the  same  as  the  "Kingdom  of  Heaven."  To  contradict 
or  reject  the  above,  would  be  merely  to  shut  one's  eyes  to  the  truth. 

The  narrative  of  the  Apostle  Paul,  m  his  second  Epistle  to  the  Cor- 
inthians (xii.  3,  4),  has  struck  several  scholars,  well  versed  in  the 
descriptions  of  the  mystical  rites  of  tlie  initiation  given  by  some 
classics,  as  alluding  most  undoubtedly  to  the  final  Epopteia*  "  I  knew 
a  certain  man — whether  in  body  or  outside  of  body,  I  know  not :  God 
knoweth — who  was  rapt  into  Paradise,  and  heard  things  ineffable  appijra 
pr^/xara,  which  it  is  not  lawful  for  a  man  to  repeat."  These  words  have 
rarely,  so  far  as  we  know,  been  regarded  by  commentators  as  an 
allusion  to  the  beatific  visions  of  a^n  "  initiated"  seer.  But  the  phrase- 
ology is  unequivocal.  These  things  "  which  it  is  not  lawful  to  repeat" 
are  hinted  at  in  the  same  words,  and  the  reason  for  it  assigned,  is  the 
same  as  that  which  we  find  repeatedly  expressed  by  Plato,  Proclus, 
lanibHchus,  Herodotus,  and  other  classics.  "We  speak  wisdom  only 
among  them  who  are  perfect,"  says  Paul  ;  the  plain  and  undeniable 
translation  of  the  sentence  being  :  "  We  speak  of  the  profounder  (or 
final)  esoteric  doctrines  of  the  Mysteries  (which  were  denominated  wis- 
dom) only  among  them  who  are  initiated."  f  So  in  relation  to  the  "man 
who  was  rapt  into  Paradise  " — and  who  was  evidently  Paul  himself  J— 
the  Christian  word  Paradise  having  replaced  that  of  Elysium.  To 
complete  the  proof,  we  might  recall  the  words  of  Plato,  given  else- 
where, which  show  that  before  an  initiate  could  see  the  gods  in  their 
purest  light,  he  had  to  become  liberated  horn  his  body  ;  i.e.,  to  separate 
his  astral  soul  from  it.  §  Apuleius  also  describes  his  initiation  into  the 
Mysteries  in  the  same  way  :  "  I  approached  the  confines  of  death  ;  and, 
having  trodden  on  the  threshold  of  Proserpina,  returned,  having  been 
carried  through  all  the  elements.  In  the  depths  of  midnight  I  saw  the 
sun  glittering  with  a  splendid  light,  together  with  the  infernal  and  super- 
nal gods,  and  to  these  divinities  approaching,  I  paid  the  tribute  of  de- 
vout adoration."  || 

imprisoned  within  the  dark  tenement  of  a  body,  was  considered  by  all  the  ancient 
philosophers  and  is  even  by  the  modern  Buddhists,  as  a  punishment. 

*  "  Eleusinian  Mysteries,"  p.  49,  foot-note. 

f  "  The  profound  or  esoteric  doctrines  of  the  ancients  were  denominated  wisdom, 
and  afterward  philosophy,  and  also  the  gnosis^or  knowledge.  They  related  to  the  human 
soul,  its  divine  parentage,  its  supposed  degradation  from  its  high  estate  by  becoming 
connected  with  "generation"  or  the  physical  world,  its  onward  progress  and  restora- 
tion to  God  by  regenerations  or   .  .   .    transmigrations."     Ibid,  p.  2,  foot-note. 

X  Cyril  of  Jerusalem  asserts  it.     See  vi.  10. 

§  "  Pha;drus,"  64.  1  "  The  Golden  Ass,"  xL 


Thus,  in  common  with  Pythagoras  and  other  hierophant  reformers, 
Jesus  divided  his  teachings  into  exoteric  and  esoteric.  Following 
faithfully  the  Pythagoreo-Essenean  ways,  he  never  sat  at  a  meal  without 
saying  "grace."  "The  priest  prays  before  his  meal,"  says  Josephus, 
describing  the  Essenes.  Jesus  also  divided  his  followers  into  "  neo- 
jihytes,"  "brethren,"  and  the  "perfect,"  if  we  may  judge  by  the  differ- 
ence he  made  between  them.  But  his  career  at  least  as  a  public  Rabbi, 
was  of  a  too  short  duration  to  allow  him  to  estabUsh  a  regular  school  of 
his  own  ;  and  with  the  exception,  perhaps,  of  John,  it  does  not  seem  that 
he  had  initiated  any  other  apostle.  The  Gnostic  amulets  and  tahsmans  are 
mostly  the  emblems  of  the  apocalyptic  allegories.  The  "  seven  vowels" 
are  closely  related  to  the  "  seven  seals  ;  "  and  the  mystic  title  Abraxas, 
partakes  as  much  of  the  compositian  of  Shem  Hamphirosh,  "  the  holy 
word"  or  ineffable  name,  as  the  name  called  :  The  word  of  God,  that 
"  no  man  kne"v  but  he  himself^'  *  as  John  expresses  it. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  escape  from  the  well-adduced  proofs  that  the 
Apocalypse  is  the  production  of  an  initiated  kabalist,  when  this  Revelation 
presents  whole*  passages  taken  from  the  Books  of  Enoch  and  Daniel, 
which  latter  is  in  itself  an  abridged  imitation  of  the  former  ;  and  when, 
furthermore,  we  ascertain  that  the  Ophite  Gnostics  who  rejected  the  Old- 
Testament  entirely,  as  "  emanating  from  an  inferior  being  (Jehovah)," 
accepted  the  most  ancient  prophets,  such  as  Enoch,  and  deduced  the 
strongest  support  from  this  book  for  their  religious  tenets,  the  demonstra- 
tion becomes  evident.  We  will  show  further  how  closely  related  are  all 
these  doctrines.  Besides,  there  is  the  history  of  Domitian's  persecutions 
of  magicians  and  philosophers,  which  affords  as  good  a  proof  as  any  that 
John  was  generally  considered  a  kabalist.  As  the  apostle  was  included 
among  the  number,  and,  moreover,  conspicuous,  the  imperial  edict  ban- 
ished him  not  only  from  Rome,  but  even  from  the  continent.  It  was 
not  the  Christians  whom — confounding  them  with  the  Jews,  as  some  his- 
torians will  have  it — the  emperor  persecuted,  but  the  astrologers  and  kab- 
alists.  f 

The  accusations  against  Jesus  of  practicing  the  magic  of  Egypt  were 
numerous,  and  at  one  time  universal,  in  the  towns  where  he  was  known. 
The  Pharisees,  as  claimed  in  the  Bible,  had  been  the  first  to  flinsf  it  in  his 

*  "Apocalypse,"  xix.  12. 

f  See  Suet,  in  "Vita.  Eutrop.,"  7.  It  is  neither  cruelty,  nor  an  insane  indulgence 
in  it,  which  shows  this  emperor  in  history  as  passing  his  time  in  catching  flies  and  trans- 
piercing them  with  a  golden  bodkin,  but  religious  superstition.  The  Jewish  astrolo- 
gers had  predicted  to  him  that  he  had  provoked  the  wrath  of  Beelzebub,  the  "  Lord 
of  the  fiies,"  and  would  perish  miserably  through  the  revenge  of  the  dark  god  of 
Ekron,  and  die  like  King  Ahaziali,  because  he  persecuted  the  Jews. 


face,  although  Rabbi  Wise  considers  Jesns  himself  a  Pharisee.  The  Tal- 
mud certainly  points  to  James  the  Just  as  one  of  that  sect.  *  But  these 
partisans  are  known  to  have  always  stoned  every  prophet  who  denounced 
their  evil  ways,  and  it  is  not  on  this  fact  that  vi'e  base  our  assertion. 
These  accused  him  of  sorcery,  and  of  driving  out  devils  by  Beelzebub, 
their  prince,  with  as  much  justice  as  later  the  Catholic  clergy  had  to 
accuse  of  the  same  more  than  one  innocent  martyr.  But  Justin  Martyr 
states  on  better  authority  that  the  men  of  his  time  who  were  ?iot  Jews 
asserted  that  the  miracles  of  Jesus  were  performed  by  magical  art — 
/j-ayiKij  (j>avTa(Tia — the  very  expression  used  by  the  skeptics  of  those 
days  to  designate  the  feats  of  thaumaturgy  accomplished  in  the  Pagan 
temples.  "  They  even  ventured  to  call  him  a  magician  and  a  deceiver  of 
the  people,"  complains  the  martyr,  f  In  the  Gospel  of  Nicodemus  (the 
Acta  Pilate),  the  Jews  bring  the  same  accusation  before  Pilate.  "  Did 
we  not  tell  thee  he  was  a  magician  ?  "  |  Celsus  speaks  of  the  same  charge, 
and  as  a  Neo-platonist  believes  in  it.  §  The  Talmudic  literature  is  full 
of  the  most  minute  particulars,  and  their  greatest  accusation  is  that  "Jesus 
could  fly  as  easily  in  the  air  as  others  could  walk."  ||  St.  'Austin  asserted 
that  it  was  generally  believed  that  he  had  been  initiated  in  Egypt,  and 
that  he  wrote  books  concerning  magic,  which  he  delivered  to  John.  ^ 
There  was  a  work  called  Magia  Jesu  Chrisfi,  which  was  attributed  to 
Jesus  **  himself.  In  the  Clementine  Recognitions  the  charge  is  brought 
against  Jesus  that  he  did  not  perform  his  miracles  as  a  Jewish  prophet, 
but  as  a  magician,  i.e.,  an  initiate  of  the  "  heathen  "  temples.  \\ 

It  was  usual  then,  as  it  is  now,  among  the  intolerant  clergy  of 
opposing  religions,  as  well  as  among  the  lower  classes  of  society,  and 
even  among  those  patricians  who,  for  various  reasons  had  been  excluded 
from  any  participation  of  the  Mysteries,  to  accuse,  sometimes,  the  highest 
hierophants  and  adepts  of  sorcery  and  black  magic.     So  Apuleius,  who 

*  We  believe  that  it  was  the  Sadducees  and  not  the  Pharisees  who  crucified  Jesus. 
They  were  Zadokites — partisans  of  the  house  of  Zadok,  or  the  sacerdotal  family.  In 
the  "  Acts"  the  apostles  were  said  to  be  persecuted  by  the  Sadducees,  but  never  by  the 
Pharisees.  In  fact,  the  latternever  persecuted  any  one.  They  had  the  scribes,  rabbis, 
and  learned  men  in  their  numbers,  and  were  not,  like  the  Sadducees,  jealous  of  their 

j-  ■'  Dial.,"  p.  69. 

IFabricius:  "Cod.  Apoc,  N.  T.,"  i.,  243;  Tischendorf:  "  Evang.  Ap.,"  p. 

g  Origen  :     "  Cont.  Cels.,"  11. 

II  Rabbi  lochan  :      "Mag.,"  51.  f  "Origen,"  11. 

**  Cf.  "August  de  Consans.  Evang.,"  i.,  9;  Fabric.  :  "Cod.  Ap.  N.  T.,"  i., 
p.  305,  ff. 

\\  "  Recog.,"  i.  58;  cf.,  p.  40. 

JESUS    IN   THE   GARB    OF   A   MAGICIAN.  149 

had  been  initiated,  was  likewise  accused  of  witchcraft,  and  of  carrying 
about  him  the  figure  of  a  skeleton — a  potent  agent,  as  it  is  asserted,  in 
the  operations  of  the  black  art.  But  one  of  the  best  and  most  unques- 
tionable proofs  of  our  assertion  may  be  found  in  the  so-called  Museo 
Gregoriano.  On  the  sarcophagus,  which  is  panelled  with  bas-reliefs 
representing  the  miracles  of  Christ,  *  may  be  seen  the  full  figure 
of  Jesus,  who,  in  the  resurrection  of  Lazarus,  appears  beardless  "  and 
equipped  with  a  wand  in  the  received  guise  of  a  necromancer  ( .? )  whilst 
the  corpse  of  Lazarus  is  swathed  in  bandages  exactly  as  an  Egyptian 

Had  posterity  been  enabled  to  have  several  such  representations 
executed  during  the  first  century  when  the  figure,  dress,  and  every-day 
habits  of  the  Reformer  were  still  fresh  in  the  memory  of  his  contempora- 
ries, perhaps  the  Christian  world  would  be  more  Christ-like  ;  the  dozens 
of  contradictory,  groundless,  and  utterly  meaningless  speculations  about 
the  "Son  of  Man  "  would  have  been  impossible  ;  and  humanity  would  now 
have  but  one  religion  and  one  God.  It  is  this  absence  of  all  proof,  the 
lack  of  the  least  positive  clew  about  him  whom  Christianity  has  dei- 
fied, that  has  caused  the  present  state  of  perplexity.  No  pictures  of 
Christ  were  possible  until  after  the  days  of  Constantine,  when  the  Jewish 
element  was  nearly  eliminated  among  the  followers  of  the  new  religion. 
The  Jews,  apostles,  and  disciples,  whom  the  Zoroastrians  and  the  Parsees 
had  inoculated  with  a  holy  horror  of  any  form  of  images,  would  have 
considered  it  a  sacrilegious  blasphemy  to  represent  in  any  way  or  shape 
their  master.  The  only  authorized  image  of  Jesus,  even  in  the  days  of 
TertuUian,  was  an  allegorical  representation  of  the  "  Good  Shepherd,"  f 
which  was  no  portrait,  but  the  figure  of  a  man  with  a  jackal-head,  Hke 
Anubis.  \  On  this  gem,  as  seen  in  the  collection  of  Gnostic  amulets,  the 
Good  Shepherd  bears  upon  his  shoulders  the  lost  lamb.  He  seems  to 
have  a  human  head  upon  his  neck;  but,  as  King  correctly  observes,  "  it 
only  seems  so  to  the  uninitiated  eye."  On  closer  inspection,  he  becomes 
the  double-headed  Anubis,  having  one  head  human,  the  other  a  jackal's, 
whilst  his  girdle  assumes  the  form  of  a  serpent  rearing  aloft  its  crested 
head.  "  This  figure,"  adds  the  author  of  the  Gnostics,  etc.,  "had  two 
meanings — one  obvious  for  the  vulgar  ;  the  other  mystical,  and  recogniz- 
able by  the  initiated  alone.     It  was  perhaps   the  signet   of  some   chief 

*  King's  "Gnostics,"  p.  145;  the  author  places  this  sarcophagus  among  the 
earliest  productions  of  that  art  which  inundated  later  tlie  world  with  mosaics  and  en- 
gravings, representing  the  events  and  personages  of  the  "  New  Testament." 

f  "  De  Pudicitia."     See   "  The  Gnostics  and  their  Rem.-iins,"  p.  144. 

X  Ibid.,  plate  i.,  p.  200. 


teacher  or  apostle."  *  This  affords  a  fresh  proof  that  the  Gnostics  and 
early  orthodox  ( ?  )  Christians  were  not  so  wide  apart  in  their  secret  doc- 
trine. King  deduces  from  a  quotation  from  Epiphanius,  that  even  as 
late  as  400  a.d.  it  was  considered  an  atrocious  sin  to  attempt  to  repre- 
sent the  bodily  appearance  of  Christ.  Epiphanius  f  brings  it  as  an  idola- 
trous charge  against  the  Carpocratians  that  "  they  kept  painted  portraits, 
and  even  gold  and  silver  images,  and  in  other  materials,  which  they 
pretended  to  be  portraits  of  Jesus,  and  made  by  Pilate  after  the  likeness 
of  Christ.  .  .  .  These  they  keep  in  secret,  along  with  Pythagoras,  Plato, 
and  Aristotle,  and  setting  them  all  up  together,  they  worship  and  offer 
sacrifices  unto  them  after  the  Gentiles'  fashion." 

What  would  the  pious  Epiphanius  say  were  he  to  resuscitate  and 
step  into  St.  Peter's  Cathedral  at  Rome  !  Ambrosius  seems  also  very 
desperate  at  the  idea — that  some  persons  fully  credited  the  statement 
of  Lampridius  that  Alexander  Severus  had  in  his  private  chapel  an 
image  of  Christ  among  other  great  philosophers.  "That  the  Pagans 
should  have  preserved  the  likeness  of  Christ,"  he  exclaims,  "  but  the 
disciples  have  neglected  to  do  so,  is  a  notion  the  mind  shudders  to 
entertain,  much  less  to  believe." 

All  this  points  undeniably  to  the  fact,  that  except  a  handful  of  self- 
styled  Christians  who  subsequently  won  the  day,  all  the  civilized  portion 
of  the  Pagans  who  knew  of  Jesus  honored  him  as  a  philosopher,  an  adept 
whom  they  placed  on  the  same  level  with  Pythagoras  and  Apollonius. 
Whence  such  a  veneration  on  their  part  for  a  man,  were  he  simply,  as 
represented  by  the  Synoptics,  a  poor,  unknown  Jewish  carpenter  from 
Nazareth  ?  As  an  incarnated  God  there  is  no  single  record  of  him  on 
this  earth  capable  of  withstanding  the  critical  e.vamination  of  science ;  as 
one  of  the  greatest  reformers,  an  inveterate  enemy  of  every  theological 
dogmatism,  a  persecutor  of  bigotry,  a  teacher  of  one  of  the  most  sublime 
codes  of  ethics,  Jesus  is  one  of  the  grandest  and  most  clearly-defined 
figures  on  the  panorama  of  human  history.  His  age  may,  with  every  day, 
be  receding  farther  and  farther  back  into  the  gloomy  and  hazy  mists  of 
the  past  ;  and  his  theology — based  on  human  fancy  and  supported  by 
untenable  dogmas  may,  nay,  must  with  every  day  lose  more  of  its  un- 
merited prestige ;  alone  the  grand  figure  of  the  philosopher  and  moral 
reformer  instead  of  growing  paler  will  become  with  every  century  more 
pronounced  and  more  clearly  defined.  It  will  reign  supreme  and  uni- 
versal only  on  that  day  when  the  whole  of  humanity  recognizes  but  one 

*  This  gem  is  in  the  collection  of  the  author  of  "  The  Gnostics  and  their  Remains." 
See  p.  201. 

f  "  Hoeresies,"  xxvii. 


father — the  unknown  one  above — and  one  brother — the  whole  of  man- 
kind below. 

In  a  pretended  letter  of  Lentulus,  a  senator  and  a  distingdished  his- 
torian, to  the  Roman  senate,  there  is  a  description  of  the  personal  ap- 
pearance of  Jesus.  The  letter  itself,  written  in  horrid  Latin,  is  pro- 
nounced a  bare-faced  forgery  ;  but  we  find  therein  an  expression  which 
suggests  many  thoughts.  Albeit  a  forgery  it  is  evident  that  whosoever 
invented  it  has  nevertheless  tried  to  follow  tradition  as  closely  as  possi- 
ble. The  hair  of  Jesus  is  represented  in  it  as  "wavy  and  curling  .  .  . 
flowing  down  upon  his  shoulders,"  and  as  "having  a  parting  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  head  after  the  fashion  of  the  Nazarenes."  This  last  sentence 
shows  :  I.  That  there  was  such  a  tradition,  based  on  the  biblical  de- 
scription of  John  the  Baptist,  the  Nazaria,  and  the  custom  of  this  sect. 
2.  Had  Lentulus  been  the  author  of  this  letter,  it  is  difficult  to  believe 
that  Paul  should  never  have  heard  of  it ;  and  had  he  known  its  contents, 
he  would  never  have  pronounced  it  a  shame  for  men  to  wear  their  hair 
long,*  thus  shaming  his  Lord  and  Christ-God.  3.  If  Jesus  did  wear  his 
hair  long  and  "  parted  in  the  middle  of  the  forehead,  after  the  fashion  of 
the  Nazarenes  (as  well  as  John,  the  only  one  of  his  apostles  who  fol- 
lowed it),  then  we  have  one  good  reason  more  to  say  that  Jesus  must 
have  belonged  to  the  sect  of  the  Nazarenes,  and  been  called  Nasaria 
for  this  reason  and  not  because  he  was  an  inhabitant  of  Nazareth  ;  for 
they  never  wore  their  hair  long.  The  Nazarite,  who  separated  himself 
unto  the  Lord,  allowed  "  no  razor  to  come  upon  his  head."  "  He  shall 
be  holy,  and  shall  let  the  locks  of  the  hair  of  his  head  grow,"  says  Num- 
bers (vi.  s)-  Samson  was  a  Nazarite,  i.e.,  vowed  to  the  service  of  God, 
and  in  his  hair  was  his  strength.  "  No  razor  shall  come  upon  his  head ; 
the  child  shall  be  a  Nazarite  nnto  God  from  the  womb"  {Judges  xiii.  5). 
But  the  final  and  most  reasonable  conclusion  to  be  inferred  from  this  is 
that  Jesus,  who  was  so  opposed  to  all  the  orthodox  Jewish  practices,  would 
not  have  allowed  his  hair  to  grow  had  he  not  belonged  to  this  sect,  which 
in  the  days  of  John  the  Baptist  had  already  become  a  heresy  in  the  eyes 
of  the  Sanhedrim.  The  Talmud,  speaking  of  the  Nazaria,  or  the  Naza- 
renes (who  had  abandoned  the  world  like  Hindu  yogis  or  hermits)  calls 
theur  a  sect  of  physicians,  of  wandering  exorcists  ;  as  also  does  Jervis. 
"They  went  about  the  country,  living  on  alms  and  performing  cures."  f 
Epiphanius  says  that  the  Nazarenes  come  next  in  heresy  to  the  Corin- 
thians whether  having  existed  "  before  them  or  after  them,  nevertheless 
synchronous,"  and  then  adds  that  "all  Christians  at  that  time  were 
equally  called  Nazarenes  !  "  J 

*  I  Cor.   xi.  14.     -j-  See  the  "  Israelite  Indeed,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  238  ;  "  Treatise  Nazir," 
J  "  Epiph.  ed.  Petar,"  vol.  i.,  p    117. 


In  the  very  first  remark  made  by  Jesus  about  John  the  Baptist,  we 
find  him  stating  that  he  is  "  Elias,  which  was  for  to  come."  This  asser- 
tion, if  it  is  not  a  later  interpolation  for  the  sake  of  having  a  prophecy  ful- 
filled, means  again  that  Jesus  was  a  kabalist ;  unless  indeed  we  have  to 
adopt  the  doctrine  of  the  French  spiritists  and  suspect  him  of  believing 
in  reincarnation.  Except  the  kabalistic  sects  of  the  Essenes,  the  Nazar- 
enes,  the  disciples  of  Simeon  Ben  lochai,  and  Hillel,  neither  the  ortho- 
dox Jews,  nor  the  Galileans,  believed  or  knew  anything  about  the  doc- 
trine oi  permutation.  And  the  Sadducees  rejected  even  that  of  the  res- 

"But  the  author  of  this  restitutionis  was  Mosah,  our  master,  upon 
whom  be  peace  !  Who  was  the  revolutio  (transmigration)  of  Seth  and 
Hebel,  that  he  might  cover  the  nudity  of  his  Father  Adam — Primus"  says 
the  Kabala*  Thus,  Jesus  hinting  that  John  was  the  revolutio,  or  trans- 
migration of  Elias,  seems  to  prove  beyond  any  doubt  the  school  to 
which  he  belonged. 

Until  the  present  day  uninitiated  Kabalists  and  Masons  believe  per- 
mutation to  be  synonymous  with  transmigration  and  metempsychosis. 
But  they  are  as  much  mistaken  in  regard  to  the  doctrine  of  the  true 
Kabalists  as  to  that  of  the  Buddhists.  True,  the  Sohar  says  in  one 
place,  "All  souls  are  subject  to  transmigration  .  .  .  men  do  not  know  the 
ways  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He  ;  they  do  not  know  that  they  are 
brought  before  the  tribunal,  both  before  they  enter  this  world  and  after 
they  quit  it,"  and  the  Pharisees  also  held  this  doctrine,  as  Josephus 
shows  (Ajitiguities,  xviii.  13).  Also  the  doctrine  of  Gilgul,  held  to  the 
strange  theory  of  the  "  Whirling  of  the  Soul,"  which  taught  that  the 
bodies  of  Jews  buried  far  away  from  the  Holy  Land,  still  preserve  a  par- 
ticle of  soul  which  can  neither  rest  nor  quit  them,  until  it  reaches  the 
soil  of  the  "Promised  Land."  And  this  "whirling"  process  was 
thought  to  be  accomplished  by  the  soul  being  conveyed  back  through  an 
actual  evolution  of  species  ;  transmigrating  from  the  minutest  insect  up 
to  the  largest  animal.  But  this  was  an  exoteric  doctrine.  We  refer  the 
reader  to  the  Kahbala  Denudata  of  Henry  Khunrath  ;  his  language,  how- 
ever obscure,  may  yet  throw  some  light  upon  the  subject. 

But  this  doctrine  of  permutation,  or  revolutio,  must  not  be  understood 
as  a  belief  in  reincarnation.  That  Moses  was  considered  the  transmigra- 
tion of  Abel  and  Seth,  does  not  imply  that  the  kabalists — those  who  were 
initiated  at  least — beUeved  that  the  identical  spirit  of  either  of  Adam's 
sons  reappeared  under  the  corporeal  form  of  Moses.  It  only  shows  what 
was  the  mode  of  expression  they  used  when  hinting  at  one  of  the  pro- 
foundest  mysteries  of  the  Oriental  Gnosis,  one  of  the  most  majestic  arti- 

*  "Kabbala  Denudata,"  ii.,  155  ;   "  Vallis  Regia,"  Paris  edition. 

WHEN   A    "god"    becomes   INCARNATE.  153 

cles  of  faith  of  the  Secret  Wisdom.  It  was  purposely  veiled  so  as  to  half 
conceal  and  half  reveal  the  truth.  It  implied  that  Moses,  like  certain 
other  god-like  men,  was  beHeved  to  have  reached  the  highest  of  all 
states  on  earth : — the  rarest  of  all  psychological  phenomena,  the  perfect 
union  of  the  immortal  spirit  with  the  terrestrial  duad  had  occurred.  The 
trinity  was  complete.  A  god  was  incarnate.  But  how  rare  such  incar- 
nations ! 

That  expression,  "  Ye  are  gods,"  which,  to  our  biblical  students,  is  a 
mere  abstraction,  has  for  the  kabalists  a  vital  significance.  Each  immor- 
tal spirit  that  sheds  its  radiance  upon  a  human  being  is  a  god — the  Micro- 
cosmos  of  the  Macrocosm'os,  part  and  parcel  of  the  Unknown  God,  the 
First  Cause  of  which  it  is  a  direct  emanation.  It  is  possessed  of  all  the 
attributes  of  its  pai-ent  source.  Among  these  attributes  are  omniscience 
and  omnipotence.  Endowed  with  these,  but  yet  unable  to  fully  manifest 
them  while  in  the  body,  during  which  time  they  are  obscured,  veiled, 
limited  by  the  capabilities  of  physical  nature,  the  thus  divinely-inhabi- 
ted man  may  tower  far  above  his  kind,  evince  a  god-like  wisdom,  and 
display  deific  powers  ;  for  while  the  rest  of  mortals  around  him  are  but 
■overshadowed  by  their  divine  self,  with  every  chance  given  to  them  to 
become  immortal  hereafter,  but  no  other  security  than  their  personal 
efforts  to  win  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  the  so  chosen  man  has  already  be- 
come an  immortal  while  yet  on  earth.  His  prize  is  secured.  Henceforth 
he  will  live  forever  in  eternal  life.  Not  only  he  may  have  "  dominion  "  * 
over  all  the  works  of  creation  by  employing  the  "excellence"  of  the 
NAME  (the  ineffable  one)  but  be  higher  in  this  life,  not,  as  Paul  is  made 
to  say,  "a  little  lower  than  the  angels."  f 

The  ancients  never  entertained  the  sacrilegious  thought  that  such 
perfected  entities  were  incarnations  of  the  One  Supreme  and  for  ever 
invisible  God.  No  such  profanation  of  the  awful  Majesty  entered  into 
their  conceptions.  Moses  and  his  antitypes  and  types  were  to  them  but 
complete  men,  gods  on  earth,  for  their  gods  (divine  spirits)  had  entered 
unto  their  hallowed  tabernacles,  the  purified  physical  bodies.  The  dis- 
embodied spirits  of  the  heroes  and  sages  were  termed  gods  by  the 
ancients.  Hence,  the  accusation  of  polytheism  and  idolatry  on  the  part 
of  those  who  were  the  first  to  anthropomorphize  the  holiest  and  purest 
abstractions  of  their  forefathers. 

*  Psalms  viii. 

\  This  contradiction,  which  is  attributed  to  Paul  in  Hebrews,  by  making  him  say 
of  Jesus  in  chapter  i.,  4  :  "  Being  made  so  much  better  than  the  angels,"  and  then  im- 
mediately stating  in  chapter  ii.  g,  "  But  we  see  Jesus,  who  was  made  a  little  lower 
than  the  angels,"  shows  how  unscrupulously  the  writings  of  the  apostles,  if  they  ever 
wrote  any,  were  tampered  with. 


The  real  and  hidden  sense  of  this  doctrine  was  known  to  all  the  ini- 
tiates. The  Tanaim  imparted  it  to  their  elect  ones,  the  Isarini,  in  the 
solemn  solitudes  of  crypts  and  deserted  places.  It  was  one  of  the  most 
esoteric  and  jealously  guarded,  for  human  nature  was  the  same  then  as 
it  is  now,  and  the  sacerdotal  caste  as  confident  as  now  in  the  supremacy 
of  its  knowledge,  and  ambitious  of  ascendency  over  the  weaker  masses ; 
with  the  difference  perhaps  that  its  hierophants  could  prove  the  legiti- 
macy of  their  claims  and  the  plausibility  of  their  doctrines,  whereas  now, 
believers  must  be  content  with  blind  faith. 

While  the  kabalists  called  this  mysterious  and  rare  occurrence  of  the 
union  of  spirit  with  the  mortal  charge  entrusted  to  its  care,  the  "descent 
of  the  Angel  Gabriel  "  (the  latter  being  a  kind  of  generic  name  for  it),  the 
Messenger  of  Life,  and  the  angel  Metatron  ;  and  while  the  Nazarenes 
termed  the  same  Abel-Zivo,*  the  Delegatus  sent  by  the  Lord  of  Celsitude, 
it  was  universally  known  as  the  "  Anointed  Spirit." 

Thus  it  is  the  acceptation  of  this  doctrine  which  caused  the  Gnostics 
to  maintain  that  Jesus  was  a  man  overshadowed  by  the  Christos  or  Mes- 
senger of  Life,  and  that  his  despairing  cry  from  the  cross  "  Eloi,  Eloi, 
Lama  Sabachthani,"  was  wrung  from  him  at  the  instant  when  he  felt  that 
this  inspiring  Presence  had  finally  abandoned  him,  for — as  some  affirmed 
— his  faith  had  also  abandoned  him  when  on  the  cross. 

The  early  Nazarenes,  who  must  be  numbered  among  the  Gnostic  sects, 
believing  that  Jesus  was  a  prophet,  held,  nevertheless,  in  relation  to  him 
the  same  doctrine  of  the  divine  "overshadowing,"  of  certain  "men  of 
God,"  sent  for  the  salvation  of  nations,  and  to  recall  them  to  the  path  of 
righteousness.  "  The  Divine  mind  is  eternal,"  says  the  Codex,\  "And  it  is 
pure  light,  and  poured  out  through  splendid  and  immense  space  (pleronia). 
It  is  Genetrix  of  the  ^ons.  But  one  of  them  went  to  matter  (chaos) 
stirring  up  confused  (turbulentos)  movements ;  and  by  a  certain  portion 
of  heavenly  light  fashioned  it,  properly  constituted  for  use  and  appear- 
ance, but  the  beginning  of  every  evil.  The  Demiurg  (of  matter)  claimed 
divine  honor.J  Therefore  Christus  ("  the  anointed"),  the  prince  of  the 
yEons  (powers),  was  sent  (expeditus),  who  taking  on  the  person  of  a  most 
devout  Jew,  lesu,  was  to  conquer  him  ;  but  who  having  laid  it  (the  body) 
aside,  departed  on  high."  We  will  explain  further  on  the  full  significance 
of  the  name  Christos  and  its  mystic  meaning. 

And  now,  in  order  to  make  such  passages  as  the  above  more  intelli- 
gible, we  will   endeavor  to  define,  as  briefly  as  possible,  the  dogmas  in 

*  *'  Codex  Nazaraeus,"  i.  23. 
f  Ibid.,  preface,  p.  v.,  translated  from  Norberg. 

X  "  According  to  the  Nazai-enes  and  Gnostics,  the  Demiurg,  the  creator  of  the  ma- 
terial world,  is  not  the  highest  God."     (See  Dunlap  :    "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man.") 


which,  with  very  trifling  differences,  nearly  all  the  Gnostic  sects  beheved. 
It  is  in  Ephesus  that  flourished  in  those  days  the  greatest  college,  wherein 
the  abstruse  Oriental  speculations  and  the  Platonic  philosophy  were  taught 
in  conjunction.  It  was  a  focus  of  the  universal  "  secret "  doctrines  ;  the 
weird  laboratory  whence,  fashioned  in  elegant  Grecian  phraseology,  sprang 
the  quintessence  of  Buddhistic,  Zoroastrian,  and  Chaldean  philosophy. 
Artemis,  the  gigantic  concrete  symbol  of  theosophico-pantheistic  abstrac- 
tions, the  great  mother  Multimamma,  androgyne  and  patroness  of  the 
"  Ephesian  writings,"  was  conquered  by  Paul ;  but  although  the  zealous 
converts  of  the  apostles  pretended  to  burn  all  their  books  on  "  curious 
arts,"  ra  irepiepya,  enough  of  these  remained  for  them  to  study  when 
their  first  zeal  had  cooled  off  It  is  from  Ephesus  that  spread  nearly 
all  the  Gnosis  which  antagonized  so  fiercely  with  the  Irenffian  dogmas  ; 
and  still  it  was  Ephesus,  with  her  numerous  collateral  branches  of  the 
great  college  of  the  Essenes,  which  proved  to  be  the  hot-bed  of  all 
the  kabalistic  speculations  brought  by  the  Tanaim  from  the  captivity. 
"  In  Ephesus,"  says  Matter,  "  the  notions  of  the  Jewish-Egyptian  school, 
and  the  semi-Persian  speculations  of  the  kabalists  had  then  recently  come 
to  swell  the  vast  conflux  of  Grecian  and  Asiatic  doctrines,  so  there  is  no 
wonder  that  teachers  should  have  sprung  up  there  who  strove  to  com- 
bine the  religion  newly  preached  by  the  apostle  with  the  ideas  there  so 
long  estabhshed." 

Had  not  the  Christians  burdened  themselves  with  the  Revelations 
of  a  little  nation,  and  accepted  the  Jehovah  of  Moses,  the  Gnostic  ideas 
would  never  have  been  termed  heresies  ;  once  relieved  of  their  dogmatic 
exaggerations  the  world  would  have  had  a  religious  system  based  on  pure 
Platonic  philosophy,  and  surely  something  would  then  have  been  gained. 

Now  let  us  see  what  are  the  greatest  heresies  of  the  Gnostics.  We 
will  select  Basilides  as  the  standard  for  our  comparisons,  for  all  the 
founders  of  other  Gnostic  sects  group  round  him,  like  a  cluster  of  stars 
borrowing  light  from  their  sun. 

Basilides  maintained  that  he  had  had  all  his  doctrines  from  the  Apos- 
tle Matthew,  and  from  Peter  through  Glaucus,  the  disciple  of  the  lat- 
ter.* According  to  Eusebius,  f  he  published  twenty-four  volumes  of 
Interpretations  upon  the  Gospels,  X  all  of  which  were  burned,  a  fact  which 
makes  us  suppose  that  they  contained  more  truthful  matter  than  the 
school  of  Irenaaus  was  prepared  to  deny.    He  asserted  that  the  unknown, 

•  Clemens  :  "  Al.  Strom."  vii.,  7,  §  io5. 

fH.  E.,  iv.  7. 

t  The  gospels  interpreted  by  Basilides  were  not  our  present  gospels,  which,  as  it  is 
proved  by  the  greatest  authorities,  were  not  in  his  days  in  existence.  See  "  Supernat- 
ural Religion,"  vol.  ii.,  chap.  Basilides. 


eternal,  and  uncreated  Father  having  first  brought  forth  Nous,  or  Mind, 
the  latter  emanated  from  itself— the  Logos.  The  Logos  (the  Word  of 
John)  emanated  in  its  turn  Ph-ronesis,  or  the  Intelligences  (Divine-human 
spirits).  From  Phronesis  sprung  Sophia,  or  feminine  wisdom,  and 
Dynamis — strength.  These  were  the  personified  attributes  of  the  Mys- 
terious godhead,  the  Gnostic  quinternion,  typifying  the  five  spiritual,  but 
intelligible  substances,  personal  virtues  or  beings  external  to  the 
unknown  godhead.  This  is  preeminently  a  kabalistic  idea.  It  is  still 
more  Buddhistic.  The  earliest  system  of  the  Buddhistic  philosophy — 
which  preceded  by  far  Gautama-Buddha — is  based  upon  the  uncreated 
substance  of  the  "  Unknown,"  the  A'di  Buddha.*  This  eternal,  infinite 
Monad  possesses,  as  proper  to  his  own  essence,  five  acts  of  wisdom. 
From  these  it,  by  five  separate  acts  of  Dhyiin,  emitted  five  Dhyani 
Buddhas  ;  these,  like  A'di  Buddha,  are  quiescent  in  their  system  (pas- 
sive). Neither  A'di,  nor  either  of  the  five  Dhyani  Buddhas,  were  ever 
incarnated,  but  seven  of  their  emanations  becan)e  Avatars,  i.e.,  were 
incarnated  on  this  earth. 

*  The  five  make  mystically  ten.  They  are  androgynes.  "  Having  divided  his  body  in 
two  parts,  the  Supreme  Wisdom  became  male  and  female  "  ("  Manu,"  book  i.,  sloka 
32).      There  are  many  early  Buddhistic  ideas  to  be  found  in  Brahmanism. 

The  prevalent  idea  that  the  last  of  the  Buddhas,  Gautama,  is  the  ninth  incarnation 
of  Vishnu,  or  the  ninth  Avatar,  is  disclaimed  partially  by  the  Brahmans,  and  wholly 
rejected  by  the  learned  Buddhist  theologians.  The  latter  insist  that  the  worship  of 
Buddha  possesses  a  far  higher  claim  to  antiquity  than  any  of  the  Brahmanical  deities  of 
the  Vedas,  which  they  call  secular  literature.  The  Brahmans,  they  show,  came  from 
other  countries,  and  established  their  heresy  on  the  already  accepted  popular  deities. 
They  conquered  the  land  by  the  sword,  and  succeeded  in  burying  truth,  by  building  a 
theology  of  their  own  on  the  ruins  of  the  more  ancient  one  of  Buddha,  which  had 
prevailed  for  ages.  They  admit  the  divinity  and  spiritual  existence  of  some  of  the 
Vedantic  gods  ;  but  as  in  the  case  of  the  Christian  angel-hierarchy  they  beUeve  that 
all  these  deities  are  greatly  subordinate,  even  to  the  incarnated  Buddhas.  They  do  not 
even  acknowledge  the  creation  of  the  physical  universe.  Spiritually  and  invisibly  \\.  has 
existed  from  all  eternity,  and  thus  it  was  made  merely  visible  to  the  human  senses. 
When  it  first  appeared  it  was  called  forth  from  the  realm  of  the  invisible  into  the  visi- 
ble by  the  impulse  of  A'di  Buddha — the  "Essence."  They  reckon  twenty-two  such  visible 
appearances  of  the  universe  governed  by  Buddhas,  and  as  many  destructions  of  it,  by 
fire  and  water  in  regular  successions.  After  the  last  destruction  by  the  flood,  at  the  end 
of  the  precedent  cycle— (the  exact  calculation,  embracing  several  millions  of  years,  is  a 
secret  cycle)  the  world,  during  the  present  age  of  the  Kali  Yug — Maha  Bhadda  Calpa— 
has  been  ruled  successively  by  four  Buddhas,  the  last  of  whom  was  Gautama,  the 
"  Holy  One."  The  fifth,  Maitree-Buddha,  is  yet  to  come.  This  latter  is  the  expected 
kabalistic  King  Messiah,  the  Messenger  of  Light,  and  Sosiosh,  the  Persian  Saviour, 
who  will  come  on  a  white  horse.  It  is  also  the  Christian  Second  Advent.  See 
"  Apocalypse  "   of  St,  John. 


Describing  the  Basilidean  system,  Iren^us,  quoting  the  Gnostics, 
declares  as  follows  : 

"  When  the  uncreated,  unnamed  Father  saw  the  corruption  of  man- 
kind, he  sent  his  first-born  Nous,  into  the  world,  in  the  form  of  Christ, 
for  the  redemption  of  all  who  believe  in  him,  out  of  the  power  of  those 
who  fabricated  the  world  (the  Demiurgus,  and  his  six  sons,  the  planet- 
ary genii).  He  appeared  amongst  men  as  the  man,  Jesus,  and  wrought 
miracles.  This  Christ  did  not  die  in  person,  but  Simon  the  Cyrenian 
•suffered  in  his  stead,  to  whom  he  lent  his  bodily  form  ;  for  the  Divine 
Power,  the  Nous  of  the  Eternal  Father,  is  not  corporeal,  and  cannot  die. 
Whoso,  therefore,  maintains  that  Christ  has  died,  is  still  the  bondsman 
of  ignorance  ;  whoso  denies  the  same,  he  is  free,  and  hath  understood 
the  purpose  of  the  Father."  * 

So  far,  and  taken  in  its  abstract  sense,  we  do  not  see  anything  blas- 
phemous in  this  system.  It  may  be  a  heresy  against  the  theology  of 
Irenseus  and  Tertullian,  f  but  there  is  certainly  nothing  sacrilegious 
against  the  religious  idea  itself,  and  it  will  seem  to  every  impartial  thinker 
far  more  consistent  with  divine  reverence  than  the  anthropomorphism 
of  actual  Christianity.  The  Gnostics  were  called  by  the  orthodox 
Christians,  Docetce,  or  Illusionists,  for  believing  that  Christ  did  not,  nor 
could,  suffer  death  actually — in  physical  body.  The  later  Brahmanical 
books  contain,  likewise,  much  that  is  repugnant  to  the  reverential  feeling 
and  idea  of  the  Divinity  ;  and  as  well  as  the  Gnostics,  the  Brahmans 
explain  such  legends  as  may  shock  the  divine  dignity  of  the  Spiritual 
beings  called  gods  by  attributing  them  to  Maya  or  illusion. 

A  people  brought  up  and  nurtured  for  countless  ages  among  all  the 
psychological  phenomena  of  which  the  civilize'd  (!)  nations  read,  but 
reject  as  incredible  and  worthless,  cannot  well  expect  to  have  its  reli- 
gious system  even  understood — let  alone  appreciated.  The  profoundest 
and  most  transcendental  speculations  of  the  ancient  metaphysicians  of 
India  and  other  countries,  are  all  based  on  that  great  Buddhistic  and 
Brahmanical  principle  underlying  the  whole  of  their  religious  meta- 
physics— illusion  of  the  senses.  Everything  that  is  finite  is  illusion,  all 
that  which  is  eternal  and  infinite  is  reality.  Form,  color,  that  which 
we  hear  and  feel,  or  see  with  our  mortal  eyes,  exists  only  so  far  as  it  can 
be  conveyed  to  each  of  us  through  our  senses.  The  universe  for  a  man 
born  blind  does  not  exist  in  either  form  or  color,  but  it  exists  in  its  priva- 
tion (in  the  Aristotelean  sense),  and  is  a  reality  for  the  spiritual  senses 

*  "  Irenaeus,"  i.  23. 

■f  Tertullian  reversed  the  table  himself  by  rejecting,  later  in  life,  the  doctrines  for 
which  he  fought  with  such  an  acerbity  and  by  becoming  a  Montanist. 


of  the  blind  man.  We  all  live  under  the  powerful  doniinion  of  phan- 
tasy. Alone  the  highest  and  invisible  originals  emanated  from  the 
thought  of  the  Unknown  are  real  and  permanent  beings,  forms,  and 
ideas  ;  on  earth,  we  see  but  their  reflections  ;  more  or  less  correct,  and 
ever  dependent  on  the  physical  and  mental  organization  of  the  person 
who  beholds  them. 

Ages  untold  before  our  era,  the  Hindu  Mystic  Kapila,  who  is  consid- 
ered by  many  scientists  as  a  skeptic,  because  they  judge  him  with  their 
habitual  superficiality,  magnificently  expressed  this  idea  in  the  following  ' 
terms  : 

"  Man  (physical  man)  counts  for  so  little,  that  hardly  anything  can 
demonstrate  to  him  his  proper  existence  and  that  of  nature.  Perhaps, 
that  which  we  regard  as  the  universe,  and  the  divers  beings  which  seem 
to  compose  it,  have  nothing  real,  and  are  but  the  product  of  continued 
illusion — maya — of  our  senses." 

And  the  modern  Schopenhauer,  repeating  this  philosophical  idea, 
10,000  years  old  now,  says  :"  Nature  is  non-existent, /ifrjf.  .  .  .  Nature 
is  the  infinite  illusion  of  our  senses."  Kant,  Schelling,  and  other  meta- 
physicians have  said  the  same,  and  their  school  maintains  the  idea.  The 
objects  of  sense  being  ever  delusive  and  fluctuating,  cannot  be  a  reaUty. 
Spirit  alone  is  unchangeable,  hence — alone  is  no  illusion.  This  is  pure 
Buddhist  doctrine.  The  religion  of  the  Gnosis  (knowledge),  the 
most  evident  offshoot  of  Buddhism,  was  utterly  based  on  this  metaphysi- 
cal tenet.  Christos  suffered  spiritually  for  us,  and  far  more  acutely 
than  did  the  illusionary  Jesus  while  his  body  was  being  tortured  on  the 

In  the  ideas  of  the  Christians,  Christ  is  but  another  name  for  Jesus. 
The  philosophy  of  the  Gnostics,  the  initiates,  and  hierophants  understood 
it  otherwise.  The  word  Christos,  Xpiaros,  like  all  Greek  words,  must  be 
sought  in  its  philological  origin — the  Sanscrit.  In  this  latter  language 
Kris  means  sacred,*  and  the  Hindu  deity  was  named  Chris-na  (the 
pure  or  the  sacred)  from  that.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Greek  Christos 
bears  several  meanings,  as  anointed  (pure  oil,  chrism)  and  others.  In 
all  languages,  though  the  synonym  of  the  word  means  pure  or  sacred 
essence,  it  is  the  first  emanation  of  the  invisible  Godhead,  manifesting 
itself  tangibly  in   spirit.     The   Greek  Logos,  the  Hebrew  Messiah,  the 

*  In  his  debate  with  JacoUiot  upon  the  right  spelling  of  the  Hindu  Chiistna,  Mr. 
Textor  de  Ravisi,  an  ultramontane  Catholic,  tries  to  prove  that  the  name  of  Christna 
ought  to  be  written  Krishna,  for,  as  the  latter  means  black,  and  the  statues  of  this 
deity  are  generally  black,  the  word  is  derived  from  the  color.  We  refer  the  reader  to 
JacoUiot's  answer  in  his  recent  work,  "  Christna  et  le  Christ,"  for  the  conclusive  evi- 
dence that  the  na]ne  is  not  derived  from  the  color. 


Latin  Verbum,  and  the  Hindu  Viradj  (the  son)  are  identically  the  same  ; 
they  represent  an  idea  of  collective  entities — of  flames  detached  from  the 
one  eternal  centre  of  light. 

"  The  man  who  accomphshes  pious  but  interested  acts  (with  the  sole 
object  of  his  salvation)  may  reach  the  ranks  of  the  devas  (saints)  ;  *  but  he 
who  accomplishes,  disinterestedly,  the  same  pious  acts,  finds  himself  ridden 
forever  of  the  five  elements"  (of  matter).  "Perceiving  the  Supreme 
Soul  in  all  beings  and  all  beings  in  the  Supreme  Soul,  in  offering  his  own 
soul  in  sacrifice,  he  identifies  himself  with  the  Being  who  shines  in  his 
own  splendor  "  [Ma/iii,  book  xii.,  slokas  90,  91). 

Thus,  Christos,  as  a  unity,  is  but  an  abstraction  :  a  general  idea 
representing  the  collective  aggregation  of  the  numberless  spirit-entities, 
which  are  the  direct  emanations  of  the  infinite,  invisible,  incomprehensi- 
ble First  Cause — the  individual  spirits  of  men,  erroneously  called  the  souls. 
They  are  the  divine  sons  of  God,  of  which  some  only  overshadow  mortal 
men — but  this  the  majority — some  remain  forever  planetary  spirits, 
and  some — the  smaller  and  rare  minority — unite  themselves  during  life 
with  some  men.  Such  God-like  beings  as  Gautama-Buddha,  Jesus, 
Tissoo,  Christna,  and  a  few  others  had  united  themselves  with  their 
spirits  permanently — hence,  they  became  gods  on  earth.  Others,  such  as 
Moses,  Pythagoras,  ApoUonius,  Plotinus,  Confucius,  Plato,  lamblichus, 
and  some  Christian  saints,  having  at  intervals  been  so  united,  have  taken 
rank  in  history  as  denii-gods  and  leaders  of  mankind.  When  unburthenedof 
their  terrestrial  tabernacles,  their  freed  souls,  henceforth  united  forever  with 
their  spirits,  rejoin  the  whole  shining  host,  which  is  bound  together  in  one 
spiritual  solidarity  of  thought  and  deed,  and  called  "  the  anointed."  Hence, 
the  meaning  of  the  Gnostics,  who,  by  saying  that  "  Christos  "  suffered 
spiritually  for  humanity,  implied  that  his  Divine  Spirit  suffered  mostly. 

Such,  and  far  more  elevating  were  the  ideas  of  Marcion,  the  great 
"Heresiarch"  of  the  second  century,  as  he  is  termed  by  his  opponents. 
He  came  to  Rome  toward  the  latter  part  of  the  half-century,  from 
A.D.  139-142,  according  to  Tertullian,  Irfenaeus,  Clemens,  and  most  of 
his  modern  commentators,  such  as  Bunsen,  Tischendorf,  Westcott,  and 
many  others.  Credner  and  Schleierniacher  f  agree  as  to  his  high  and 
irreproachable  personal  character,  his  pure  religious  aspirations  and 
elevated  views.      His   influence   must  have   been   powerfu',    as   we   find 

*  There  is  no  equivalent  for  the  word  "  miracle,"  in  the  Christian  sense,  among  the 
Brahmans  or  Buddhists.  The  only  correct  translation  would  be  meipo,  a  wonder,  some- 
thing remarkable  ;  but  not  a  violation  of  natural  law.  The  "'  saints  "  only  produce 

f  "Beitrage,"  vol.  i..  p.  40;  Schleiermacher :  "  Sammtl.  Werke,"  viii.  ;  "  Einl. 
N.  T.,"  p.  64!  ' 


Epiphanius  writing  more  than  two  centuries  later  that  in  his  time  the 
followers  of  Marcion  were  to  be  found  throughout  the  whole  world.  * 

The  danger  must  have  been  pressing  and  great  indeed,  if  we  are  to 
judge  it  to  have  been  proportioned  with  the  opprobrious  epithets  and  vitu- 
peration heaped  upon  Marcion  by  the  "  Great  African,"  that  Patristic  Cer- 
berus, whom  we  find  ever  barking  at  the  door  of  the  Irenaean  dogmas.f 
We  have  but  to  open  his  celebrated  refutation  of  Marcion's  Antitheses,  to 
acquaint  ourselves  with  the  fine-fleur  of  monkish  abuse  of  the  Christian 
school ;  an  abuse  so  faithfully  carried  through  the  middle  ages,  to  be 
renewed  again  in  our  present  day — at  the  Vatican.  "  Now,  then,  ye 
hounds,  yelping  at  the  God  of  Truth,  whom  the  apostles  cast  out,  to  all 
your  questions.  These  are  the  bones  of  contention  which  ye  gnaw," 
etc.  \  "  The  poverty  of  the  Great  African's  arguments  keeps  pace  with 
his  abuse,"  remarks  the  author  of  Supernatural  Religion.  §  "  Their 
(the  Father's)  religious  controversy  bristles  with  misstatements,  and  is 
turbid  with  pious  abuse.  TertulHan  was  a  master  of  his  style,  and  the 
vehement  vituperation  with  which  he  opens  and  often  interlards  his  work 
against  '  the  impious  and  sacrilegious  Marcion,'  offers  anything  but  a 
guarantee  of  fair  and  legitimate  criticism." 

How  firm  these  two  Fathers — Tertullian  and  Epiphanius — were  on 
their  theological  ground,  maybe  inferred  from  the  curious  fact  that  they  in- 
temperately  both  vehemently  reproach  "the  beast"  (Marcion)  "with  era- 
sing passages  from  the  Gospel  of  Luke  which  never  were  in  Luke  at  all."  || 
"The  lightness  and  inaccuracy,"  adds  the  critic,  "with  which  Tertullian 
proceeds,  are  all  the  better  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  not  only  does  he 
accuse  Marcion  falsely,  but  he  actually  defines  the  motives  for  which  he  ex- 
punged a  passage  which  never  existed ;  in  the  same  chapter  he  also  simi- 
larly accuses  Marcion  of  erasing  (from  Luke)  the  saying  that  Christ  had  not 
come  to  destroy  the  law  and  the  prophets,  but  to  fulfill  them,  and  he 
actually  repeats  the  charge  on  two  other  occasions.  ^  Epiphanius  also 
commits  the  mistake  of  reproaching  Marcion  with  omitting  from  Luke 
what  is  only  found  in  Matthew."  ** 

Having  so  far  shown  the  amount  of  reliance  to  be  placed  in  the 
Patristic  literature,  and  it  being  unanimously  conceded  by  the  great  ma- 
jority of  biblical  critics  that  what  the  Fathers  fought  for  was  not  truth., 
but  their  own  interpretations  and  unwarranted  assertions,  ff  we  will  now 

*  "  Epiph.  Htera.,"  xlii.,  p.  i.         f  Tertullian  :     "Adv.  Marc,"  ii.  5  ;  cf.  9. 
\  Ibid.,  ii.  5.  g  vol.  ii.,  p.  105.  \  Ibid.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  100.    ' 

If  "  Adv.  Marc,"  iv.,  9,  36. 

**  "Supernatural  Religion,"  p.  lor  ;  Matthew  v.  17. 

ff  This  author,  vol.  ii. ,  p.  103,  remarks  with  great  justice  of  the  "  Heresiarch  " 
Marcion,  "  whose  high  personal  character  exerted  so  powerful  an  influence  upon  his  own 


proceed  to  state  what  were  the  views  of  Marcion,  whom  TertuUian  desired 
to  annihilate  as  the  most  dangerous  heretic  of  his  day.  If  we  are  to  be- 
lieve Hilgenfeld,  one  of  the  greatest  German  biblical  critics,  then  "  From 
the  critical  standing-point  one  must  .  .  .  consider  the  statements  of  the 
Fathers  of  the  Church  only  as  expressions  of  their  subjective  view,  which 
itself  requires  proof."  * 

We  can  do  no  better  nor  make  a  more  correct  statement  of  facts 
concerning  Marcion  than  by  quoting  what  our  space  permits  from  Super- 
natural Religion,  the  author  of  which  bases  his  assertions  on  the  evidence 
of  the  greatest  critics,  as  well  as  on  his  own  researches.  He  shows  in 
the  days  of  IVEarcion  "two  broad  parties  in  the  primitive  Church" — 
one  considering  Christianity  "  a  mere  continuation  of  the  law,  and  dwarf- 
ing it  into  an  Israelitish  institution,  a  narrow  sect  of  Judaism;"  the  other 
representing  the  glad  tidings  "  as  the  introduction  of  a  new  system,  appli- 
cable to  all,  and  supplanting  the  Mosaic  dispensation  of  the  law  by  a 
universal  dispensation  of  grace."  These  two  parties,  he  adds,  "were 
popularly  represented  in  the  early  Church,  by  the  two  apostles  Peter  and 
Paul,  and  their  antagonism  is  faintly  revealed  in  the  Epistle  to  the 
Galatians."  \ 

time,"  that  "  it  was  the  misfortune  of  Marcion  to  live  in  an  age  when  Christianity  had 
passed  out  of  the  pure  morality  of  its  infancy  ;  when,  untroubled'  by  complicated  ques- 
tions of  dogma,  simple  faith  and  pious  enthusiasm  had  been  the  one  great  bond  of 
Christian  brotherhood,  into  a  phase  of  ecclesiastical  development  in  which  religion  was 
fast  degenerating  into  theology,  and  complicated  doctrines  were  rapidly  assuming  the 
rampant  attitude  which  led  to  so  much  bitterness,  persecution,  and  schism.  In  later 
times  Marcion  might  have  been  honored  as  a  reformer,  in  his  own  he  was  denounced  as 
a  heretic.  Austere  and  ascetic  in  his  opinions,  he  aimed  at  superhuman  purity,  and, 
although  his  clerical  adversaries  might  scoff  at  his  impracticable  doctrines  regarding 
marriage  and  the  subjugation  of  the  flesh,  they  have  had  their  parallels  amongst  those 
whom  the  Church  has  since  most  delighted  to  honor,  and,  at  least,  the  whole  tendency 
of  his  system  was  markedly  towards  the  side  of  virtue."  These  statements  are  based 
upon  Credner's  "  Beitrage,"  i.,  p.  40;  cf.  Neander  :  "  AUg.  K.  G.,'' ii.,  p.  792,  f. ; 
Schleiermacher,  Milman,  etc.,  etc. 

*  Justin's.  "  Die  Evv.,"  p.  446,  sup.  B. 

\  But,  on  the  other  hand,  this  antagonism  is  very  strongly  marked  in  the  "  Clemen- 
tine Homilies,"  in  which  Peter  unequivocally  denies  that  Paul,  whom  he  calls  Simon  the 
Magician  has  ever  had  a  vision  of  Christ,  and  calls  him  "  an  enemy."  Canon  Westcott 
says:  "There  can  be  no  doubt  that  St.  Paul  is  referred  to  as  '  the  enemy'  "  ("  On 
the  Canon,"  p.  252,  riote  2  ;  "Supernatural  Religion,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  35).  But  this  antag- 
onism, which  rages  unto  the  present  day,  we  find  even  in  St.  Paul's  "  Epistles."  What 
can  be  more  energetic  than  such  like  sentences:  "  Such  are  false  apostles,  deceitful 
workers,  transforming  themselves  into  the  apostles  of  Christ.  ...  I  suppose  I  was 
not  a  whit  behind  the  very  chiefest  apostle"  (2  Corinthians,  xi.).  "  Paul,  an  apostle 
not  of  men,  neither  by  man,  but  by  Jesus  Christ  and  God  the  Father,  who  raised  hirn 
from  the  dead  .  .  .  but  there  be  some  that  trouble  you,  and  would  pervert  the  Gospel 


Marcion,  who  recognized  no  other  Gospels  than  a  few  Epistles  of 
Paul,  who  rejected  totally  the  anthropomorphism  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, and  drew  a  distinct  line  of  demarcation  between  the  old  Judaism 
and  Christianity,  viewed  Jesus  neither  as  a  King,  Messiah  of  the  Jews, 
nor  the  son  of  David,  who  was  in  any  way  connected  with  the  law  or 
prophets,  "  but  a  divine  being  sent  to  reveal  to  man  a  spiritual  religion, 
wholly  new,   and  a  God  of  goodness  and  grace  hitherto  unknown."     The 

of  Christ  .  .  .  false  irethren.  .  .  .  When  Peter  came  to  Antioch  I  withstood  him  to 
his  face,  because  he  was  to  be  blamed.  For  before  that  certain  came  from  James,  kg  did 
eat  with  the  Gentiles,  but  when  they  were  come  he  withdrew,  fearing  them  which  were  of 
the  circumcision.  And  the  other  Jews  dissembled  , .  .  insomuch  that  Barnabas  also  was 
carried  away  with  their  dissimulation,''''  etc.,  etc.  (Galat.  i.  and  ii.).  On  the  other  hand,  we 
find  Peter  in  the  "  Homilies,"  indulging  in  various  complaints  which,  although  alleged 
to  be  addressed  to  Simon  Magus,  are  evidently  all  du"ect  answers  to  the  above-quoted 
sentences  from  the  Pauline  Epistles,  and  cannot  have  anything  to  do  with  Simon.  So, 
for  instance,  Peter  said:  "For  some  among  the  Gentiles  have  rejected  my  lawful 
preaching,  and  accepted  certain  lawless  and  foolish  teaching  of  the  hostile  men  (ene- 
my) " — Epist.  of  Peter  to  James,  §  2.  He  says  further  :  "  Simon  (Paul)  .  .  .  who  came 
befoi'e  me  to  the  Gentiles  .  .  .  and  I  have  followed  him  as  light  upon  darkness,  as 
knowledge  upon  ignorance,  as  health  upon  disease  "  ("  Homil.,"  ii.  17).  Still  further, 
he  calls  him  Death  and  a  deceiver  (Ibid.,  ii.  18).  He  warns  the  Gentiles  that  "  our  Lord 
and  Prophet  ( .?  )  {Jesus')  announced  that  he  would  send  from  among  his  followers,  apos- 
tles to  deceive.  "  Therefore,  above  all,  remember  to  avoid  every  apostle,  or  teacher, 
or  prophet,  who  fir?t  does  not  accurately  compare  his  teaching  with  that  of  James, 
called  the  brother  of  our  Lord  "  (see  the  difference  between  Paul  and  James  on  faith, 
Epist.  to  Hebrews,  xi.,  xii.,  and  Epist.  of  James,  ii.).  "  Lest  the  Evil  One  should  send 
a  false  preacher  ...  as  he  has  sent  to  us  Simon  (?)  preaching  a  counterfeit  of  truth  in 
the  name  of  our  Lord,  and  disseminating  error  "  ("  Hom."  xi.,  35  ;  see  above  quotation 
from  Gal.  i,  5).  He  then  denies  Paul's  assertion,  in  the  following  words:  "  If,  there- 
fore, our  Jesus  indeed  appeared  in  a  vision  to  you,  it  was  only  as  an  irritated  adversary. 
.  .  .  But  how  can  any  one  through  visions  become  wise  in  teaching  ?  And  if  you  say, 
'it  is  possible,'  then  I  ask,  wherefore  did  the  Teacher  remain  for  a  whole  year  and  dis- 
course to  those  who  were  attentive  ?  And  how  can  we  believe  your  story  that  he 
appeared  to  you  ?  And  in  what  manner  did  he  appear  to  you,  when  you  hold  opinions 
contrary  to  his  teaching  ?  .  .  .  For  you  now  set  yourself  up  against  me,  who  am  a 
firm  rock,  the  foundation  of  the  Church.  If  you  were  not  an  opponent,  you  would 
not  calumniate  me,  you  would  not  revile  my  teaching  .  .  .  (circumcision?)  in  order  that, 
in  declaring  what  I  have  myself  heard  from  the  Lord,  I  may  not  be  believed,  as  though/ 
were  condemned.  .  .  .  But  if  you  say  that  I  am  condemned,  you  blame  God  who 
revealed  Christ  tome."  "This  last  phrase,"  observes  t'ne  author  of  "  Supernatiu-al 
Religion,"  "  'if  you  say  that  I  am  condemned,'  is  an  evident  allusion  to  Galat.  ii,  11, 
'  I  withstood  him  to  the  face,  because  he  was  condemned  '  "  ("  Supernatural  Religion," 
p.  37).  "  There  cannot  be  a  doubt,"  adds  the  just-quoted  author,  "that  the  Apostle 
Paul  is  attacked  in  this  religious  romance  as  the  great  enemy  of  the  true  faith,  under 
the  hated  name  of  Simon  the  Magician,  whom  Peter  follows  everywhere  for  the  pur- 
pose of  unmaskmg  and  confuting  him  "  (p.  34).  And  if  so,  then  we  must  believe 
that  it  was  St.  Paul  who  broke  both  his  legs  in  Rome  when  flying  in  the  air. 


"  Lord  God  "  of  the  Jews  in  his  eyes,  the  Creator  (Demiurgos),  was  totally- 
different  and  distinct  from  the  Deity  who  sent  Jesus  to  reveal  the  divine 
truth  and  preach  the  glad  tidings,  to  bring  reconciliation  and  salvation  to 
all.  The  mission  of  Jesus — according  to  Marcion — was  to  abrogate  the 
Jewish  "  Lord,"  who  "  was  opposed  to  the  God  and  Father  of  Jesus 
Christ  as  matter  is  to  spirit,  impurity  to  purity T 

Was  Marcion  so  far  wrong  ?  Was  it  blasphemy,  or  was  it  intuition, 
divine  inspiration  in  him  to  express  that  which  every  honest  heart  yearn- 
ing for  truth,  more  or  less  feels  and  acknowledges  ?  If  in  his  sincere 
desire  to  establish  a  purely  spiritual  religion,  a  universal  faith  based  on 
unadulterated  truth,  he  found  it  necessary  to  make  of  Christianity  an 
entirely  new  and  separate  system  from  that  of  Judaism,  did  not  Marcion 
have  the  very  words  of  Christ  for  his  authority  ?  "  No  man  putteth  a  piece 
of  new  cloth  into  an  old  garment  .  .  .  for  the  rent  is  made  worse.  .  .  . 
Neither  do  men  put  new  wine  into  old  bottles,  else  the  bottles  break, 
and  the  wine  runneth  out,  and  the  bottles  perish  ;  but  they  put  nnc  ivine 
into  new  bottles,  and  both  are  preserved."  In  what  particular  does  the 
jealous,  wrathful,  revengeful  God  of  Israel  resemble  the  unknown  deity, 
the  God  of  mercy  preached  by  Jesus  ; — his  Father  who  is  in  Heaven, 
and  the  Father  of  all  humanity  ?  This  Father  alone  is  the  God  of  spirit 
and  purity,  and,  to  compare  Him  with  the  subordinate  and  capricious 
Sinaitic  Deity  is  an  error.  Did  Jesus  ever  pronounce  the  name  of 
Jehovah  ?  Did  he  ever  place  his  Father  in  contrast  with  this  severe  and 
cruel  Judge  ;  his  God  of  mercy,  love,  and  justice,  with  the  Jewish  genius 
of  retaliation  ?  Never  !  From  that  memorable  day  when  he  preached 
his  Sermon  on  the  Mount,  an  immeasurable  void  opened  between  his 
God  and  that  other  deity  who  fulminated  his  commands  from  that  other 
mount — Sinai.  The  language  of  Jesus  is  unequivocal ;  it  implies  not  only 
rebellion  but  defiance  of  the  Mosaic  "Lord  God."  "Ye  have  heard," 
he  tells  us,  "  that  it  hath  been  said,  an  eye  for  an  eye,  and  a  tooth  for  a 
tooth  :  but  /  say  unto  you.  That  ye  resist  not  evil  :  but  whosoever  shall 
smite  thee  on  thy  right  cheek,  turn  to  him  the  other  also.  Ye  have 
heard  that  it  hath  been  said  [by  the  same  "Lord  God"  on  Sinai]  : 
Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbor,  and  hate  thine  enemy.  But  I  say  unto 
you  ;  Love  your  enemies,  bless  them  that  curse  you,  do  good  to  them 
that  hate  you,  and  pray  for  them  which  despitefully  use  you,  and  per- 
secute you"  {Matthew,  w.). 

And  now,  open  Mann  and  read  : 

"  Resignation,  the  action  of  rendering  good  for  evil,  temperance,  pro- 
bity, purity,  repression  of  the  senses,  the  knowledge  of  the  Sastras  (the 
holy  books),  that  of  the  supreme  soul,  truthfulness  and  abstinence  from 
anger,  such  are  the  ten  virtues  in  which  consists  duty.  .   .   .  Those  who 


study  these  ten  precepts  of  duty,  and  after  having  studied  them  conform 
their  Hves  thereto,  will  reach  to  the  supreme  condition  "  {Manu,  book 
vi.,  sloka  92). 

If  Manu  did  not  trace  these  words  many  thousands  of  years  before 
the  era  of  Christianity,  at  least  no  voice  in  the  whole  world  will  dare  deny 
them  a  less  antiquity  than  several  centuries  B.C.  The  same  in  the  case 
of  the  precepts  of  Buddhism. 

If  we  turn  to  the  Prdtimoksha  Sutra  and  other  religious  tracts  of  the 
Buddhists,  we  read  the  ten  following  commandments  : 

1.  Thou  shalt  not  kill  any  living  creature. 

2.  Thou  shalt  not  steal. 

3.  Thou  shalt  not  break  thy  vow  of  chastity. 

4.  Thou  shalt  not  lie. 

5.  Thou  shalt  not  betray  the  secrets  of  others. 

6.  Thou  shalt  not  wish  for  the  death  of  thy  enemies. 

7.  Thou  shalt  not  desire  the  wealth  of  others. 

8.  Thou  shalt  not  pronounce  injurious  and  foul  words. 

9.  Thou  shalt  not  indulge  in  luxury  (sleep  on  soft  beds  or  be  lazy). 
ID.  Thou  shalt  not  accept  gold  or  silver.  * 

"  Good  master,  what  shall  I  do  that  I  may  have  eternal  life  ?  "  asks  a 
man  of  Jesus.  "  Keep  the  commandments."  "Which?"  "Thou  shalt 
do  no  murder,  Thou  shalt  not  commit  adultery.  Thou  shalt  not  steal, 
Thou  shalt  not  bear  false  witness,"  f  is  the  answer. 

"  What  shall  I  do  to  obtain  possession  of  Bhodi  ?  (knowledge  of 
eternal  truth)  "  asks  a  disciple  of  his  Buddhist  master.  "  What  way  is 
there  to  become  an  Upasaka  ?"  "  Keep  the  commandments."  "  What 
are  they  ?  "  "  Thou  shalt  abstain  all  thy  life  from  murder,  theft,  adultery, 
and  lying,"  answers  the  master.  J 

Identical  injunctions  are  they  not  ?  Divine  injunctions,  the  living 
up  to  which  would  purify  and  exalt  humanity.  But  are  they  more  divine 
when  uttered  through  one  mouth  than  another?  If  it  is  god-like  to  return 
good  for  evil,  does  the  enunciation  of  the  precept  by  a  Nazarene  give  it 
any  greater  force  than  its  enunciation  by  an  Indian,  or  Thibetan  philos- 
opher ?  We  see  that  the  Golden  Rule  was  not  original  with  Jesus  ;  that 
its  birth-place  was  India.  Do  what  we  may,  we  cannot  deny  Sakya- 
Muni  Buddha  a  less  remote  antiquity  than  several  centuries  before  the 
birth  of  Jesus.  In  seeking  a  model  for  his  system  of  ethics  why  should 
Jesus  have  gone  to  the  foot  of  the  Himalayas  rather  than  to  the  foot  of 

*  "  Pratimoksha  Sdtra,"  Pali-Burmese  copy;  see  also  "Lotus  de  la  Bonne  Loi," 
translated  by  Burnouf,  p.  444. 

f  Matthew  xix.  16-18.  %  "  Pittakatayan,"  book  iii.,  Pali  Version. 


Sinai,  but  that  the  doctrines  of  Manu  and  Gautama  harmonized  exactly 
with  his  own  philosophy,  while  those  of  Jehovah  were  to  him  abhorrent  and 
terrifying  ?  The  Hindus  taught  to  return  good  for  evil,  but'  the  Jehovis- 
tic  command  was  :   "An  eye  for  an  eye  "  and  "  a  tooth  for  a  tooth." 

Would  Christians  still  maintain  the  identity  of  the  "  Father"  of  Jesus 
and  Jehovah,  if  evidence  sufficiently  clear  could  be  adduced  that  the 
"  Lord  God  "  was  no  other  than  the  Pagan  Bacchus,  Dionysos  ?  Well, 
this  identity  of  the  Jehovah  at  Mount  Sinai  with  the  god  Bacchus  is  hardly 
disputable.  The  name  nini  is  Yava  or  lao,  according  to  Theodoret, 
which  is  the  secret  name  of  the  Phoenician  Mystery-god  ;  *  and  it  was  ac- 
tually adopted  from  the  Chaldeans  with  whom  it  also  was  the  secret  name 
of  the  creator.  Wherever  Bacchus  was  worshipped  there  was  a  tradition 
of  Nysa  and  a  cave  where  he  was  reared.  Beth-San  or  Scythopolis  in 
Palestine  had  that  designation  ;  so  had  a  spot  on  Mount  Parnassus. 
But  Diodorus  declares  that  Nysa  was  between  Phoenicia  and  Egypt ; 
Euripides  states  that  Dionysos  came  to  Greece  from  India ;  and  Diodo- 
rus adds  his  testimony  :  "  Osiris  was  brought  up  in  Nysa,  in  Arabia  the 
Happy  ;  he  was  the  son  of  Zeus,  and  was  named  from  his  father  (nomi- 
native Zeus,  genitive  Dios)  and  the  place  Dio-Nysos  " — the  Zeus  or  Jove 
of  Nysa.  This  identity  of  name  or  title  is  very  significant.  In  Greece 
Dionysos  was  second  only  to  Zeus,  and  Pindar  says  : 

"  So  Father  Zeus  governs  all  things,  and  Bacchus  he  governs  also." 

But  outside  of  Greece  Bacchus  was  the  all-powerful  "  Zagreus,  the 
highest  of  gods."  Moses  seems  to  have  worshipped  him  personally  and 
together  with  the  populace  at  Mount  Sinai ;  unless  we  admit  that  he 
was  an  initiated  priest,  an  adept,  who  knew  how  to  lift  the  veil  which 
hangs  behind  all  such  exoteric  worship,  but  kept  the  secret.  '^  And  Moses 
built  an  altar,  and  called  the  name  of  it  felwTali-N issi  !  "  or  lao-Nisi. 
What  better  evidence  is  required  to  show  that  the  Sinaitic  god  was  in- 
differently Bacchus,  Osiris,  and  Jehovah  ?  Mr.  Sharpe  appends  also  his 
testimony  that  the  place  where  Osiris  was  born  "  was  Mount  Sinai, 
called  by  the  Egyptians  Mount  Nissa,"  The  Brazen  Serpent  was  a  nis, 
en:,  and  the  month  of  the  Jewish  Passover  nisan. 

If  the  Mosaic  "  Lord  God  "  was  the  only  living  God,  and  Jesus  His 
only  Son,  how  account  for  the  rebellious  language  of  the  latter  ?  With- 
out hesitation  or  qualification  he  sweeps  away  the  Jewish  lex  talionis 
and  substitutes  for  it  the  law  of  charity  and  self-denial.     If  the  Old  Tes- 

*  See  Judges  xiii.  18,  ''  And  the  angel  of  the  Lord  said  unto  him  :  Why  askest 
thou  after  my  name,  seeing  it  is  secret?  " 


tatnent  is  a  divine  revelation,  how  can  the  New  Testament  be  ?  Are  we 
required  to  believe  and  worship  a  Deity  who  contradicts  himself  every 
few  hundred  years  ?  Was  Moses  inspired,  or  was  Jesus  not  the  son  of 
God  ?  This  is  a  dilemma  from  which  the  theologians  are  bound  to  res- 
cue us.  It  is  from  this  very  dilemma  that  the  Gnostics  endeavored  to 
snatch  the  budding  Christianity. 

Justice  has  been  waiting  nineteen  centuries  for  intelligent  commen- 
tators to  appreciate  this  difference  between  the  orthodox  Tertulhan  and 
the  Gnostic  Marcion.  The  brutal  violence,  unfairness,  and  bigotry  of  the 
"  great  African"  repulse  all  who  accept  his  Christianity.  "  How  can  a 
god,"  inquired  Marcion,  "break  his  own  commandments?  How  could 
he  consistently  prohibit  idolatry  and  image-worship,  and  still  cause  Moses 
to  set  up  the  brazen  serpent  ?  How  command  :  Thou  shalt  not  steal, 
and  then  order  the  Israehtes  to  spoil  the  Egyptians  of  their  gold  and 
silver  ?  "  Anticipating  the  results  of  modern  criticism,  Marcion  denies 
the  applicability  to  Jesus  of  the  so-called  Messianic  prophecies.  Writes 
the  author  of  Supernatural  Religion  :  *  "  The  Emmanuel  of  Isaiah  is  not 
Christ  ;  the  '  Virgin,'  his  mother,  is  simply  a  '  young  woman,'  an  alma 
of  the  temple ;  and  the  sufferings  of  the  servant  of  God  {Isaiah  lii. 
13-liii.  3)  are  not  predictions  of  the  death  of  Jesus."  f 

*  Vol.  ii.,  p.  106. 

f  Emmanuel  was  doubtless  the  son  of  the  prophet  himself,  as  described  in  the  sixth 
chapter  ;  what  was  predicted,  can  only  be  interpreted  on  that  hypothesis.  The  prophet 
had  also  announced  to  Ahaz  the  extinction  of  his  line.  "  If  ye  will  not  believe,  surely 
ye  shall  not  be  established."  Next  comes  the  prediction  of  the  placing  of  a  new  prince 
on  the  throne — Hezekiah  of  Bethlehem,  said  to  have  been  Isaiah's  son-in-law,  under 
whom  the  captives  should  return  from  the  uttermost  parts  of  the  earth.  Assyria  should 
be  humbled,  and  peace  overspread  the  Israelitish  country,  compare  Isaiah  vii.  14-16  ; 
viii.  3,  4 ;  ix.  6,  7  ;  x.  12,  20,  21  ;  xi.  ;  Micah  v.,  2-7.  The  popular  party,  the 
party  of  the  prophets,  always  opposed  to  the  Zadokite  priesthood,  had  resolved  to  set 
aside  Ahaz  and  his  time-serving  policy,  which  had  let  in  Assyria  upon  Palestine,  and  to 
set  up  Hezekiah,  a  man  of  their  own,  who  should  rebel  against  Assyria  and  overthrow 
the  Assur-worship  and  Baalim  (2  Kings  xv.  11).  Though  only  the  prophets  hint 
this,  it  being  cut  out  from  the  historical  books,  it  is  noticeable  that  Ahaz  offered  his 
own  child  to  Moloch,  also  that  he  died  at  the  age  of  thirty-six,  and  Hezekiah  took  the 
throne  at  twenty-five,  in  full  adult  age. 


"Nothing  better  than  those  Mysteries,  by  which,  from  a  rough  and  fierce  life,  we  are  polished  to 
gendeness  (humanity,  kindness),  and  softened." — Cicero  :  de  Legibus,  ii.,  14. 

"  Descend,  O  Soma,  with  that  stream  with  which  thou  Hghtest  up  the  Sun.  .  .  .  Soma,  a  Life 
Ocean  spread  through  All,  thou  fiUest  creadve  the  Sun  with  beams." — Ris-Veda,  ii.,  143. 

**  .  .  .  the  beautiful  Virgin  ascends,  with  long  hair,  and  she  holds  two  ears  in  her  hand,  and 
sits  on  a  seat  and  feeds  a  Boy  as  yet  lilde,  and  suckles  him  and  gives  him  food." — Avenar. 

IT  is  alleged  that  the  Pentateuch  was  written  by  Moses,  and  yet  it 
contains  the  account  of  his  own  death  (Deuteronomy  xxxiv.  6)  ; 
and  in  Genesis  (xiv.  14),  the  name  Dan  is  given  to  a  city,  \i\i\&i  Judges 
(xviii.  29),  tells  us  was  only  called  by  that  name  at  that  late  day,  it  hav- 
ing previously  been  known  as  Laish.  Well  might  Josiah  have  rent  his 
clothes  when  he  had  heard  the  words  of  the  Book  of  the  Law ;  for  there 
was  no  more  of  Moses  in  it  than  there  is  of  Jesus  in  the  Gospel  according 
to  John. 

We  have  one  fair  alternative  to  offer  our  theologians,  leaving  them  to 
choose  for  themselves,  and  promising  to  abide  by  their  decision.  Only 
they  will  have  to  admit,  either  that  Moses  was  an  impostor,  or  that  his 
books  are  forgeries,  written  at  different  times  and  by  different  persons  ; 
or,  again,  that  they  are  full  of  fraudulent  interpolations.  In  either  case 
the  work  loses  all  claims  to  be  considered  divine  Revelation.  Here  is 
the  problem,  which  we  quote  from  the  Bible — the  word  of  the  God  of 
Truth  : 

"And  I  appeared  unto  Abraham,  unto  Isaac,  and  unto  Jacob,  by  the 
name  of  God  Almighty,  but  by  my  name  of  Jehovah  was  I  not  known  to 
them"  {Exodus  vi.  3),  spake  God  unto  Moses. 

A  very  startling  bit  of  information  that,  when,  before  arriving  at  the 
book  of  Exodus,  we  are  told  in  Genesis  (xxii.  14)  that  "Abraham 
called  the  name  of  that  place" — where  tlie  patriarch  had  been  preparing 
to  cut  the  throat  of  his  only-begotten  son — "  jEHOVAH-jireh !  "  (Jeho- 
vah sees.)  Which  is  the  inspired  text  ? — both  cannot  be — which  the 
forgery  ? 


Now,  if  both  Abraham  and  Moses  had  not  belonged  to  the  same  holy- 
group,  we  might,  perhaps,  help  theologians  by  suggesting  to  them  a  con- 
venient means  of  escape  out  of  this  dilemma.  They  ought  to  call  the 
reverend  Jesuit  Fathers— especially  those  who  have  been  missionaries  in 
India— to  their  rescue.  The  latter  would  not  be  for  a  moment  discon- 
certed.  They  would  coolly  tell  us  that  beyond  doubt  Abraham  had  heard 
the  name  of  Jehovah  and  borrowed  it  from  Moses.  Do  they  not  main- 
tain that  it  was  they  who  invented  the  Sanscrit,  edited  Manu,  and  com- 
posed the  greater  portion  of  the  Vedas  ? 

Marcion  maintained,  with  the  other  Gnostics,  the  fallaciousness  of  the 
idea  of  an  incarnate  God,  and  therefore  denied  the  corporeal  reality  of 
the  living  body  of  Christ.  His  entity  was  a  mere  illusion. ;  it  was  not 
made  of  human  flesh  and  blood,  neither  was  it  born  of  a  human  mother, 
for  his  divine  nature  could  not  be  polluted  with  any  contact  with  sinful 
flesh.  *  He  accepted  Paul  as  the  only  apostle  preaching  the  pure  gos- 
pel of  truth,  and  accused  the  other  disciples  of  "  depraving  the  pure 
form  of  the  gospel  doctrines  delivered  to  them  by  Jesus,  mixing  up  mat- 
ters of  the  Law  with  the  words  of  the  Saviour."  f 

Finally  we  may  add  that  modern  biblical  criticism,  which  unfortu- 
nately became  really  active  and  serious  only  toward  the  end  of  the  last 
century,  now  generally  admits  that  Marcion's  text  of  the  only  gospel  he 
knew  anything  about — that  of  Luke,  is  far  superior  and  by  far  more  cor- 
rect than  that  of  our  present  Synoptics.  We  find  in  Supernatural 
Religion  the  following  (for  every  Christian)  startling  sentence  :  "  We 
are,  therefore,  indebted  to  Marcion  for  the  correct  version  even  of  '  the 
Lords  Prayer:  "  % 

If,  leaving  for  the  present  the  prominent  founders  of  Christian  sects, 
we  now  turn  to  that  of  the  Ophites,  which  assumed  a  definite  form  about 
the  time  of  Marcion  and  the  Basilideans,  we  may  find  in  it  the  reason 
for  the  heresies  of  all  others.  Like  all  other  Gnostics,  they  rejected  the 
Mosaic  Bible  entirely.  Nevertheless,  their  philosophy,  apart  from  some 
deductions  original  with  several  of  the  most  important  founders  of  the 
various  branches  of  Gnosticism  was  not  new.  Passing  through  the  Chal- 
dean kabalistic  tradition,  it  gathered  its  materials  in  the  Hermetic  books, 
and  pursuing  its  flight  still  farther  back  for  its  metaphysical  speculations, 
we  find  it  floundering  among  the  tenets  of  Manu,  and  the  earUest  Hindu 
ante-sacerdotal  genesis.  Many  of  our  eminent  antiquarians  trace  the 
Gnostic  philosophies  right  back  to  Buddhism,  which  does  not  impair  in 

*  Tertullian  :   "  Adv.  Marci,"  iii.  8  ff. 

\  "  Sup.  Rel. ,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  107  ;   "Adv.  Marci,"  iii.  2,  §  2;  cf.  iii.  12,  §  12. 

I  "  Sup.  Relig.,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  126. 


the  least  either  their  or  our  arguments.  We  repeat  again,  Buddhism  is 
but  the  primitive  source  of  Brahmanism.  It  is  not  against  the  primitive 
Vedas  that  Gautama  protests.  It  is  against  the  sacerdotal  and  official 
state  religion  of  his  country  ;  and  the  Brahman  s,  who  in  order  to  make 
room  for  and  give  authority  to  the  castes,  at  a  later  period  crammed  the 
ancient  manuscripts  with  interpolated  slokas,  intended  to  prove  that  the 
castes  were  predetermined  by  the  Creator  by  the  very  fact  that  each  class 
of  men  was  issued  from  a  more  or  less  noble  limb  of  Brahma.  Gautama- 
Buddha's  philosophy  was  that  taught  from  the  beginning  of  time  in  the 
impenetrable  secresy  of  the  inner  sanctuaries  of  the  pagodas.  We  need 
not  be  surprised,  therefore,  to  find  again,  in  all  the  fundamental  dogmas 
of  the  Gnostics,  the  metaphysical  tenets  of  both  Brahmanism  and 
Buddhism.  They  held  that  the  Old  Testament  was  the  revelation  of  an 
inferior  being,  a  subordinate  divinity,  and  did  not  contain  a  single  sen- 
tence of  their  Sophia,  the  Divine  Wisdom.  As  to  the  New  Testament,  it 
had  lost  its  purity  when  the  compilers  became  guilty  of  interpolations. 
The  revelation  of  divine  truth  was  sacrificed  by  them  to  promote  selfish 
ends  and  maintain  quarrels.  The  accusation  does  not  seem  so  very 
improbable  to  one  who  is  well  aware  of  the  constant  strife  between  the 
champions  of  circumcision  and  the  "  Law,"  and  the  apostles  who  had 
given  up  Judaism. 

The  Gnostic  Ophites  taught  the  doctrine  of  Emanations,  so  hateful  to 
the  defenders  of  the  unity  in  the  trinity,  and  vice  versa.  The  Unknown 
Deity  with  them  had  no  name  ;  but  his  first  female  emanation  was  called 
Bythos  or  Depth.  *  It  answered  to  the  Shekinah  of  the  kabalists,  the 
"Veil"  which  conceals  the  "Wisdom"  in  the  cranium  of  the  highest 
of  the  three  heads.  As  the  Pythagorean  Monad,  this  tiameless  Wisdom 
was  the  Source  of  Light,  and  Ennoia  or  Mind,  is  Light  itself.  The 
latter  was  also  called  the  "  Primitive  Man,"  like  the  Adam  Kadmon,  or 
ancient  Adam  of  the  Kabala.  Indeed,  if  man  was  created  after  his 
likeness  and  in  the  image  of  God,  then  this  God  was  like  his  creature  in 
shape  and  figure — hence,  he  is  the  "Primitive  man."  The  first  Mann, 
the  one  evolved  from  Swayambhuva,  "he  who  exists  unrevealed  in  his 
own  glory,"  is  also,  in  one  sense,  the  primitive  man,  with  the  Hindus. 

Thus  the  "  nameless  and  the  unrevealed,"  Bythos,  his  female  reflec- 
tion, and  Ennoia,  the  revealed  Mind  proceeding  fi'om  both,  or  their  Son 
are  the  counterparts  of  the  Chaldean  firs-t  triad  as  well  as  those  of  the 
Brahmanic  Trimurti.     ^Ve  will  compare  :  in  all  the  three  systems  we  see 

*  We  give  the  systems  according  to  an  old  diagram  preserved  among  some  Kopts 
and  the  Druses  of  Mount  Lebanon.  Irenseus  had  perhaps  some  good  reasons  to  dis- 
figure their  doctrines. 

I  JO 


The   Great  First  Cause  as  the  One,   the   primordial  germ,  the 
unrevealed  and  grand  All,  existing  through  himself.     In  the 

Indian  Pantheon. 

The  Chaldean.  In  the  Ophite. 

Ilu,  Kabalistic  En -Soph.  The  Nameless,  or  Secret 

Whenever  the  Eternal  awakes  from  its  slumber  and  desires  to  mani- 
fest  itself,  it   divides   itself  into  male  and  female.      It   then  becomes  in 
every  system 

The  Double-Sexed  Deity,  The  universal  Father  and  Mother. 

In  India.                              In  Chaldea.  In  the  Ophite  System. 

Brahma,                            Eikon  or  En-Soph.  Nameless  Spirit. 

Nara    (male),  Nari  (fe-          Ann    (male),  Anata    (fe-  Abrasax    (male),  Bythos 

male).                                          male).  (female). 

From  the  union  of  the  two  emanates  a  third,  or  creative  Principle — 
the  Son,  or  the  manifested  Logos,  the  product  of  the  Divine  Mind. 

In  India. 
Viradj,  the  Son. 

In  Chaldea. 
Bel,  the  Son. 

Ophite  System. 
Ophis  (another  name  for 
Ennoia),  the  Son. 

Moreover,  each  of  these  systems  has  a  triple  male  trinity,  each  pro- 
ceeding separately  through  itself  from  one  female  Deity.  So,  for 
instance : 

In  India. 
The  Trinity — Brahma, 
Vishnu,  Siva,  are  blended 
into  One,  who  is  Brahma 
(neuter  gender),  creating 
and  being  created  through 
the  Virgin  Nari  (the 
mother  of  perpetual  fecun- 

In  Chaldea. 
The  trinity — Ann,  Bel, 
Hoa  (or  Sin,  Samas,  Bin), 
blend  into  One  who  is 
Anu  (double-sexed) 
through  the  Virgin  Mylitta. 

In  the  Ophite  System. 
The  trmity  consisted  of 
the  Mystery  named  Sige, 
Bythos,  Ennoia.  These  be- 
come One  who  is  Abrasax^ 
from  the  Virgin  Sophia 
(or  P^ieiitnd)^  who  herselfis 
an  emanation  of  Bythos  and 
the  Mystery -god  and  eman- 
ates through  them,Christos. 

To  place  it  still  clearer,  the  Babylonian  System  recognizes  first — the 
One  (Ad,  or  Ad-ad),  who  is  never  named,  but  only  acknowledged  in 
thought  as  the  Hindu  Swayambhuva.  From  this  he  becomes  manifest  as 
Anu  or  Ana — the  one  above  all — Monas.  Next  comes  the  Demiurge 
called  Bel  or  Elu,  who  is  the  active  power  of  the  Godhead.  The  third  is 
the  principle  of  Wisdom,  Hea  or  Hoa,  who  also  rules  the  sea  and  the 
underworld.    Each  of  these  has  his  divine  consort,  giving  us  Anata,  Belta, 

VARIOUS  "only-begotten"  sons.  171 

and  Davkina.  These,  however,  are  only  hke  the  Saktls,  and  not  especially 
remarked  by  theologists.  But  the  female  principle  is  denoted  by  Mylitta, 
the  Great  Mother,  called  also  Ishtar.  So  with  the  three  male  gods,  we 
have  the  Triad  or  Trimurti,  and  with  Mylitta  added,  the  Arba  or  Four 
(Tetraktys  of  Pythagoras),  which  perfects  and  potentializes  all.  Hence, 
the  above-given  modes  of  expression.  The  following  Chaldean  diagram 
may  serve  as  an  illustration  for  all  others  : 

T3   (  Anu,  )  Mylitta — Arba-il, 
H   (  Hoa,  )  Four-fold  God, 

become,  with  the  Christians, 

t^  (  God  the  Father,  \  Mary;  or  mother  of  these  three  Gods 

.5  \  God  the  Son,  V  since  tliey  are  one, 

fi;   (  God  the  Holy  Ghost,  )  or,  the  Christian  Heavenly  Tetraktys. 

Hence,  Hebron,  the  city  of  the  Kabeiri  was  called  Kirjath-Arba,  city 
of  the  Four.  The  Kabeiri  were  Axieros — the  noble  Eros,  Axiokersos, 
the  worthy  horned  one,  Axiokersa,  Demeter  and  Kadniiel,  Hoa,  etc. 

The  Pythagorean  ten  denoted  the  Arba-Il  or  Divine  Four,  emblema- 
tized by  the  Hindu  Lingham  :  Anu,  i  ;  Bel,  2  ;  Hoa,  3,  which  makes  6. 
The  triad  and  Mylitta  as  4  make  the  ten. 

Though  he  is  termed  the  "  Primitive  Man,"  Ennoia,  who  is  like  the 
Egyptian  Pimander,  the  "  Power  of  the  Thought  Divine,"  the  first  intel- 
ligible manifestation  of  the  Divine  Spirit  in  material  form,  he  is  like  the 
"  Only- Begotten  "  Son  of  the  "  Unknown  P'ather,"  of  all  other  nations. 
He  is  the  emblem  of  the  first  appearance  of  the  divine  Presence  in  his 
own  works  of  creation,  tangible  and  visible,  and  therefore  comprehensi- 
ble. The  mystery-God,  or  the  ever-unrevealed  Deity  fecundates  through 
His  will  Bythos,  the  unfathomable  and  infinite  depth  that  exists  in 
silence  (Sig6)  and  darkness  (for  our  intellect),  and  that  represents  the 
abstract  idea  of  all  nature,  the  ever-producing  Cosmos.  As  neither  the 
male  nor  female  principle,  blended  into  the  idea  of  a  double-sexed  Deity 
in  ancient  conceptions,  could  be  comprehended  by  an  ordinary  human 
intellect,  the  theology  of  every  people  had  to  create  for  its  religion  a 
Logos,  or  manifested  word,  in  some  shape  or  other.  With  the  Ophites 
and  other  Gnostics  who  took  their  models  direct  from  more  ancient 
originals,  the  unrevealed  Bythos  and  her  male  counterpart  produce 
Ennoia,  and  the  three  in  their  turn  produce  Sophia,*  thus  completing  the 
Tetraktys,  which  will  emanate  Christos,  the  very  essence  of  the  Father 

*  Sophia  is  the  highest  prototype  of  woman — the  first  spiritual  Eve.  In  the  Bible 
the  system  is  reversed  and  the  intervening  emanation  being  omitted.  Eve  is  degraded  to 
simple  humanity. 


Spirit.  As  the  unrevealed  One,  or  concealed  Logos  in  its  latent  state, 
he  has  existed  from  all  eternity  in  the  Arba-Il,  the  metaphysical  abstrac- 
tion ;  therefore,  he  is  one  with  all  others  as  a  unity,  the  latter  (including 
all)  being  indifferently  termed  Ennoia,  Sig6  (silence),  Bythos,  etc.  As 
the  revealed  one,  he  is  Androgyne,  Christos,  and  Sophia  (Divine  Wis- 
dom), who  descend  into  the  man  Jesus.  Both  Father  and  Son  are  shown 
by  Irenasus  to  have  loved  the  beauty  [formam)  of  the  primitive  woman,* 
who  is  Bythos — Depth — as  well  as  Sophia,  and  as  having  produced  con- 
jointly Ophis  and  Sophia  (double-sexed  unity  again),  male  and  female 
wisdom,  one  being  considered  as  the  unrevealed  Holy  Spirit,  or  elder 
Sophia — the  Pneuma — the  intellectual  "Mother  of  all  things;"  the  other 
the  revealed  one,  or  Ophis,  typifying  divine  wisdom  fallen  into  matter, 
or  God-man — Jesus,  whom  the  Gnostic  Ophites  represented  by  the 
serpent  (Ophis). 

Fecundated  by  the  Divine  Light  of  the  Father  and  Son,  the  highest 
spirit  and  Ennoia,  Sophia  produces  in  her  turn  two  other  emanations — 
one  perfect  Christos,  the  second  imperfect  Sophia-Achamoth,  \  from 
nitisn  hakhamoth  (simple  wisdom),  who  becomes  the  mediatrix  between 
the  intellectual  and  material  worlds. 

Christos  was  the  mediator  and  guide  between  God  (the  Higher),  and 
everything  spiritual  in  man  ;  Achamoth — the  younger  Sophia — held  the 
same  duty  between  the  "Primitive  man,"  Ennoia  and  matter.  What 
was  mysteriously  meant  by  the  general  term,  Christos,  we  have  just 

Delivering  a  sermon  on  the  "  Month  of  Mary,"  we  find  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Preston,  of  New  York  City,  expressing  the  Christian  idea  of  the  female 
jirinciple  of  the  trinity  better  and  more  clearly  than  we  could,  and  sub- 
stantially in  the  spirit  of  an  ancient  "heathen"  philosopher.  He  says 
that  the  "  plan  of  the  redemption  made  it  necessary  that  a  mother  should 
be  found,  and  Mary  stands  pre-eminently  alone  as  the  only  instance  when 
a  creature  was  necessary  to  the  consummation  of  God's  work."  We  will 
beg  the  right  to  contradict  the  reverend  gentleman.  As  shown  above,  thou- 
sands of  years  before  our  era  it  was  found  necessary  by  all  the  "heathen" 
theogonies  to  find  a  female  principle,  a  "  mother  "  for  the  triune  male 
principle.  Hence,  Christianity  does  not  present  the  "only  instance"  of 
such  a  consummation  of  God's  work — albeit,  as  this  work  shows,  there 
was  more  philosophy  and  less  materialism,  or  rather  anthropomorphism, 
in  it.     But  hear  the  reverend  Doctor   express    "  heathen "   thought  in 

*  See  "  Irenasus,"  book  i.,  chap.   31-33. 

f  In  King's  "  Gnostics,"  we  find  tlie  system  a  little  incorrect.  The  author  tells  us 
that  he  followed  Bellermann's  "  Drei  Programmen  uber  die  Abraxas  gemmeu." 


Christian  ideas.  "  He"  (God),  he  says,  "prepared  her  (Mary's)  virginal 
and  celestial  purity,  for  a  mother  defiled  could  not  become  the  mother  of 
the  Most  High.  The  holy  virgin,  even  in  her  childhood,  was  more  pleas- 
ing than  all  the  Cherubim  and  Seraphim,  and  from  infancy  to  the  maturing 
maidenhood  and  womanhood  she  grew  more  and  more  pure.  By  her  very 
sanctity  she  reigned  over  the  heart  of  God.  When  the  hour  came,  the 
luhole  court  ef  heaven  was  hushed,  and  the  trinity  listened  for  the  answer 
of  Mary,  for  without  her  consent  the  world  could  not  have  been  redeemed!' 

Does  it  not  seem  as  if  we  were  reading  Irenreus  explaining  the  Gnostic 
"■^Heresy,  which  taught  that  the  Father  and  Son  loved  the  beauty  {for- 
mam)  of  the  celestial  Virgin  ?"  or  the  Egyptian  system,  of  Isis  being  both 
wife,  sister,  and  mother  of  Osiris — Horus  ?  With  the  Gnostic  philosophy 
there  were  but  two,  but  the  Christians  have  improved  and  perfected  the 
system  by  making  it  completely  "heathen,"  for  it  is  the  Chaldean  Anu — 
Bel — Hoa,  merging  into  Mylitta.  "Then  while  this  month  (of  Mary)," 
adds  Dr.  Preston,  "begins  in  the  paschal  season — the  month  when  nature 
decks  herself  with  fruits  and  flowers,  the  harbingers  of  a  bright  harvest — 
let  us,  too,  begin  for  a  golden  harvest.  In  this  month  the  dead  comes 
up  out  of  the  earth,  figuring  tlie  resurrection  ;  so,  when  we  are  kneeling 
before  the  altar  of  the  holy  and  immaculate  Mary,  let  us  remember  that 
there  should  come  forth  from  us  the  bud  of  promise,  the  flower  of  hope, 
and  the  imperishable  fruit  of  sanctity." 

This  is  precisely  the  substratum  of  the  Pagan  thought,  which,  among 
other  meanings,  emblematized  by  the  rites  of  the  resurrection  of  Osiris, 
Adonis,  Bacchus,  and  other  slaughtered  sun-gods,  the  resurrection  of  all 
nature  in  spring,  the  germination  of  seeds  that  had  been  dead  and  sleep- 
ing during  winter,  and  so  were  allegorically  said  to  be  kept  in  the  under- 
world (Hades).  They  are  typified  by  the  three  days  passed  in  hell  before 
his  resurrection  by  Hercules,  by  Christ,  and  others. 

This  derivation,  or  rather  heresy,  as  it  is  called  in  Christianity,  is 
simply  the  Brahmanic  doctrine  in  all  its  archaic  purity.  Vishnu,  the 
second  personage  of  the  Hmdu  trinity,  is  also  the  Logos,  for  he  is  made 
subsequently  to  incarnate  himself  in  Christna.  And  Lakmy  (or  Lakshmy) 
who,  as  in  the  case  of  Osiris,  and  Isis,  of  En-Soph  and  Sephira,  and  of 
Bythos  and  Ennoia,  is  both  his  wife,  sister,  and  daughter,  through  this 
endless  correlation  of  male  and  female  creative  powers  in  the  abstruse 
metaphysics  of  the  ancient  philosophies — is  Sophia-Achamoth.  Christna 
is  the  mediator  promised  by  Brahma  to  mankind,  and  represents  the  same 
idea  as  the  Gnostic  Christos.  And  Lakmy,  Vishnu's  spiritual  half,  is  the 
emblem  of  physical  nature,  the  universal  mother  of  all  the  material  and 
revealed  forms  ;  the  mediatrix  and  protector  of  nature,  like  Sophia-Acha- 
moth, who  is  made  by  the  Gnostics   the  mediatrix  between   the  Great 


Cause  and  Matter,  as  Christos  is  the  mediator  between  him  and  spiritual 

This  Brahmano-Gnostic  tenet  is  more  logical,  and  more  consistent 
with  the  allegory  of  Genesis  and  the  fall  of  man.  When  God  curses  the 
first  couple.  He  is  made  to  curse  also  the  earth  and  everything  that  is  on 
it.  The  New  Testament  gives  us  a  Redeemer  for  the  first  sin  of  mankind, 
which  was  punished  for  having  sinned  ;  but  there  is  not  a  word  said  about 
a  Saviour  who  would  take  off  the  unmerited  curse  from  the  earth  and 
the  animals,  which  had  never  sinned  at  all.  Thus  the  Gnostic  allegory 
shows  a  greater  sense  of  both  justice  and  logic  than  the  Christian. 

In  the  Ophite  system,  Sophia,  the  Androgyne  Wisdom,  is  also  the 
female  spirit,  or  the  Hindu  female  Nari  (Narayana),  moving  on  the  face 
of  the  waters — chaos,  or  future  matter.  She  vivifies  it  from  afar,  but  not 
touching  the  abyss  of  darkness.  She  is  unable  to  do  so,  for  Wisdom  is 
l)urely  intellectual,  and  cannot  act  directly  on  matter.  Therefore,  Sophia 
is  obliged  to  address  herself  to  her  Supreme  Parent ;  but  although  life 
proceeds  primally  from  the  Unseen  Cause,  and  his  Ennoia,  neither  of  them 
can,  any  more  than  herself,  have  anything  to  do  with  the  lower  chaos  in 
which  matter  assumes  its  definite  shape.  Thus,  Sophia  is  obliged  to 
employ  on  the  task  her  imperfect  emanation,  Sophia-Achanioth,  the  latter 
being  of  a  mixed  nature,  half  spiritual  and  half  material. 

The  only  difference  between  the  Ophite  cosmogony  and  that  of  the  St. 
John  Nazarenes  is  a  change  of  names.  We  find  equally  an  identical  system 
in  the  Kabala,  the  Book  of  Mystery  {Liber  Mysterii).  *  All  the  three  sys- 
tems, especially  that  of  the  kabalists  and  the  Nazarenes,  which  were  the 
models^ox  the  Ophite  Cosmogony,  belong  to  the  pure  Oriental  Gnosticism. 
The  Codex  Nazaraiis  opens  with  :  "The  Supreme  King  of  Light,  Mano, 
the  great  first  one,"  f  etc.,  the  latter  being  the  emanation  of  Ferho — the 
unknown,  formless  Life.  He  is  the  chief  of  the  ^ons,  from  whom  pro- 
ceed (or  shoot  forth)  five  refulgent  rays  of  Divine  light.  Mano  is  Rex 
Lucis,  the  Bythos-Ennoia  of  the  Ophites.  "  Unus  est  Rex  Lucis  in  sua 
regno,  nee  uUus  qui  eo  altior,  niillus  qui  ejus  similitudinem  retulerit,  nullus 
qui  sublatis  oculis,  viderit  Coronam  qum  in  ejus  capite  est."  He  is  the  Man- 
ifested Light  around  the  highest  of  the  three  kabalistic  heads,  the  concealed 
wisdom  ;  from  him  emanate  the  three  Lives.  /Ebel  Zivo  is  the  revealed 
Logos,  Christos  the  "Apostle  Gabriel,"  and  the  first  Legate  or  messenger 
of  light.  If  Bythos  and  Ennoia  are  the  Nazarene  Mano,  then  the  dual- 
natured,  the  semi-spiritual,  semi-material  Achamoth  must  be  Fetahil  when 
viewed  from  her  spiritual  aspect;  and  if  regarded  in  her  grosser  nature, 
she  is  the  Nazarene  "  Spiritus." 

*  See  "  Idra  Magna."  \  "  Codex  Nazartens,"  part  i.,  p.  9. 


Fetahil,*  who  is  the  reflection  of  his  father,  Lord  Abatiir,  the  third 
life — as  the  elder  Sophia  is  also  the  third  emanation — is  the  ."  newest- 
man."  Perceiving  his  fruitless  attempts  to  create  a  perfect  material 
world,  the  "  Spiritus  "  calls  to  one  of  her  progeny,  the  Karabtanos — Ilda- 
Baoth — who  is  without  sense  or  judgment  ("  blind  matter  "),  to  unite  him- 
self with  her  to  create  something  definite  out  of  this  confused  {turbii- 
lentos)  matter,  which  task  she  is  enabled  to  achieve  only  after  having 
produced  from  this  union  with  Karabtanos  the  seven  stellars.  Like  the 
six  sons  or  genii  of  the  Gnostic  Ilda-Baoth,  they  then  frame  the  material 
world.  The  same  story  is  repeated  over  again  in  Sophia-Achamoth. 
Delegated  by  her  purely  spiritual  parent,  the  elder  Sophia,  to  create  the 
world  of  visible  forms,  she  descended  into  chaos,  and,  overpowered  by 
the  emanation  of  matter,  lost  her  wa}'.  Still  ambitious  to  create  a  world 
of  matter  of  her  own,  she  busied  herself  hovering  to  and  fro  about  the 
(lark  abyss,  and  imparted  life  and  motion  to  the  inert  elements,  until  she 
became  so  hopelessly  entangled  in  matter  that,  like  Fetahil,  she  is  repre- 
sented sitting  immersed  in  mud,  and  unable  to  extricate  herself  from  it ; 
until,  by  the  contact  of  matter  itself,  she  produces  the  Creator  of  the 
material  world.  He  is  the  Demiurgus,  called  by  the  Ophites  Ilda-Baoth, 
and,  as  we  will  directly  show,  the  parent  of  the  Jewish  God  in  the  opinion 
of  some  sects,  and  held  by  others  to  be  the  "  Lord  God  "  Himself.  It  is 
at  this  point  of  the  kabahstic-gnostic  cosmogony  that  begins  the  Mosaic 
Bible.  Having  accepted  the  Jewish  Old  Testament  as  their  standard,  no 
wonder  that  the  Christians  were  forced  by  the  exceptional  position  in 
which  they  were  placed  through  their  own  ignorance,  to  make  the  best 
of  it. 

The  first  groups  of  Christians,  whom  Renan  shows  numbering  but 
from  seven  to  twelve  men  in  each  church,  belonged  unquestionably  to 
the  poorest  and  most  ignorant  classes.  They  had  and  could  have  no 
idea  of  the  highly  philosophical  doctrines  of  the  Platonists  and  Gnostics, 
and  evidently  knew  as  little  about  their  own  newly-made-up  religion. 
To  these,  who  if  Jews,  had  been  crushed  under  the  tyrannical  dominion 
of  the  "law,"  as  enforced  by  the  elders  of  the  synagogues,  and  if  Pagans 
had  been  always  excluded,  as  the  lower  castes  are  until  now  in  India, 
from  the  religious  mysteries,  the  God  of  the  Jews  and  the  "Father" 
preached  by  Jesus  were  all  one.  The  contention  which  reigned  from  the 
first  years  following  the  death  of  Jesus,  between  the  two  parties,  the  Pau- 
line and  the  Petrine — were  deplorable.     What  one  did,  the  other  deemed 

*  See  "Codex  Nazarsens,"  i.,  181.  Fetahil,  sent  to  frame  the  world,  finds  himself 
immersed  in  the  abyss  of  mud,  and  soliloquizes  in  dismay  until  the  Spiritus  (Sophia- 
Achamoth)  unites  herself  completely  with  matter,  and  so  creates  the  material  world. 


a  sacred  duty  to  undo.  If  the  Homilies  are  considered  apocryphal,  and 
cannot  very  well  be  accepted  as  an  infallible  standard  by  which  to  meas- 
ure the  animosity  which  raged  between  the  two  apostles,  we  have  the 
Bible,  and  the  proofs  afforded  therein  are  plentiful. 

So  hopelessly  entangled  seems  Irenasus  in  his  fruitless  endeavors  to 
describe,  to  all  outward  appearance  at  least,  the  true  doctrines  of  the 
many  Gnostic  sects  of  which  he  treats  and  to  present  them  at  the  same 
time  as  abominable  "heresies,"  that  he  either  deliberately,  or  through 
ignorance,  confounds  all  of  them  in  such  a  way  that  few  metaphysicians 
would  be  able  to  disentangle  them,  without  the  Kabala  and  the  Codex 
as  the  true  keys.  Thus,  for  instance,  he  cannot  even  tell  the  difference 
between  the  Sethianites  and  the  Ophites,  and  tells  us  that  they  called  the 
"  God  of  all,"  ^'-  Hominem"  a  man,  and  his  mind  the  second  man,  or  the 
"  Son  of  tnan."  So  does  Theodoret,  who  lived  more  than  two  centuries 
after  Irenaeus,  and  who  makes  a  sad  mess  of  the  chronological  order  in 
which  the  various  sects  succeeded  each  other.*  Neither  the  Sethianites, 
(a  branch  of  the  Jewish  Nazarenes)  nor  the  Ophites,  a  purely  Greek  sect, 
have  ever  held  anything  of  the  kind.  Irenaeus  contradicts  his  own. 
words  by  describing  in  another  place  the  doctrines  of  Cerinthus,  the 
direct  disciple  of  Simon  Magus.  He  says  that  Cerinthus  taught  that  the 
world  was  not  created  by  the  first  GOD,  but  by  a  virtue  (virtus)  or 
power,  an  JEon  so  distant  from  the  First  Cause  that  he  was  even  ignorant 
of  HIM  who  is  above  all  things.  This  ^on  subjected  Jesus,  he  begot  him 
physically  through  Joseph  from  one  who  was  not  a  virgin,  but  simply  the 
wife  of  that  Joseph,  and  Jesus  was  born  like  all  other  men.  Viewed 
from  this  physical  aspect  of  his  nature,  Jesus  was  called  the  "  son  of  man." 
It  is  only  after  his  baptism,  that  Christos,  the  anointed,  descended  from 
the  Princeliness  of  above,  in  the  figure  of  a  dove,  and  then  announced  the 
UNKNOWN  Father  through  Jesus,  f 

If,  therefore,  Jesus  was  physically  considered  as  a  son  of  man,  and 
spiritually  as  the  Christos,  who  overshadowed  him,  how  then  could  the 
"  GOD  OF  ALL,"  the  "  Unknown  Father,"  be  called  by  the  Gnostics  Homo, 
a  MAN,  and  his  Mind,  Ennoia,  the  second  man,  or  Son  of  mant 
Neither  in  the  Oriental  Kabala,  nor  in  Gnosticism,  was  the  "  God  of  all" 
ever  anthropomorphized.  It  is  but  the  first,  or  rather  the  second  emana- 
tions, for  Shekinah,  Sephira,  Depth,  and  other  first-manifested  female 
virtues  are  also  emanations,  that  are  termed  "primitive  men."  Thus 
Adam  Kadmon,  Ennoia  (or  Sig6),  the  logoi  in  short,  are  the  "only-be- 
gotten" ones  but  not  the  Sons  of  man,  which  appellation  properly  be- 

*  "  Irenteus,"  37,  and  Theodoret,  quoted  in  the  same  page.      , 
f  Ibid.,  i.  XXV. 


longs  to  Christos  the  son  of  Sophia  (the  elder)  and  of  the  prmiitive  man 
who  produces  him  through  his  own  vivifying  light,  which  emanates  from 
the  source  or  cause  of  all,  hence  the  cause  of  his  light  also,'  the  "  Un- 
known Father."  There  is  a  great  difference  made  in  the  Gnostic  meta- 
physics between  the  first  unrevealfid  Logos  and  the  "anointed,"  who  is 
Christos.  Ennoia  may  be  termed,  as  Philo  understands  it,  the  Second 
God,  but  he  alone  is  the  "Priraitiv-e  and  First  man,"  and  by  no  means 
the  Second  one,  as  Theodoret  and  Irenasus  have  it.  It  is  but  the  inveterate 
desire  of  the  latter  to  connect  Jesus  in  every  possible  way,  even  in  the 
Hxresies,  with  the  Highest  God,  that  led  him  into  so  many  falsifications. 

Such  an  identification  with  the  Unknown  God,  even  of  Christos,  the 
anointed — the  yEon  who  overshadowed  him — let  alone  of  the  man  Jesus, 
never  entered  the  head  of  the  Gnostics  nor  even  of  the  direct  apostles 
and  of  Paul,  whatever  later  forgeries  may  have  added. 

How  daring  and  desperate  were  many  such  deliberate  falsifications 
was  shown  in  the  first  attempts  to  compare  the  original  manuscripts  with 
later  ones.  In  Bishop  Horseley's  edition  of  Sir  Isaac  Newton's  works, 
several  manuscripts  on  theological  subjects  were  cautiously  withhel'd 
from  publication.  The  article  known  as  Chrisfs  Descent  into  Hell,  which 
is  found  in  the  later  Apostles'  Creed,  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  manu- 
scripts of  either  the  fourth  or  sixth  centuries.  It  was  an  evident  interpo- 
lation copied  from  the  fables  of  Bacchus  and  Hercules  and  enforced 
upon  Christendom  as  an  article  of  faith.  Concerning  it  the  author  of  the 
preface  to  the  Catalogue  of  the  Manuscripts  of  the  Kin^ s  Library  {^xq- 
face,  p.  xxi.)  remarks  :  "  I  wish  that  the  insertion  of  the  article  of  Christ s 
Descent  into  Hell  into  the  Apostles'  Creed  could  be  as  well  ac- 
counted for  as  the  insertion  of  the  said  verse  "  {First  Epistle  of  John, 
V.  7).  * 

Now,  this  verse  reads  :  "  For  there  are  three  that  bear  record  in 
Heaven,  the  Father,  the  Word  and  the  Holy  Ghost ;  and  these  three  are 
one."  This  verse,  which  has  been  "appointed  to  be  read  in  churches," 
is  now  known  to  be  spurious.  It  is  not  to  be  found  in  any  Greek  manu- 
script, '■'  save  one  at  Berlin,  which  was  transcribed  from  some  interpolated 
paraphrase  between  the  lines.  In  the  first  and  second  editions  of  Eras- 
mus, printed  in  1516  and  1519,  this  allusion  to  these  three  heavenly  wit- 
nesses is  omitted ;  and  the  text  is  not  contained  in  any  Greek  manu- 
script which  was  written  earher  than  the  fifteenth  century,  f     It  was  not 

"  See  preface  to   the  "Apocryphal  New  Testament,"  London,   printed  for   W. 
Hone,  Ludgate  Hill,  1S20. 

\  "  It  is  first  cited  by  Virgilius  Tapsensis,  a  Latin  writer  of  no  credit,  in  the  latter 
end  of  the  fifth  century,  and  by  him  it  is  suspected  to  have  been  forged." 


mentioned  by  either  of  the  Greek  ecclesiastical  writers  nor  by  the  early 
Latin  fathers,  so  anxious  to  get  at  every  proof  in  support  of  their  trinity ; 
and  it  was  omitted  by  Luther  in  his  German  version.  Edward  Gibbon 
was  early  in  pointing  out  its  spurious  character.  Archbishop  Newcome 
rejected  it,  and  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln  expresses  his  conviction  that  it  is 
spurious.  *  There  are  twenty-eight  Greek  authors — Iren^eus,  Clemens, 
and  Athanasius  included,  who  neither  quote  nor  mention  it ;  and  seven- 
teen Latin  writers,  numbering  among  them  Augustine,  Jerome,  Ambro- 
sius,  Cyprian,  and  Pope  Eusebius,  who  appear  utterly  ignorant  of  it. 
"  It  is  evident  that  if  the  text  of  the  heavenly  witnesses  had  been  known 
from  the  beginning  of  Christianity  the  ancients  would  have  eagerly  seized 
it,  inserted  it  in  their  creeds,  quoted  it  repeatedly  against  the  heretics, 
and  selected  it  for  the  brightest  ornament  of  every  book  that  they  wrote 
upon  the  subject  of  the  Trinity."  f 

Thus  falls  to  the  ground  the  strongest  trinitarian  pillar.  Another  not 
less  obvious  forgery  is  quoted  from  Sir  Isaac  Newton's  words  by  the  edi- 
tor of  the  Apocryphal  New  Testament.  Newton  observes  "  that  what  the 
Latins  have  done  to  this  text  {First  Epistle  of  John,  v.),  the  Greeks  have 
done  to  that  of  St.  Paul  {Timothy  iii.  i6).  For,  by  changing  OS  into  02, 
the  abbreviation  of  ®€os  (God),  in  the  Alexandrian  manuscript,  from  which 
their  subsequent  copies  were  made,  they  now  read,  "  Great  is  the  mystery 
of  godliness,  God  manifested  in  the  flesh  j"  whereas  all  the  churches,  for 
the  first  four  or  five  centuries,  and  the  authors  of  all  the  ancient  versions, 
Jerome,  as  well  as  the  rest,  read  :  "  Great  is  the  mystery  of  godliness 
WHICH  WAS  manifested  in  the  flesh."  Newton  adds,  that  now  that  the  dis- 
putes over  this  forgery  are  over,  they  that  read  God  made  manifest  in 
the  flesh,  instead  of  the  godliness  which  was  manifested  in  the  flesh, 
think  this  passage  "  one  of  the  most  obvious  and  pertinent  texts  for  the 

And  now  we  ask  again  the  question  :  Who  were  the  first  Christians  ? 
Those  who  vk^ere  readily  converted  by  the  eloquent  simplicity  of  Paul,  who 
promised  them,  with  the  name  of  Jesus,  freedom  from  the  narrow  bonds  of 
ecclesiasticism.  They  understood  but  one  thing  ;  they  were  the  "  chil- 
dren of  promise"  {Galatians  iv.  28).  The  "allegory"  of  the  Mosaic 
Bible  was  unveiled  to  them  ;  the  covenant  "  from  the  Mount  Sinai  which 
giindtreth  to  bondage"  vidis  Agar  (Ibid.,  24),  the  old  Jewish  synagogue, 
and  she  was  "  in  bondage  with  her  children  "  to  Jerusalem,  the  new  and 
the  free,  "  the  mother  of  us  all."  On  the  one  hand  the  synagogue  and 
the  law  which  persecuted  every  one  who  dared  to  step  across  the  narrow 

*  "Elements  of  Theology,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  go,  note. 
•j-  Parson's  "  Letters  to  Travis,"  8vo. ,  p.  402. 


path  of  bigotry  and  dogmatism  ;  on  the  other,  Paganism  *  with  its  grand 
philosophical  truths  concealed  from  sight  ;  unveiling  itself  but  to  the  few, 
and  leaving  the  masses  hopelessly  seeking  to  discover  who  was  the  god, 
among  this  overcrowded  pantheon  of  deities  and  sub-deities.  To  others, 
the  apostle  of  circumcision,  supported  by  all  his  followers,  was  promising, 
if  they  obeyed  the  "  law,"  a  life  hereafter,  and  a  resurrection  of  which 
they  had  no  previous  idea.  At  the  same  time  he  never  lost  an  occasion 
to  contradict  Paul  without  naming  him,  but  indicating  him  so  clearly 
that  it  is  next  to  impossible  to  doubt  whom  Peter  meant.  While  he  may 
have  converted  some  men,  who  whether  they  had  believed  in  the  Mosaic 
resurrection  promised  by  the  Pharisees,  or  had  fallen  into  the  nihilistic 
doctrines  of  the  Sadducees,  or  had  belonged  to  the  polytheistic  heathen- 
ism of  the  Pagan  rabble,  had  no  future  after  death,  nothing  but  a  mourn- 
ful blank,  we  do  not  think  that  the  work  of  contradiction,  carried  on  so 
systematically  by  the  two  apostles,  had  helped  much  their  work  of  prose- 
lytism.  With  the  educated  thinking  classes  they  succeeded  very  little, 
as  ecclesiastical  history  clearly  shows.  Where  was  the  truth ;  where 
the  inspired  word  of  God  ?  On  the  one  hand,  as  we  have  seen,  they 
heard  the  apostle  Paul  explaining  that  of  the  two  covenants,  "  which 
things  are  an  allegory,"  the  old  one  from  Mount  Sinai,  "  which  gendereth 
unto  bondage,"  was  Agar  the  bondwoman ;  and  Mount  Sinai  itself 
answered  to  "Jerusalem,"  which  now  is  "in  bondage"  with  her  circum- 
cised children  ;  and  the  new  covenant  meant  Jesus  Christ — the  "  Jeru- 
salem which  is  above  and  free ; "  and  on  the  other  Peter,  who  was 
contradicting  and  even  abusing  him."  Paul  vehemently  exclaims, 
"  Cast  out  the  bondwoman  and  her  son  "  (the  old  law  and  the  syna- 
gogue).    "  The  son  of  the  bondwoman  shall  not  be  heir  with  the  son  of 

*  The  term  *'  Paganism"  is  properly  used  by  many  modern  writers  with  hesitation. 
Professor  Alexander  Wilder,  in  his  edition  of  Payne  Knight's  "  Symbolical  Language  of 
Ancient  Art  and  Mythology,"  says  :  "  It  {'  Paganism  ')  has  degenerated  into  slang,  and 
is  generally  employed  with  more  or  less  of  an  opprobrious  meaning.  The  correcter 
expression  would  have  been  'the  ancient  ethnical  worships,'  but  it  would  be  hardly 
understood  in  its  true  sense,  and  we  accordingly  have  adopted  the  term  in  popular  use, 
but  not  disrespectfully.  A  religion  which  can  develop  a  Plato,  an  Epictetus,  and  an 
Anaxagoras,  is  not  gross,  superficial,  or  totally  unworthy  of  candid  attention.  Besides, 
many  of  the  rites  and  doctrines  included  in  the  Christian  as  well  as  in  the  Jewish  Insti- 
tute, appeared  first  in  the  other  systems.  Zoroastrianism  anticipated  far  more  than  has 
been  imagined.  The  cross,  the  priestly  robes  and  symbols,  the  sacraments,  the  Sabbath, 
the  festivals  and  anniversaries,  are  all  anterior  to  the  Christian  era  by  thousands  of 
years.  The  ancient  worship,  after  it  had  been  excluded  from  its  former  shrines,  and 
from  the  metropolitan  towns,  was  maintained  for  a  long  time  by  the  inhabitants  of 
humble  localities.  To  this  fact  it  owes  its  later  designation.  From  being  kept  up  in 
the  Pagi,  or  rural  districts,  its  votaries  were  denominated  Pagans^  or  provincials." 


the  freewoman."  "  Stand  fast,  therefore,  in  the  liberty  wherewith  Christ 
hath  made  us  free;  be  not  entangled  again  with  the  yoke  of  bondage. 
.  .  .  Behold,  I  Paul  say  unto  you,  that  if  ye  be  circumcised,  Christ  shall 
profit  you  nothing!"  {Gal.  v.  2).  What  do  we  find  Peter  writing? 
Whom  does  he  mean  by  saying,  "  These  who  speak  great  swelling  words 
of  vanity.  .  .  .  While  they  promise  them  liberty,  they  themselves  are 
servants  of  corruption,  for  of  whom  a  man  is  overcome,  of  the  same  is  he 
brought  in  bondage.  .  .  .  For  if  they  have  escaped  the  pollution  of  the 
world  through  the  knowledge  of  the  Lord  and  Saviour,  they  are  again 
entangled  therein,  and  overcome  ...  it  had  been  better  for  them  not  to 
have  known  the  way  of  righteousness,  than  after  they  have  known  it 
to  turn  from  the  holy  commandment  delivered  unto  them "  (Second 

Peter  certainly  cannot  have  meant  the  Gnostics,  for  they,  had  never 
seen  "  the  holy  commandment  delivered  unto  them  ; "  Paul  had.  They 
never  promised  any  one  "  liberty  "  from  bondage,  but  Paul  had  done  so 
repeatedly.  Moreover  the  latter  rejects  the  "  old  covenant,"  Agar  the 
bondwoman  ;  and  Peter  holds  fast  to  it.  Paul  warns  the  people  against 
the  powers  and  dignities  (the  lower  angels  of  the  kabalists);  and  Peter, 
as  will  be  shown  further,  respects  them  and  denounces  those  who  do  not. 
Peter  preaches  circumcision,  and  Paul  forbids  it. 

Later,  when  all  these  extraordinary  blunders,  contradictions,  dissen- 
sions and  inventions  were  forcibly  crammed  into  a  frame  elaborately 
executed  by  the  episcopal  caste  of  the  new  religion,  and  called  Chris- 
tianity ;  and  the  chaotic  picture  itself  cunningly  preserved  from  too 
close  scrutiny  by  a  whole  array  of  formidable  Church  penances  and 
anathemas,  which  kept  the  curious  back  under  the  false  pretense  of 
sacrilege  and  profanation  of  divine  mysteries  ;  and  millions  of  people  had 
been  butchered  in  the  name  of  the  God  of  mercy — then  came  the 
Reformation.  It  certainly  deserves  its  name  in  its  fullest  parodoxical 
sense.  It  abandoned  Peter  and  alleges  to  have  chosen  Paul  for  its  only 
leader.  And  the  apostle  who  thundered  against  the  old  law  of  bond- 
age ;  who  left  fall  liberty  to  Christians  to  either  observe  the  Sabbath  or  set 
it  aside  ;  who  rejects  everything  anterior  to  John  the  Baptist,  is  now  the 
professed  standard-bearer  of  Protestantism,  which  holds  to  the  old  law 
more  than  the  Jews,  imprisons  those  who  view  the  Sabbath  as  Jesus  and 
Paul  did,  and  outvies  the  synagogue  of  the  first  century  in  dogmatic  in- 
tolerance ! 

But  who  then  were  the  first  Christians,  may  still  be  asked  ?  Doubt- 
less the  Ebionites  ;  and  in  this  we  follow  the  authority  of  the  best  critics. 
"  There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  author  (of  the  Clemcnti7ie  Homilies) 
was  a  representative   of  Ebionitic   Gnosticism,  which   had  once  been  the 


purestjorm  of  primitive  Christianity.  .  .  .  "  *  And  who  were  the  Ebion- 
ites?  The  pupils  and  followers  of  the  early  Nazarenes,  the  kabalistic 
Gnostics.  In  the  preface  to  the  'Codex  Nazarceus,  the  translator  says  : 
"  That  also  the  Nazarenes  did  not  reject  .  .  .  the  yEons  is  natural.  For 
of  the  Ebionites  who  acknowledged  them  (the  ^ons),  these  were  the  in- 
structors." f 

We  find,  moreover,  Epiphanius,  the  Christian  Homer  of  The  Heresies, 
telling  us  that  "  Ebion  had  the  opinion  of  the  Nazarenes,  the  form  of  the 
Cerinthians  (who  fable  that  the  world  was  put  together  by  angels),  and 
the  appellation  of  Christians."  \  An  appellation  certainly  more  correctly 
applied  to  them  than  to  the  orthodox  (so-called)  Christians  of  the  school 
of  Irenjeus  and  the  later  Vatican.  Renan  shows  the  Ebionites  num- 
bering among  their  sect  all  the  surviving  relatives  of  Jesus.  John  the 
Baptist,  his  cousin  and  precursor,  was  the  accepted  Saviour  of  the  Naza- 
renes, and  their  prophet.  His  disciples  dwelt  on  the  other  side  of  the 
Jordan,  and  the  scene  of  the  baptism  of  the  Jordan  is  clearly  and  beyond 
any  question  proved  by  the  author  of  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,  to  have 
been  the  site  of  the  Adonis-worship.  §  "  Over  the  Jordan  and  beyond  the 
lake  dwelt  the  Nazarenes,  a  sect  said  to  have  existed  already  at  the  birth 
of  Jesus,  and  to  have  counted  him  among  its  number.  They  must  have 
extended  along  the  east  of  the  Jordan,  and  southeasterly  among  the  Arab- 
ians {Galat.  i.  17,  21  ;  ii.  .11),  and  Sabreans  in  the  direction  of  Bosra ;  and 
again,  they  must  have  gone  far  north  over  the  Lebanon  to  Antioch,  also 
to  the  northeast  to  the  Nazarian  settlement  in  Beroea,  where  St.  Jerome 
found  them.  In  the  desert  the  Mysteries  of  Adonis  may  have  still  pre- 
vailed ;  in  the  mountains  Aiai  Adonai  was  still  a  cry."  || 

"  Having  been  united  (conjunctus)  to  the  Nazarenes,  each  (Ebionite) 
imparted  to  the  other  out  of  his  own  wickedness,  and  decided  that  Christ 
was  of  the  seed  of  a  man,"  writes  Epiphanius. 

And  if  they  did,  we  must  suppose  they  knew  more  about  their  con- 
temporary prophet  than  Epiphanius  400  years  later.  Theodoret,  as 
shown  elsewhere,  describes  the  Nazarenes  as  Jews  who  "honor  the 
Anointed  as  a  just  man,"  and  use  the  evangel  called  '■'■According  to 
Peter."  Jeroine  finds  the  authentic  and  original  evangel,  written  in 
Hebrew,  by  Matthew  the  apostle-publican,  in  the  library  collected  at 
CcBsarea,  by  the  martyr  Paraphilius.  "  /  received  permission  from  the 
Nazarxans,  who  at  Beroea  of  Syria  used  this  (gospel)  to  translate  it,"  he 

*  "Super.    Relig.,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  5.  f  Norberg  :   Preface  to  ''  Cod.  Naz.,"  p.  v. 

X  Epiph. :     "  Contra  Ebionitas."  g  See  preface,  from  page  i  to  34. 

\  Ibid.,  p.  7,  preface. 


writes  toward  the  end  of  the  fourth  century.  *  "  In  the  evangel  vMoh 
the  Nazarenes  and  Ebionites  use,"  adds  Jerome,  "which  recently  I  trans- 
lated from  Hebrew  into  Greek,  f  and  which  is  called  by  most  persons  the 
genuine  Gospel  of  Matthew,"  etc. 

That  the  apostles  had  received  a  "  secret  doctrine"  from  Jesus,  and 
that  he  himself  taught  one,  is  evident  from  the  following  words  of  Jerome, 
who  confessed  it  in  an  unguarded  moment.  Writing  to  the  Bishops 
Chromatins  and  HeHodorus,  he  complains  that  "  a  difficult  work  is 
enjoined,  since  this  translation  has  been  commanded  me  by  your  Felici- 
ties, which  St.  Matthew  himself,  the  Apostle  and  Evangelist,  did  not 
WISH  TO  BE  OPENLY  WRITTEN.  For  if  it  had  not  been  secret,  he  (Mat- 
thew) would  have  added  to  the  evangel  that  which  he  gave  forth  was 
his  ;  but  he  made  up  this  book  sealed  up  in  the  Hebrew  characters, 
which  he  put  forth  even  in  such  a  way  that  the  book,  written  in  Hebrew 
letters  and  by  the  hand  of  himself,  might  be  possessed  by  the  men  most 
religious,  who  also,  in  the  course  of  time,  received  it  from  those  who  pre- 
ceded them.  But  this  very  book  they  never  gave  to  any  one  to  be  tran- 
scribed, and  its  text  they  related  some  one  way  and  some  another."  \ 
And  he  adds  further  on  the  same  page  :  "  And  it  happened  that  this 
book,  having  been  published  by  a  disciple  of  Manichsus,  named  Seleucus, 
who  also  wrote  falsely  The  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  exhibited  matter  not  for 
edification,  but  for  destruction  ;  and  that  this  book  was  approved  in  a 
synod  which  the  ears  of  the  Church  properly  refused  to  listen  to."  § 

He  admits,  himself,  that  the  book  which  he  authenticates  as  being  writ- 
ten "by  the  hand  of  Matthew ;"   a  book  which,  notwithstanding  that  he 

*  Hieronymus:  "De  Virus.,"  illust.,  cap.  3.  "  It  is  remarkable  that,  while  all  church 
fathers  say  that  Matthew  wrote  in  Hebrew,  the  whole  of  them  use  the  Greek  text  as 
the  genuine  apostolic  writing,  without  mentioning  what  relation  tire  Hebrew  Matthew 
has  to  our  Greek  one  !  It  had  many  peculiar  additwns  which  are  wanting  in  our 
evangel."  (Olshausen :  "  Nachweis  der  Echtheit  der  sammtlichen  Schriften  des 
Neuen  Test.,"  p.  32;   Dunlap ;     "Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  44.) 

■]- Hieronymus  :  '' Commen.  to  Matthew,"  book  ii.,  ch.  xii.,  13.  Jerome  adds  that 
it  was  written  in  the  Chaldaic  language,  but  with  Hebrew  letters. 

X  "  St.  Jerome,"  v.,  445  ;  "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  46. 

§  This  accounts  also  for  the  rejection  of  the  works  of  Justin  Martyr,  who  used  only 
this  "  Gospel  according  to  the  Hebrews,"  as  also  did  most  probably  Titian,  his  disciple. 
At  what  late  period  was  fully  established  the  divinity  of  Christ  we  can  judge  by  the  mere 
fact  that  even  in  the  fourth  century  Eusebius  did  not  denounce  this  book  as  spurious, 
but  only  classed  it  with  such  as  the  Apocalypse  of  John  ;  and  Credner  ("  Zur  Gesch. 
Des  Kan.,"  p.  120)  shows  Nicephorus  inserting  it,  together  with  the  Revelation,  in  his 
"  Stichometry,"  among  the  Antilegomena.  The  Ebionites,  the  genuine  primitive  Chris- 
tians, rejecting  the  rest  of  the  apostolic  writings,  made  use  only  of  this  Gospel  ("Adv. 
Hoer."i.,  26),  and  the  Ebionites,  as  Epiphanius  declares,  firmly  believed,  with  the 
Nazarenes,  that  Jesus  was  but  a  man  "  of  the  seed  of  a  man." 

THE  CRAFT  OF  ST.   JEROME.  1 83 

translated  it  twice,  was  nearly  unintelligible  to  him,  for  it  was  arcane 
or  a  secret.  Nevertheless,  Jerome  coolly  sets  down  every  commentary 
upon  it,  except  his  own,  as  heretical.  More  than  that,  Jerome  knew 
that  this  original  Gospel  of  Matthew  was  the  expounder  of  the  only  true 
doctrine  of  Christ ;  and  that  it  was  the  work  of  an  evangelist  who  had 
been  the  friend  and  companion  of  Jesus.  He  knew  that  if  of  the  two 
Gospels,  the  Hebrew  in  question  and  the  Greek  belonging  to  our  present 
Scripture,  one  was  spurious,  hence  heretical,  it  was  not  that  of  the  Naza- 
renes ;  and  yet,  knowing  all  this,  Jerome  becomes  more  zealous  than  ever 
in  his  persecutions  of  the  "  Hjeretics."  Why?  Because  to  accept  it 
was  equivalent  to  reading  the  death-sentence  of  the  established  Church. 
The  Gospel  according  to  the  Hebrews  was  but  too  well  known  to  have 
been  the  only  one  accepted  for  four  centuries  by  the  Jewish  Christians, 
the  Nazarenes  and  the  Ebionites.  And  neither  of  the  latter  accepted  the 
divinity  of  Christ. 

If  the  commentaries  of  Jerome  on  the  Prophets,  his  famous  Vulgate, 
and  numerous  polemical  treatises  are  all  as  trustworthy  as  this  version 
of  the  Gospel  according  to  Matthew,  then  we  have  a  divine  revelation 

Why  wonder  at  the  unfathomable  mysteries  of  the  Christian  religion, 
since  it  is  perfectly  human  1  Have  we  not  a  letter  written  by  one  of  the 
most  respected  Fathers  of  the  Church  to  this  same  Jerome,  which  shows 
better  than  whole  volumes  their  traditionary  policy  ?  This  is  what  Saint 
Gregory  of  Nazianzen  wrote  to  his  friend  and  confidant  Saint  Jerome  : 
"  Nothing  can  impose  better  on  a  people  than  verbiage  ;  the  less  they 
understand  the  more  they  admire.  Our  fathers  and  doctors  have  often 
said,  not  what  they  thought,  but  what  circumstances  and  necessity  forced 
them  to." 

But  to  return  to  our  Sophia-Achamoth  and  the  belief  of  the  genuine, 
primitive  Christians. 

After  having  produced  Ilda-Baoth,  Ilda  from  -hi,  a  child,  and  Baoth 
from  ii-iia,  the  egg,  or  Mns,  Baoth,  a  waste,  a  desolation,  Sophia-Achamoth 
suffered  so  much  from  the  contact  with  matter,  that  after  extraordinary 
struggles  she  escapes  at  last  out  of  the  muddy  chaos.  Although  unac- 
quainted with  the  pleroma,  the  region  of  her  mother,  she  reached  the 
middle  space  and  succeeded  in  shaking  off  the  material  parts  which 
have  stuck  to  her  spiritual  nature  ;  after  which  she  immediately  built  a 
strong  barrier  between  the  world  of  intelligences  (spirits)  and  the  world 
of  matter.  Ilda-Baoth,  is  thus  the  "  son  of  darkness,"  the  creator  of  our 
sinful  world  (the  physical  portion  of  it).  He  follows  the  example  of 
Bythos  and  produces  from  himself  six  stellar  spirits  (sons).  They  are  all 
in  his  own  image,  and  reflections  one  of  the  other,  which  become  darker 


as  they  successively  recede  from  their  father.  With  the  latter,  they  all 
inhabit  seven  regions  disposed  like  a  ladder,  beginning  under  the  middle 
space,  the  region  of  their  mother,  Sophia-Achamoth,  and  ending  with  our 
earth,  the  seventh  region.  Thus  they  are  the  genii  of  the  seven  planetary 
spheres  of  which  the  lowest  is  the  region  of  our  earth  (the  sphere  which 
surrounds  it,  our  aether).  The  respective  names  of  these  genii  of  the 
spheres  are  Imie  (Jehovah),  Sabaoth,  Adonai,  Eloi,  Ouraios,  Astaphaios* 
The  first  four,  as  every  one  knows,  are  the  mystic  names  of  the  Jewish 
"  Lord  God,"  f  he  being,  as  C.  W.  King  expresses  it,  "  thus  degraded  by  the 
Ophites  into  the  appellations  of  the  subordinates  of  the  Creator ;  "the 
two  last  names  are  those  of  the  genii  of  fire  and  water." 

Ilda-Baoth,  whom  several  sects  regarded  as  the  God  of  Moses,  was 
not  a  pure  spirit ;  he  was  ambitious  and  proud,  and  rejecting  the  spirit- 
ual light  of  the  middle  space  offered  him  by  his  mother  Sophia-Achamoth, 
he  set  himself  to  create  a  world  of  his  own.  Aided  by  his  sons,  the  six 
planetary  genii,  he  fabricated  man,  but  this  one  proved  a  failure.  It 
was  a  monster ;  soulless,  ignorant,  and  crawling  on  all  fours  on  the 
ground  like  a  material  beast.  Ilda-Baoth  was  forced  to  implore  the  help 
of  his  spiritual  mother.  She  communicated  to  him  a  ray  of  her  divine 
light,  and  so  animated  man  and  endowed  him  with  a  soul.  And  now 
began  the  animosity  of  Ilda-Baoth  toward  his  own  creature.  Following 
the  impulse  of  the  divine  light,  man  soared  higher  and  higher  in  his  aspi- 
rations ;  very  soon  he  began  presenting  not  the  image  of  his  Creator 
Ilda-Baoth  but  rather  that  of  the  Supreme  Being,  the  "  primitive  man," 
Ennoia,  Then  the  Uemiurgus  was  filled  with  rage  and  envy  ;  and  fixing 
his  jealous  eye  on  the  abyss  of  matter,  his  looks  envenomed  with  passion 
were  suddenly  reflected  in  it  as  in  a  mirror ;  the  reflection  became  ani- 
mate, and  there  arose  out  of  the  abyss  Satan,  serpent,  Ophiomorphos — 
"  the  embodiment  of  envy  and  of  cunning.  He  is  the  union  of  all  that 
is  most  base  in  matter,  with  the  hate,  envy,  and  craft  of  a  spiritual  intel- 
ligence." J 

After  that,  always  in  spite  at  the  perfection  of  man,  Ilda-Baoth  created 
the  three  kingdoms  of  nature,  the  mineral,  vegetable,  and  animal,  with  all 
evil  instincts  and  properties.  Impotent  to  annihilate  the  Tree  of  Knowl- 
edge, which  grows  in  his  sphere  as  in  every  one  of  the  planetary  regions, 
but  bent  upon  detaching  "man"  from  his  spiritual  protectress,  Ilda-Baoth 
forbade  him  to  eat  of  its  fruit,  for  fear  it  should  reveal  to  mankind  the 

*  See  King's  "Gnostics,"  p.  31. 

\  This  love,  lao,  or  Jehovali  is  quite  distinct  from  the  God  of  the  Mysteries,  Iao, 
held  sacred  by  all  the  nations  of  antiquity.     We  will  show  the  difference  presently. 
\  King's  "  Gnostics." 


mysteries  of  the  superior  world.  But  Sophia-Achanioth,  who  loved  and 
protected  the  man  whom  she  had  animated,  sent  her  own  genius  Ophis,  in 
the  form  of  a  serpent  to  induce  man  to  transgress  the  selfish  and  unjust 
conmiand.  And  "  man "  suddenly  became  capable  of  comprehending 
the  mysteries  of  creation. 

Ilda-Baotli  r&venged  himself  by  punishing  the  first  pair,  for  man, 
through  his  knowledge,  had  already  provided  for  himself  a  companion  out 
of  his  spiritual  and  material  half.  He  imprisoned  man  and  woman  in  a 
Jungeon  of  matter,  in  the  body  so  unworthy  of  his  nature,  wherein  man 
is  still  enthralled.  But  Achamoth  protected  him  still.  She  established 
between  her  celestial  region  and  "  man,"  a  current  of  divine  light,  and 
kept  constantly  supplying  him  with  this  spiritual  illumination. 

Then  follow  allegories  embodying  the  idea  of  dualism,  or  the  struggle 
between  good  and  evil,  spirit  and  matter,  which  is  found  in  every  cos- 
mogony, and  the  source  of  which  is  again  to  be  sought  in  India.  The 
types  and  antit}'pes  represent  the  heroes  of  this  Gnostic  Pantheon,  bor- 
rowed from  the  most  ancient  mythopceic  ages.  But,  in  these  personages, 
Opliis  and  Ophiomorphos,  Sophia  and  Sophia-Achamoth,  Adam-Kadmon, 
and  Adam,  the  planetary  genii  and  the  divine  .^ons,  we  can  also  recog- 
nize very  easily  the  models  of  our  bibhcal  copies — the  euhemerized  pa- 
triarchs. The  archangels,  angels,  virtues  and  powers,  are  all  found,  under 
other  names,  in  the  Vedas  and  the  Buddhistic  system.  The  Avestic 
Supreme  Being,  Zero-ana,  or  "  Boundless  Time,"  is  the  type  of  all  these 
Gnostic  and  kabalistic  "  Depths,"  "  Crowns,"  and  even  of  the  Chaldean 
En-Soph.  The  six  Amshaspands,  created  through  the  "Word"  of  Or- 
mazd,  the  "  First-Born,"  have  their  reflections  in  Bythos  and  his  emana- 
tions, and  the  antitype  of  Ormazd — Ahriman  and  his  devs  also  enter 
into  the  composition  of  Ilda-Baoth  and  his  six  material,  though  not  wholly 
evil,  planetary   genii. 

Achamoth,  afflicted  with  the  evils  which  befall  humanity,  notwithstand- 
ing her  protection,  beseeches  the  celestial  mother  Sophia — her  antitype — 
to  prevail  on  the  unknown  Depth  to  send  down  Christos  (the  son  and 
emanation  of  the  "  Celestial  Virgin  ")  to  the  help  of  perishing  humanity. 
Ilda-Baoth  and  his  six  sons  of  matter  ate  shutting  out  the  divine  light 
from  mankind.  Man  must  be  saved.  Ilda-Baoth  had  already  sent  his 
own  agent,  John  the  Baptist,  from  the  race  of  Seth,  whom  he  protects — as 
a  prophet  to  his  people ;  but  only  a  small  portion  listened  to  him — the 
Nazarenes,  the  opponents  of  the  Jews,  on  account  of  their  worshipping 
lurbo-Adunai.*     Achamoth  had   assured  her   son,    Ilda-Baoth,   that  the 

*  lurbo  and  Adunai,  according  to  the  Ophites,  are  names  of  lao- Jehovah,  one  of  the 
emanations  of  Ilda-Baoth.  "  lurbo  is  called  by  the  Abortions  (the  Jews)  Adunai " 
(■'Codex  Nazarasus,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  73). 


reign  of  Christos  would  be  only  temporal,  and  thus  induced  him  to  send 
the  forerunner,  or  precursor.  Besides  that,  she  made  him  cause  the  birth 
of  the  Jiian  Jesus  from  the  Virgin  Mary,  her  own  type  on  earth,  "for 
the  creation  of  a  material  personage  could  only  be  the  work  of  the  Demi- 
urgus,  not  falling  within  the  province  of  a  higher  power.  As  soon  as 
Jesus  was  born,  Christos,  the  perfect,  uniting  himself  with  Sophia  (wisdom 
and  spirituality),  descended  through  the  seven  planetary  regions,  assum- 
ing in  each  an  analogous  form,  and  concealing  his  true  nature  fi'oni  their 
genii,  while  he  attracted  into  himself  the  sparks  of  divine  light  which  they 
retained  in  their  essence.  Thus,  Christos  entered  into  the  mati  Jesus  at 
the  moment  of  his  baptism  in  the  Jordan.  From  that  time  Jesus  began 
to  work  miracles  ;  before  that,  he  had  been  completely  ignorant  of  his 
mission."  * 

Ilda-Baoth,  discovering  that  Christos  was  bringing  to  an  end  his  own 
kingdom  of  matter,  stirred  up  the  Jews  against  him,  and  Jesus  was  put  to 
death,  f  When  on  the  Cross,  Christos  and  Sophia  left  his  body  and  re- 
turned to  their  own  sphere.  The  material  body  of  the  man  Jesus  was 
abandoned  to  the  earth,  but  he  himself  was  given  a  body  made  up  of 
ather  (astral  soul).  "  Thenceforward  he  consisted  of  merely  soul  and 
spirit,  which  was  the  reason  wh)'  the  disciples  did  not  recognize  him  after 
the  resurrection.  In  this  spiritual  state  of  a  simulacrum,  Jesus  remained 
on  earth  for  eighteen  months  after  he  had  risen.  During  this  last 
sojourn,  "  he  received  from  Sophia  that  perfect  knowledge,  that  true 
Gnosis,  which  he  communicated  to  the  very  few  among  the  apostles  who 
were  capable  of  receiving  the  same." 

"  Thence,  ascending  up  into  the  middle  space,  he  sits  on  the  right 
hand  of  Ilda-Baoth,  but  unperceived  by  him,  and  there  collects  all  the 
souls  which  shall  have  been  purified  by  the  knowledge  of  Christ.  When 
he  has  collected  all  the  spiritual  light  that  exists  in  matter,  out  of  Ilda- 
Baoth's  empire,  the  redemption  will  be  accomplished  and  the  world  will 
be  destroyed.  Such  is  the  meaning  of  the  re-absorption  of  all  the  spir- 
itual light  into  the  pleroma  or  fulness,  whence   it  originally  descended." 

*  King:    "  The  Gnostics  and  their  Remains,"  p.  31. 

\  In  the  "  Gospel  of  Nicodemus,"  Ilda-Baoth  is  called  Satan  by  the  pious  and  anony- 
mous author ; — evidently,  one  of  the  final  flings  at  the  half-crushed  enemy.  "  As  for 
me,"  says  Satan,  excusing  himself  to  the  prince  of  hell,  "  I  tempted  him  (Jesus),  and 
stirred  up  my  old  people,  the  Jews,  against  him"  (chap.  xv.  9).  Of  all  examples  of 
Christian  ingratitude  this  seems  almost  the  most  conspicuous.  The  poor  Jews  are  first 
robbed  of  their  sacred  books,  and  then,  in  a  spurious  "  Gospel,"  are  insulted  by  the  repre- 
sentation of  Satan  claiming  them  as  his  "old  people."  If  they  were  his  people,  and  at 
the  same  time  are  "  God's  chosen  people,"  then  the  name  of  this  God  must  be  written 
Satan  and  not  Jehovah.  This  is  logic,  but  we  doubt  if  it  can  be  regarded  as  compli 
mentary  to  the  "  Lord  God  of  Israel." 


The  foregoing  is  from  the  description  given  by  Theodoret  and  adopted 
by  King  in  his  Gnostics,  with  additions  from  Epiphanius  apd  Irenaeus. 
But  the  former  gives  a  very  imperfect  version,  concocted  partly  from  the 
descriptions  of  Irenasus,  and  partly  from  his  own  knowledge  of  the  later 
Ophites,  who,  toward  the  end  of  the  third  century,  had  blended  already 
with  several  other  sects.  Irenajus  also  confounds  them  very  frequently, 
and  the  real  theogony  of  the  Ophites  is  given  by  none  of  them  correctly. 
With  the  exception  of  a  change  in  names,  the  above-given  theogony  is 
that  of  all  the  Gnostics,  and  also  of  the  Nazarenes.  Ophis  is  but  the 
successor  of  the  Egyptian  Chnuphis,  the  Good  Serpent  with  a  lion's  radi- 
ating head,  and  was  held  from  days  of  the  highest  antiquity  as  an  emblem 
of  wisdom,  or  Thauth,  the  instructor  and  Saviour  of  humanity,  the  "  Son 
of  God."  "  Oh  men,  live  soberly  .  .  .  win  your  immortality  !  "  exclaims 
Hermes,  the  thrice-great  Trismegistus.  "  Instructor  and  guide  of  human- 
ity, I  will  lead  you  on  to  salvation."  Thus  the  oldest  sectarians  regarded 
Ophis,  the  Agathodsemon,  as  identical  with  Christos ;  the  serpent  being 
the  emblem  of  celestial  wisdom  and  eternity,  and,  in  the  present  case,  the 
antitype  of  the  Egyptian  Chnuphis-serpent.  These  Gnostics,  the  earliest 
of  our  Christian  era,  held  :  "  That  the  supreme  yEon,  having  emitted  other 
yEons  out  of  himself,  one  of  them,  a  female,  Prunnikos  (concupiscence), 
descended  into  the  chaos,  whence,  unable  to  escape,  she  remained  sus- 
pended in  the  mid-space,  being  too  clogged  by  matter  to  return  above,  and 
not  falling  lower  where  there  was  nothing  in  affinity  with  her  nature.  She 
then  produced  her  son  Ilda-Baoth,  the  God  of  the  Jews,  who,  in  his  turn, 
produced  seven  ^ohs,  or  angels,*  who  created  the  seven  heavens." 

In  this  plurality  of  heavens  the  Christians  believed  from  the  first,  for 
we  find  Paul  teaching  of  their  existence,  and  speaking  of  a  man  "caught 
up  to  the  third  heaven"  (2  Corin.,  xiii.).  "  Erom  these  seven  angels 
Ilda-Baoth  shut  up  all  that  was  above  him,  lest  they  should  know  of  any- 
thing superior  to  himself  f  They  then  created  man  in  the  image  of  their 
Father,  |  but  prone  and  crawling  on  the  earth  like  a  worm.  But  the 
heavenly  mother,  Prunnikos,  wishing  to  deprive  Ilda-Baoth  of  the  power 

*  This  is  the  Nazarene  system ;  the  Spiritus,  after  uniting  herself  with  Karabtanos 
{matter^  turbulent  and  senseless),  brings  forth  seven  badly-disposed  stellars^  in  the  Orcus  ; 
*'  Seven  Figures,"  which  she  bore  "  witless"  (  "Codex  Nazarseus,"  i.,  p.  iiS).  Justin 
Martyr  evidently  adopts  this  idea,  for  he  tells  us  of  "the  sacred  prophets,  who  say  that 
one  and  the  same  spirit  is  divided  into  scv.en  spirits  (pneumata).  "  Justin  ad  Grsecos  ; " 
"Sod,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  52.  In  the  Apocalypse  the  Holy  Spirit  is  subdivided  into  "seven 
spirits  before  the  throne,"  from  the  Persian  Mithraic  mode  of  classifying. 

f  This  certainly  looks  like  the  ^'Jealous  God"  of  the  Jews. 

X  It  is  the  Elohim  (plural)  who  create  Adam,  and  do  not  wish  man  to  become  "as 
one  of  cs." 


with  which  she  had  unwittingly  endowed  him,  infused  into  mftn  a  celestial 
spark— the  spirit.  Immediately  man  rose  upon  his  feet,  soared  in  mind 
beyond  the  limits  of  the  seven  spheres,  and  glorified  the  Supreme  Father, 
Him  that  is  above  Ilda-Baoth.  Hence,  the  latter,  full  of  jealousy,  cast 
down  his  eyes  upon  the  lowest  stratum  of  matter,  and  begot  a  potency  in 
the  form  of  a  serpent,  whom  they  (the  Ophites)  call  his  son.  Eve,  obey- 
ing him  as  the  son  of  God,  was  persuaded  to  eat  of  the  Tree  of  Knowledge.* 

It  is  a  self-evident  fact  that  the  serpent  of  the  Genesis,  who  appears 
suddenly  and  without  any  preliminary  introduction,  must  have  been  the 
antitype  of  the  Persian  Arch-Devs,  whose  head  is  Ash-Mogh,  the  "  two- 
footed  serpent  of  Hes."  If  the  ^iW^-serpent  had  been  deprived  of  his 
Hmbs  before  he  had  tempted  woman  unto  sin,  why  should  God  specify  as 
a  punishment  that  he  should  go  "  upon  his  belly  ?  "  Nobody  supposes 
that  he  walked  upon  the  extremity  of  his  tail. 

This  controversy  about  the  supremacy  of  Jehovah,  between  the  Pres- 
byters and  Fathers  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  Gnostics,  the  Nazarenes, 
and  all  the  sects  declared  heterodox,  as  a  last  resort,  on  the  other,  lasted 
till  the  days  of  Constantine,  and  later.  That  the  peculiar  ideas  of  the 
Gnostics  about  the  genealogy  of  Jehovah,  or  the  proper  place  that  had 
to  be  assigned,  in  the  Christian-Gnostic  Pantheon,  to  the  God  of  the  Jews, 
were  at  first  deemed  neither  blasphemous  nor  heterodox  is  evident 
in  the  difterence  of  opinions  held  on  this  question  by  Clemens  of  Alex- 
andria, for  instance,  and  Tertullian.  The  former,  who  seems  to  have 
known  of  Basilides  better  than  anybody  else,  saw  nothing  heterodox  or 
blamable  in  the  mystical  and  transcendental  views  of  the  new  Refor- 
mer. "  In  his  eyes,"  remarks  the  author  of  The  Gnostics,  speaking  of 
Clemens,  "  Basihdes  was  not  a  heretic,  i.e.,  an  innovator  as  regards  the 
doctrines  of  the  Christian  Church,  but  a  mere  theosophic  philosopher, 
who  sought  to  express  ancient  truths  under  new  forms,  and  perhaps  to 
combine  them  with  the  new  faith,  the  truth  of  which  he  could  admit 
without  necessarily  renouncing  the  old,  exactly  as 'is  the  case  with  the 
learned  Hindus  of  our  day."  f 

Not  so  with  Irenasus  and  Tertullian.J  The  principal  works  of  the 
latter  against  the  Heretics,  were  written  after  his  separation  from  the 
Catholic  Church,  when  he  had  ranged  himself  among  the  zealous  fol- 
lowers of  Montanus  ;  and  teem  with  unfairness  and  bigoted  prejudice.  § 

*  Theodoret :     " Hasret.  ;  "  King's  "Gnostics." 

f  "  Gnostics  and  their  Remains,"  p.  78. 

I  Some  persons  hold  that  he  was  Bishop  of  Rome  ;  others,  of  Carthage. 

§  His  polemical  work  addressed  against  the  so-called  orthodox  Church — the  Cath- 
olic— notwithstanding  its  bitterness  and  usual  style  of  vituperation,  is  far  more  fair,  con- 
sidering that  the   "  great  African"  is  said  to  have  been  expelled  from  the  Church  of 

tertullian's  abuse  of  basilides.  189 

He  has  exaggerated  every  Gnostic  opinion  to  a  monstrous  absurdity, 
and  his  arguments  are  not  based  on  coercive  reasoning  but  simply  on 
the  blind  stubbornness  of  a  partisan  fanatic.  Discussing  Basilides,  the 
"  pious,  god-like,  theosophic  philosopher,"  as  Clemens  of  Alexandria 
thought  him,  TertuUian  exclaims  :  "  After  this,  Basilides,  the  heretic, 
broke  loose.  *  He  asserted  that  there  is  a  Supreme  God,  by  name 
Abraxas,  by  whom  Mind  was  created,  whom  the  Greeks  call  Nous. 
From  her  emanated  the  \Vord  ;  from  the  Word,  Providence  ;  from  Prov- 
idence, Virtue  and  Wisdom  ;  from  these  two  again,  Virtues,  Principal- 
ities, f  ami  Powers  were  made  ;  thence  infinite  productions  and  emis- 
sions of  angels.  Among  the  lowest  angels,  indeed,  and  those  that 
made  this  world,  he  sets  last  of  all  the  god  of  the  Jews,  whom  he  denies 
to  be  God  himself,  affirming  that  he  is  but  one  of  the  angels."  \ 

It  would  be  equally  useless  to  refer  to  the  direct  apostles  of  Christ, 
and  show  them  as- holding  in  their  controversies  that  Jesus  never  made 
any  difference  between  his  "  Father  "  and  the  "  Lord-God  "  of  Moses. 
For  the  Clementine  Homilies,  in  which  occur  the  greatest  argumentations 
upon  the  subject,  as  shown  in  the  disputations  alleged  to  have  taken 
place  between  Peter  and  Simon  the  Magician,  are  now  also  proved  to 
have  been  falsely  attributed  to  Clement  the  Roman.  This  work,  if  written 
by  an  Eblonite — as  the  author  of  Supernatural  Religion  declares  in  com- 
mon with  some  other  commentators  § — must  have  been  written  either  far 
later  than  the   Pauline   period,  generally  assigned  to  it,  or  the  dispute 

Rome.  If  we  believe  St.  Jerome,  it  is  but  the  envy  and  the  unmerited  calumnies  of 
the  early  Roman  clergy  against  TertuUian  which  forced  him  to  renounce  the  Catholic 
Church  and  become  a  Montanisl.  However,  were  the  unlimited  admiration  of  St. 
Cyprian,  who  terms  TertuUian  *'  The  Master,"  and  his  estimate  of  him  merited,  we 
would  see  less  error  and  paganism  in  the  Church  of  Rome.  The  expression  of  Vin- 
cent of  Lerius,  "  that  every  word  of  TertuUian  was  a  sentence,  and  every  sentence  a 
triumph  over  error, ''^  does  not  seem  very  happy  when"  we  think  of  the  respect  paid 
to  TertuUian  by  the  Church  of  Rome,  notwithstanding  his  partial  apostasy  and  the 
errors  in  which  the  latter  still  abides  and  has  even  enforced  upon  the  world  as  i?ifalli- 
ble  dogmas. 

*  Were  not  the  views  of  the  Phrygian  Bishop  Montanus,  also  deemed  a  HERESY 
by  the  Church  of  Rome  ?  It  is  quite  extraordinary  to  see  how  easily  the  Vatican 
encourages  the  abuse  of  one  heretic  TertuUian,  against  another  heretic  Basilides,  when 
the  abuse  happens  to  further  her  own  object. 

f  Does  not  Paul  himself  speak  of  "Principalities  and  Powers  in  heavenly 
places  "  (Ephesians  iii.  10  ;  i.  21),  and  confess  that  there  be  gods  many  and  Lords  many 
(Kurioi)  ?  And  angels,  powers  (Dunameis),  and  Principalities?  (See  I  Corinthians, 
viii.  5  ;  and  Epistle  to  Romans,  viii.  38.) 

I  TertuUian :    "  Praescript  " 

§  Baur ;  Credner  ;  HUgenfeld  ;  Kirchhofer  ;  Lechler  ;  Nicolas  ;  Ritschl ;  Schweg- 
ler;  Westcott,  and  Zeller  ;  see  "  Supernatural  Religion,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  2. 


about  the  identity  of  Jehovah  with  God,  the  "  Father  of  Jesus,"  have 
been  distorted  by  later  interpolations.  This  disputation  is  in  its  very 
essence  antagonistic  to  the  early  doctrines  of  the  Ebionites.  The  latter, 
as  demonstrated  by  Epiphanius  and  Theodoret,  were  the  direct  follow- 
ers of  the  Nazarene  sect*  (the  Sabians),  the  "  Disciples  of  John."  He 
says,  unequivocally,  that  the  Ebionites  believed  in  the  jEons  (emana- 
tions), that  the  Nazarenes  were  their  mstructors,  and  that  "  each  imparted 
to  the  other  out  of  his  own  wickedness."  Therefore,  holding  the  same 
behefs  as  the  Nazarenes  did,  an  Ebionite  would  not  have  given  even  so 
much  chance  to  the  doctrine  supported  by  Peter  in  the  Homilies.  The 
old  Nazarenes,  as  well  as  the  later  ones,  whose  views  are  embodied  in 
the  Codex  Nazarceus,  never  called  Jehovah  otherwise  than  Adonai, 
lurbo,  the  God  of  the  Abortive  \  (the  orthodox  Jews).  They  kept 
their  beliefs  and  religious  tenets  so  secret  that  even  Epiphanius,  writing 
as  early  as  the  end  of  the  fourth  century,  J  confesses  his  ignorance  as  to 
their  real  doctrine.  "  Dropping  the  name  of  Jesus,"  says  the  Bishop  of 
Salamis,  "  they  neither  call  themselves  lessacns,  nor  continue  to  hold  the 
name  of  the  Jews,  nor  name  themselves  Christians,  but  Nazarenes  .  .  . 
The  resurrection  of  the  dead  is  confessed  by  them  .  .  .  but  concerning 
Christ,  I  cannot  say  whether  they  think  him  a  mere  man,  or  as  the  truth 
is,  confess  that  he  was  born  through  the  Jlofy  Pneuma  from  the  Vir- 


While  Simon  Magus  argues  in  the  Homilies  from  the  standpoint  of 

every  Gnostic  (Nazarenes  and  Ebionites  included),  Peter,  as  a  true 
apostle  of  circumcision,  holds  to  the  old  Law  and,  as  a  matter  of  course, 
seeks  to  blend  his  belief  in  the  divinity  of  Christ  with  his  old  Faith  in 
the  "Lord  God"  and  ex-protector  of  the  "chosen  people."  As  the 
author  of  Supernatural  Religion  shows,  the  Epitome,  ||  "  a  blending  of 
the  other  two,  probably  intended  to  purge  them  from  heretical  doc- 
trine "  \  and,  together  with  a  great  majority  of  critics,  assigns  to  the 
Homilies,  a  date  not  earlier  than  the  end  of  the  third  century,  we  may 
well  infer  that  they  must  differ  widely  with  their  original,  if  there  ever 
was  one.     Simon  the  Magician   proves  throughout  the  whole  work  that 

*  See  Epiphanius  :  "  Contra  Ebionitas." 

f  The  Ophites,  for  instance,  made  of  Adonai  the  third  son  of  Ilda-Baoth,  a 
malignant  genius,  and,  lilie  his  other  five  brothers,  a  constant  enemy  and  adversary  of 
man,  whose  divine  and  immortal  spirit  gave  man  the  means  of  becoming  the  rival  of 
these  genii, 

X  The  Bishop  of  Salamis  died  A.D.  403.  §  "  Epiphanius,"  i.,  122,  123. 

II  The  "Clementines "  are  composed  of  three  parts — to  vfit :  the  Homilies,  the  Re- 
cognitions, and  an  Epitome. 

•[  "  Supernatural  Religion,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  2. 


the  Demiurgus,  the  Architect  of  the  World,  is  not  the  highest  Deity  ; 
and  he  bases  his  assertions  upon  the  words  of-  Jesus  himself,  who  states 
repeatedly  that  "  no  man  knew  the  Father."  Peter  is  made  in  the 
Homilies  to  repudiate,  with  a  great  show  of  indignation,  the  assertion  that 
the  Patriarchs  were  not  deemed  worthy  to  know  the  Father  ;  to  which 
Simon  objects  again  by  quoting  the  words  of  Jesus,  who  thanks  the 
"  Lord  of  Heaven  and  earth  that  what  was  concealed  from  the  wise  " 
he  has  "  revealed  to  babes,"  proving  very  logically  that  according  to 
these  very  words  the  Patriarchs  could  not  have  known  the  "  Father." 
Then  Peter  argues,  in  his  turn,  that  the  expression,  "  what  is  concealed 
from  the  wise,"  etc.,  referred  to  the  concealed  mysteries  of  the  creation.* 

This  argumentation  of  Peter,  therefore,  had  it  even  emanated  from 
the  apostle  himself,  instead  of  being  a  "  religious  romance,"  as  the  author 
of  Supernatural  Religion  calls  it,  would  prove  nothing  whatever  in  favor 
of  the  identity  of  the  God  of  the  Jews,  with  the  "  Father  "  of  Jesus.  At 
best  it  would  only  demonstrate  that  Peter  had  remained  from  first  to  last 
'■  an  apostle  of  circumcision,"  a  Jew  faithful  to  his  old  law,  and  a  defender 
of  the  Old  Testament.  This  conversation  proves,  moreover,  the  weak- 
ness of  the  cause  he  defends,  for  we  see  in  the  apostle  a  man  who, 
although  in  most  intimate  relations  with  Jesus,  can  furnish  us  nothing  in 
the  way  of  direct  proof  that  he  ever  thought  of  teaching  that  the  all-wise 
and  all-good  Paternity  he  preached  was  the  morose  and  revengeful  thun- 
derer  of  Mount  Sinai.  But  what  the  Homilies  do  prove,  is  again  our 
assertion  that  there  was  a  secret  doctrine  preached  by  Jesus  to  the  few 
who  were  deemed  worthy  to  become  its  recipients  and  custodians.  "And 
Peter  said  :  '  We  remember  that  our  Lord  and  teacher,  as  commanding, 
said  to  us,  guard  the  mysteries  for  me,  and  the  sons  of  my  house.  Where- 
fore also  he  explained  to  his  disciples,  privately,  the  mysteries  of  the  king- 
doms of  the  heavens.'  "  f 

If  we  now  recall  the  fact  that  a  portion  of  the  Mysteries  of  the 
"  Pagans  "  consisted  of  the  awoppi^Ta,  aporrheta,  or  secret  discourses  ;  that 
the  secret  Logia  or  discourses  of  Jesus  contained  in  the  original  Gospel 
according  to  Matthew,  the  meaning  and  interpretation  of  which  St.  Jerome 
confessed  to  be  "a  difficult  task"  for  him  to  achieve,  were  of  the  same 
nature  ;  and  if  we  remember,  further,  that  to  some  of  the  interior  or  final 
Mysteries  only  a  very  select  few  were  admitted ;  and  that  finally  it  was 
from  the  number  of  the  latter  that  were  taken  all  the  ministers  of  the  holy 
"  Pagan  "  rites,  we  will  then  clearly  understand  this  expression  of  Jesus 
quoted  by  Peter  :     "  Guard  the  Mysteries  for  me  and  the  sons  of  my 

*  "  Homilies,"  xviii.,  1-15. 

\  "  Clementine  Homilies;"   "Supernatural  Religion,"  vol.  ii. 


house"  i.e.,  of  iny  doctrine.  And,  if  we  understand  it  rightly,  we  cannot 
avoid  thinking  that  this  "secret"  doctrine  of  Jesus,  even  the  technical 
expressions  of  which  are  but  so  many  duplications  of  the  Gnostic  and 
Neo-platonic  mystic  phraseology — that  this  doctrine,  we  say,  was  based 
on  the  same  transcendental  philosophy  of  Oriental  Gnosis  as  the  rest  of 
the  religions  of  those  and  earliest  days.  That  none  of  the  later  Christian 
sects,  despite  their  boasting,  were  the  inheritors  of  it,  is  evident  from  the 
contradictions,  blunders,  and  clumsy  repatching  of  the  mistakes  of  every 
preceding  century  by  the  discoveries  of  the  succeeding  one.  These  mis- 
takes, in  a  number  of  manuscripts  claimed  to  be  authentic,  are  sometimes 
so  ridiculous  as  to  bear  on  their  face  the  evidence  of  being  pious  forgeries. 
Thus,  for  instance,  the  utter  ignorance  of  some  patristic  champions  of 
the  very  gospels  they  claimed  to  defend.  We  have  mentioned  the  accu- 
sation against  Marcion  by  Tertullian  and  Epiphanius  of  mutilating  the 
Go.<:pel  ascribed  to  Luke,  and  erasing  from  it  that  which  is  now  proved 
to  have  never  been  in  that  Gospel  at  all.  Finally,  the  method  adopted 
by  Jesus  of  speaking  in  parables,  in  which  he  only  followed  the  example 
of  his  sect,  is  attributed  in  the  Homilies  to  a  prophecy  of  Isaiah  !  Peter 
is  made  to  remark  :  "  For  Isaiah  said  :  '  I  will  open  my  mouth  in  para- 
bles, and  I  will  utter  things  that  have  been  kept  secret  from  the  founda- 
tion of  the  world.'  "  This  erroneous  reference  to  Isaiah  of  a  sentence 
given  in  Psalms  Ixxviii.  2,  is  found  not  only  in  the  apocryphal  Homilies, 
but  also  in  the  Sinaitic  Codex.  Commenting  on  the  fact  in  the  Super- 
natural Religion,  the  author  states  that  "Porphyry,  in  the  third  century, 
twitted  Christians  with  this  erroneous  ascription  by  their  inspired  evange- 
list to  Isaiah  of  a  passage  from  a  Psalm,  and  reduced  the  Fathers  to  great 
straits."  *  Eusebius  and  Jerome  tried  to  get  out  of  the  difficulty  by 
ascribing  the  mistake  to  an  "  ignorant  scribe  ; "  and  Jerome  even  went 
to  the  length  of  asserting  that  the  name  of  Isaiah  never  stood  after  the 
above  sentence  in  any  of  the  old  codices,  but  that  the  name  of  Asaph  was 
found  in  its  place,  only  "  ignorant  men  had  removed  it."  f  To  this,  the 
author  again  observes  that  "  the  fact  is  that  the  reading  '  Asaph '  for 
'  Isaiah  '  is  not  found  in  any  manuscript  extant ;  and,  although  '  Isaiah  ' 
has  disappeared  from  all  but  a  few  obscure  codices,  it  cannot  be  denied 
that  the  name  anciently  stood  in  the  text.  In  the  Sinaitic  Codex,  which 
is  probably  the  earliest  manuscript  extant  .  .  .  and  which  is  assigned  to 
the  fourth  century,"  he  adds,  "  the  prophet  Isaiah  stands  in  the  text  by 
the  first  hand,  but  is  erased  by  the  second."  \ 

It  is  a  most  suggestive  fact  that  there  is  not  a  word  in  the  so-called 

*  '*  Supernatural  Religion,"  p.  11. 

f  Hieron.:     "  Opp.,"  vii.,  p.  270,  ff.  ;  "  Supernatural  Religion,"  p.  11. 

X  Ibid. 

HE   NEVER    CLAIMED   TO   BE    GOD.  I93 

sacred  Scriptures  to  show  that  Jesus  was  actually  regarded  as  a  God  by 
his  disciples.  Neither  before  nor  after  his  death  did  they  pay  him  divine 
honors.  Their  relation  to  him  was  only  that  of  disciples  and  "  master  ;  " 
by  which  name  they  addressed  him,  as  the  followers  of  Pythagoras  and 
Plato  addressed  their  respective  masters  before  them.  Whatever  words 
may  have  been  put  into  the  mouths  of  Jesus,  Peter,  John,  Paul,  and 
others,  there  is  not  a  single  act  of  adoration  recorded  on  their  part,  nor 
did  Jesus  himself  ever  declare  his  identity  with  his  Father.  He  accused 
the  Pharisees  oi  stoning  their  prophets,  not  of  deicide.  He  termed  him- 
self the  son  of  God,  but  took  care  to  assert  repeatedly  that  they  were 
all  the  children  of  God,  who  was  the  Heavenly  Father  of  all.  In  preach- 
ing this,  he  but  repeated  a  doctrine  taught  ages  earlier  by  Hermes, 
Plato,  and  other  philosophers.  Strange  contradiction  !  Jesus,  whom  we 
are  asked  to  worship  as  the  one  living  God,  is  found,  immediately  after 
his  Resurrection,  saying  to  Mary  Magdalene  :  "  I  am  not  yet  ascended 
to  my  Father  ;  but  go  to  my  brethren,  and  say  unto  them,  I  ascend  unto 
my  Father  and  your  Father,  and  to  my  God  and  your  God  !  "  {John 
XX.  17.) 

Does  this  look  like  identifying  himself  with  his  Father  ?  "  My  Father 
zx^Ayour  Father,  my  God  axiA  your  God,"  implies,  on  his  part,  a  desire  to 
be  considered  on  a  perfect  equality  with  his  brethren — nothing  more. 
Theodoret  writes  :  "  The  hseretics  agree  with  us  respecting  the  beginning 
of  all  things.  .  .  .  But  they  say  there  is  not  one  Christ  (God),  but  one 
above,  and  the  other  below.  And  this  last  formerly  dwelt  in  many  ; 
but  the  Jesus,  they  at  one  time  say  is  from  God,  at  another  they 
call  him  a  Spirit."  *  This  spirit  is  the  Christos,  the  messenger 
of  life,  who  is  sometimes  called  the  Angel  Gabriel  (in  Hebrew,  the 
mighty  one  of  God),  and  who  took  with  the  Gnostics  the  place  of  the 
Logos,  while  the  Holy  Spirit  was  considered  Life,  f  With  the  sect  of 
the  Nazarenes,  though,  the  Spiritus,  or  Holy  Ghost,  had  less  honor. 
While  nearly  every  Gnostic  sect  considered  it  a  Female  Power,  whether 
they  called  it  Binah,  nJ'^a,  Sophia,  the  Divine  Intellect,  with  the  Naza- 
rene  sect  it  was  the  Female  Spiritus,  the  astral  light,  the  genetrix  of  all 
things  of  matter,  the  chaos  in  its  evil  aspect,  made  turhido  by  the  Demi- 
urge. At  the  creation  of  man,  "  it  was  light  on  the  side  of  the  Father, 
and  it  was  light  (material  light)  on  the  side  of  the  mother.  And  this 
is  the  '  twojold  man,'  "  J  says  the  Sohar.  "  That  day  (the  last  one)  will 
perish  the  seven  badly-disposed  stellars,  also  the  sons  of  man,  who  have 
confessed  the  Spiritus,  the  Messias  (false),  the  Deus,  and  the  Mother 
of  the  Spiritus  shall  perish."  §  _       

*  Theodoret  :    "  Ha:ret.  Fab.,"  ii.,  vii.  \  See   "  Irenxus,"  I.,  xii.,  p.  86. 

X  "  Ausziige  aus  dem  Sohar,"  p.  12.  §  "  Cod.  Naz.,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  149. 



Jesus  enforced  and  illustrated  his  doctrines  with  signs  and  wonders  ; 
and  if  we  lay  aside  the  claims  advanced  on  his  behalf  by  his  deifiers,  he 
did  but  what  other  kabalists  did  ;  and  only  they  at  that  epoch,  when,  for 
two  centuries  the  sources  of  prophecy  had  been  completely  dried  up,  and 
from  this  stagnation  of  public  "  miracles  "  had  originated  the  skepticism 
of  the  unbelieving  sect  of  the  Sadducees.  Describing  the  "  heresies  "  of 
those  days,  Theodoret,  who  has  no  idea  of  the  hidden  meaning  of  the 
word  Christos,  the  anointed  messenger,  complains  that  they  (the  Gnostics) 
assert  that  this  Messenger  or  Delegatus  changes  his  body  from  time  to 
time,  "  and  goes  into  other  bodies,  and  at  each  time  is  differently  mani- 
fested. And  these  (the  overshadowed  prophets)  use  incantations  and 
invocations  of  various  demons  and  baptisms  in  the  confession  of  their 
principles.  .  .  .  They  embrace  astrology  and  magic,  and  the  mathematical 
error,"  (?)  he  says.  * 

This  "  mathematical  error,"  of  which  the  pious  writer  complains,  led 
subsequently  to  the  rediscovery  of  the  heliocentric  system,  erroneous  as 
it  may  still  be,  and  forgotten  since  the  days  of  another  "magician  "  who 
taught  it — Pvthagoras.  Thus,  the  wonders  of  healing  and  the  thaums 
of  Jesus,  which  he  imparted  to  his  followers,  show  that  they  were  learn- 
ing, in  their  daily  communication  with  him,  the  theory  and  practice  of 
the  new  ethics,  day  by  day,  and  in  the  famihar  intercourse  of  intimate 
friendship.  Their  faith  was  progressively  developed,  like  that  of  all 
neophytes,  simultaneously  with  the  increase  of  knowledge.  We  must 
bear  in  mind  that  Josephus,  who  certainly  must  have  been  welhinformed 
on  the  subject,  calls  the  skill  of  expelHng  demons  "  a  science."  This 
growth  of  faith  is  conspicuously  shown  in  the  case  of  Peter,  who,  from 
having  lacked  enough  faith  to  support  him  while  he  could  walk  on  the 
water  from  the  boat  to  his  Master,  at  last  became  so  expert  a  thaumatur- 
gist,  that  Simon  Magus  is  said  to  have  offered  him  money  to  teach  hini 
the  secret  of  healing,  and  other  wonders.  And  Phihp  is  shown  to  have 
become  an  yEthrobat  as  good  as  Abaris  of  Pythagorean  memory,  but  less 
expert  than  Simon  Magus. 

Neither  in  the  Homilies  nor  any  other  early  work  of  the  apostles,  is  there 
anything  to  show  that  either  of  his  friends  and  followers  regarded  Jesus 
as  anything  more  than  a  prophet.  The  idea  is  as  clearly  established  in 
the  Clementines.  Except  that  too  much  room  is  afforded  to  Peter  to  estab- 
lish the  identity  of  the  Mosaic  God  with  the  Father  of  Jesus,  the  whole 
work  is  devoted  to  Monotheism.  The  author  seems  as  bitter  against 
Polytheism  as  against  the  claim  to  the  divinity  of  Christ.f     He  seems 

*  Theodoret  :    "  Ilseret.  Fab.,"  ii.,  vii. 

f  "  Homilies,"  xvi.,  I5ff.;ii.,  12;  iii., 57-59;  x.,  19.  Schliemann  :  "  Die  Clemen- 
tinem,"  p.  134  ff;  "  Supernatural  Religion,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  349. 


to  be  utterly  ignorant  of  the  Logos,  and  his  speculation  is  confined  to 
Sophia,  the  Gnostic  wisdom.  There  is  no  trace  in  it  of  a  hypostatic 
trinity,  but  the  same  overshadowing  of  the  Gnostic  "  wisdom  (Christos 
and  Sophia)  is  attributed  in  the  case  of  Jesus  as  it  is  in  those  of  Adam, 
Enoch,  Noah,  Abraham,  Isaac,  Jacob,  and  Moses.  *  These  personages 
are  all  placed  on  one  level,  and  called  '  true  prophets,'  and  the  seven 
pillars  of  the  world."  More  than  that,  Peter  vehemently  denies  the  fall 
of  Adam,  and  with  him,  the  doctrine  of  atonement,  as  taught  by  Christian 
theology,  utterly  falls  to  the  ground,  for  he  combats  it  as  a  blasphemy,  f 
Peter's  theory  of  sin  is  that  of  the  Jewish  kabalists,  and  even,  in  a  certain 
way,  Platonic.  Adam  not  only  never  sinned,  but,  "  as  a  true  prophet, 
possessed  of  the  Spirit  of  God,  which  afterwards  was  in  Jesus,  could  not 
sin."  \  In  short,  the  whole  of  the  work  exhibits  the. belief  of  the  author 
in  the  kabahstic  doctrine  of  permutation.  The  Kabala  teaches  the  doc- 
trine of  transmigration  of  the  spirit.  §  "  Mosah  is  the  revolutio  of  Seth 
and  Hebel."  || 

"  Tell  me  who  it  is  who  brings  about  the  re-birth  (the  revolutio)  ?  " 
is  asked  of  the  wise  Hermes.  "  God's  Son,  the  o?ily  ma?i,  through  the 
will  of  God,"  is  the  answer  of  the  "  heathen."  •f 

"  God's  son  "  is  the  immortal  spirit  assigned  to  every  human  being. 
It  is  this  divine  entity  which  is  the  "  only  man"  for  the  casket  which  con- 
tains our  soul,  and  the  soul  itself,  are  but  half-entities,  and  without  its 
overshadowing  both  body  and  astral  soul,  the  two  are  but  an  animal  diiad. 
It  requires  a  trinity  to  form  the  complete  "  man,"  and  allow  him  to  re- 
main immortal  at  every  "  re-birth,"  or  revolutio,  throughout  the  subse- 
quent and  ascending  spheres,  every  one  of  which  brings  him  nearer  to  the 
refulgent  realm  of  eternal  and  absolute  Kght. 

"God's  First-born,  who  is  the  'holy  Veil,'  the  'Light  of  Lights,' 
it  is  he  who  sends  the  revolutio  of  the  Delegatus,  for  he  is  the  First 
Power"  says  the  kabalist.  ** 

"  The  pneuma  (spirit)  and  the  dunamis  (power),  which  is  from  the 
God,  it  is  right  to  consider  nothing  else  than  the  Logos,  who  is  also  (?) 
First-begotten  to  the  God,"  argues  a  Christian,  ff 

"  Angels  and  powers  are  in  heaven  ! "  says  Justin,  thus  bringing 
forth  a  purely  kabalistic  doctrine.     The   Christians  adopted  it  from  the 

*  "Homilies,"  Hi.,  20  f ;  il,  16-18,  etc.  flbid.,  iii.,  20  ff. 

t  Schliemann  :   "  Die  Clementinem,"  pp.   130-176;  quoted  also  in   "Supernatural 
Religion,"  p.  342. 

§  We  will  speak  of  this  doctrine  further  on. 
1  "Kabbala  Denudata,"  vol.  il,  p.  155  ;   "  Vallis  Rcgia." 
T[  "  Hermes  "  X.,  iv.,  -21-23.  **  Idra  Magna  :   "  Kabbala  Denudata." 

ft  Justin  Martyr:    "  Apol,"  vol.   ii.,  p.  74. 


Sohar  and  the  h;eretical  sects,  and  if  Jesus  mentioned  them,  it  was  not  in 
the  official  synagogues  that  he  learned  the  theory,  but  directly  in  the 
kabalistic  teachings.  In  the  Mosaic  books,  very  little  mention  is  made 
of  them,  and  Moses,  who  holds  direct  communications  with  the  "  Lord 
God,"  troubles  himself  very  little  about  them.  The  doctrine  was  a 
secret  one,  and  deemed  by  the  orthodox  synagogue  heretical.  Josephus 
calls  the  Essenes  heretics,  saying  :  "  Those  admitted  among  the  Essenes 
must  swear  to  communicate  their  doctrines  to  no  one  any  otherwise  than 
as  he  received  them  himself,  and  equally  to  preserve  the  books  belong- 
ing to  their  sect,  and  the  names  of  the  angels.  *  The  Sadducees  did  not 
believe  in  angels,  neither  did  the  uninitiated  Gentiles,  who  limited  their 
Olympus  to  gods  and  demi-gods,  or  "  spirits."  Alone,  the  kabalists  and 
•  leurgists  hold  to  that  doctrine  from  time  immemorial,  and,  as  a  conse- 
quence, Plato,  and  Philo  Judaeus  after  him,  followed  first  by  the  Gnos- 
tics, and  then  by  the  Christians. 

Thus,  if  Josephus  never  wrote  the  famous  interpolation  forged  by 
Eusebius,  concerning  Jesus,  on  the  other  hand,  he  has  described  in 
the  Essenes  all  the  principal  features  that  we  find  prominent  in  the  Naza- 
rene.  When  praying,  they  sought  solitude,  f  "  When  thou  prayest, 
enter  into  thy  closet  .  .  .  and  pray  to  thy  Father  which  is  in  secret " 
{Matthew  vi.  6).  "Everything  spoken  by  them  (Essenes)  is  stronger 
than  an  oath.  Swearing  is  shunned  by  them  "  [Josephus  11.,  viii.,  6).  "But 
I  say  unto  you,  swear  not  at  all  .  .  .  but  let  your  communication  be  yea, 
yea;  nay,  nay"  {Matthew  v.  34-37). 

The  Nazarenes,  as  well  as  the  Essenes  and  the  Therapeutje,  believed 
more  in  their  own  interpretations  of  the  "  hidden  sense  "  of  the  more  an- 
cient Scriptures,  than  in  the  later  laws  of  Moses.  Jesus,  as  we  have 
shown  before,  felt  but  little  veneration  for  the  commandments  of  his  pre- 
decessor, with  whom  Irenaeus  is  so  anxious  to  connect  him. 

The  Essenes  "enter  into  the  houses  of  those  whom  they  never  saiv 
previously,  as  if  they  were  their  intimate  friends"  (Josephus  II.,  viii.,  4)- 
Such  was  undeniably  the  custom  of  Jesus  and  his  disciples. 

Epiphanius,  who  places  the  Ebionite  "  heresy  "  on  one  level  with  that 
of  the  Nazarenes,  also  remarks  that  the  Nazaraioi  come  next  to  the 
Cerinthians,J  so  much  vituperated  against  by  Irenseus.  § 

*  Josephus:   "Wars,"  II.,  chap.  8.  sec.  7. 

f  See  Josephus;  Philo;  Munk  (35).  Eusebius  mentions  their  semneion,  where 
they  perform  the  mysteries  of  a  retired  life  ("  Ecclesiastic  History,"  lib.  ii.,  ch.  17). 

X  "  Epiphanius,"  ed.  Petau,  i.,  p.  117. 

^  Cerinthus  is  the  same  Gnostic — a  contemporaiy  of  John  the  Evangelist — of  whom 
IreniEus  invented  the  following  anecdote  :  "  There  are  those  who  heard  him  (Poly- 
carp)  say  that  John,  the  disciple  of  the  Lord,  going  to  bathe  at  Ephesus,  and  perceiving 


Munk,  in  his  work  on  Palestine,  affirms  that  there  were  4,000  Essenes 
living  in  the  desert ;  that  they  had  their  mystical  books,  and  predicted  the 
future.  *  The  Nabatheans,  with  very  little  difference  indeed,'  adhered  to 
the  same  belief  as  the  Nazarenes  and  the  Sabeans,  and  all  of  them 
honored  John  the  Baptist  more  than  his  successor  Jesus.  The  Persian 
lezidi  say  that  they  originally  came  to  Syria  from  Busrah.  They  use 
baptism,  and  believe  in  seven  archangels,  though  paying  at  the  same  time 
reverence  to  Satan.  Their  prophet  lezed,  who  flourished  long  prior  to 
Mahomet,  f  taught  that  God  will  send  a  messenger,  and  that  the  latter 
would  reveal  to  him  a  book  which  is  already  written  in  heaven  from  the 
eternity.  X  The  Nabatheans  inhabited  the  Lebanon,  as  their  descendants 
do  to  the  present  day,  and  their  religion  was  from  its  origin  purely  kab- 
alistic.  Maimonides  speaks  of  them  as  if  he  identified  them  with  the  Sab- 
eans. "  I  will  mention  to  thee  the  writings  .  .  .  respecting  the  belief  and 
institutions  of  the  Sabeans,''  he  says.  "The  most  famous  is  the  book  The 
Agriculture  of  the  Nabathaans,  which  has  been  translated  by  Ibn  Waho- 
hijah.  This  book  is  full  of  heathenish  foolishness.  ...  It  speaks  of  the 
preparations  of  Talismans,  the  drawing  down  of  the  powers  of  the  Spirits, 
Magic,  Demons,  and  ghouls,  which  make  their  abode  in  the  desert."  § 

There  are  traditions  among  the  tribes  living  scattered  about  beyond 
the  Jordan,  as  there  are  many  such  also  among  the  descendants  of  the 
Samaritans  at  Damascus,  Gaza,  and  at  Naplosa  (the  ancient  Shechera). 
Many  of  these  tribes  have,  notwithstanding  the  persecutions  of  eighteen 
centuries,  retained  the  faith  of  their  fathers  in  its  primitive  simplicity. 
It  is  there  that  we  have  to  go  for  traditions  based  on  historical  truths, 
however  disfigured  by  exaggeration  and  inaccuracy,  and  compare  them 
with  the  religious  legends  of  the  Fathers,  which  they  call  revelation.  Euse- 
bius  states  that  before  the  siege  of  Jerusalem  the  small  Christian  commu- 
nity— comprising  members  of  whom  many,  if  not  all,  knew  Jesus  and  his 
apostles  personally — took  refuge  in  the  little  town  of  Pella,  on  the  oppo- 
site shore  of  the  Jordan.  Surely  these  simple  people,  separated  for  centu- 
ries from  the  rest  of  the  world,  ought  to  have  preserved  their  traditions 
fresher  than  any  other  nations  !  It  is  in  Palestine  that  we  have  to  search 
for  the  clearest  waters  of  Christianity,  let  alone  its  source.  The  first 
Christians,  after  the  death  of  Jesus,  all  joined  together  for  a  time,  whether 

Cerinthus  within,  rushed  forth  from  the  bath-house  .  .  .  crying  out,  '  Let  us  fly,  lest 
the  bath-house  fall  down,  Cerinthus,  the  enemy  of  the  truth,  being  within  it '  "  (Irenzeus  : 
"Adv.  Hoer. ,"  iii.,  3,  §  4). 

*  Munk  :     "  Palestine,"  p.  525  ;   "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man." 

f  "  Haxthausen,"  p.  229. 

%  "  Shahrastani ;  "  Dr.  D.  Chwolsohn  :  "  Die  Ssabier  undder  Ssabismus,"  ii. ,  p.  625. 

§  Maimonides,  quoted  in  Dr.  D.  Chwolsohn:  "Die  Ssabier  mid  der  Ssabismus," 
ii->  p.  458. 


they  were  Ebionites,  Nazarenes,  Gnostics,  or  others.  They  had  no  Chris- 
tian dogmas  in  those  days,  and  their  Christianity  consisted  in  believing 
Jesus  to  be  a  prophet,  this  behef  varying  from  seeing  in  him  simply  a 
"just  man,"  *  or  a  holy,  inspired  prophet,  a  vehicle  used  by  Christos  and 
Sophia  to  manifest  themselves  through.  These  all  united  together  in 
opposition  to  the  synagogue  and  the  tyrannical  technicalities  of  the  Phar- 
isees, until  the  primitive  group  separated  in  two  distinct  branches — -which, 
we  may  correctly  term  the  Christian  kabalists  of  the  Jewish  Tanaim  school, 
and  the  Christian  kabalists  of  the  Platonic  Gnosis,  f  The  former  were 
represented  by  the  party  composed  of  the  followers  of  Peter,  and  John,  the 
author  of  the  Apocalypse  ;  the  latter  ranged  with  the  Pauline  Christianity, 
blending  itself,  at  the  end  of  the  second  century,  with  the  Platonic  phil- 
osophy, and  engulfing,  still  later,  the  Gnostic  sects,  whose  symbols  and 
misunderstood  mysticism  overflowed  the  Church  of  Rome. 

Amid  this  jumble  of  contradictions,  what  Christian  is  secure  in  confess- 
ing himself  such?  In  the  old  Syriac  Gospel  according  to  Luke  (iii.  22), 
the  Holy  Spirit  is  said  to  have  descended  in  the  likeness  of  a  dove. 
"  Jesua,  full  of  the  sacred  Spirit,  returned  from  Jordan,  and  the  Spirit  led 
him  into  the  desert "  (old  Syriac,  Luke  iv.  i,  Tremellius).  "  The  diffi- 
culty," says  Dunlap,  "was  that  the  Gospels  declared  that  John  the  Bap- 
tist saw  the  Spirit  (the  Power  of  God)  descend  upon  Jesus  after  he  had 
reached  manhood,  and  if  the  Spirit  then  first  descended  upon  him,  there 
was  some  ground  for  the  opinion  of  the  Ebionites  and  Nazarenes  who 
denied  his  preceding  existence,  and  refused  him  the  attributes  of  the 
Logos.  The  Gnostics,  on  the  other  hand,  objected  to  the  flesh,  but  con- 
ceded the  Logos."  \ 

John's  Apocalypsis,  and  the  explanations  of  sincere  Christian  bish- 
ops, Hke  Synesius,  who,  to  the  last,  adhered  to  the  Platonic  doctrines, 
make  us  think  that  the  wisest  and  safest  way  is  to  hold  to  that  sincere 
primitive  faith  which  seems  to  have  actuated  the  above-named  bishop. 
This  best,  sincerest,  and  most  unfortunate  of  Christians,  addressing  the 
"  Unknown,"  exclaims  :  "Oh  Father  of  the  Worlds  .  .  .  Father  of  the 
^ons  .  .  .  Artificer  of  the  Gods,  it  is  holy  to  praise  I"  But  Synesius 
had  Hypatia  for  instructor,  and  this  is  why  we  find  him  confessing  in  all 
sincerity  his    opinions    and    profession   of  faith.       "  The  rabble  desires 

*  "  Ye  have  condemned  and  killed  the  just,"  says  James  in  his  epistle  to  the  twelve 

f  Porphyry  makes  a  distinction  between  what  ho  calls  "the  Antique  O"!  Oriental 
philosophy  "  and  the  properly  Grecian  system,  that  of  the  Neo-platonists.  King  says 
that  all  these  religions  and  systems  are  branches  of  one  antique  and  common  religion, 
the  Asiatic  or  Buddhistic  ("  Gnostics  and  their  Remains,"  p.  l). 

X  "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man." 


nothing  better  than  to  be  deceived.  ...  As  regards  myself,  therefore, 
I  will  always  be  a  philosopher  with  myself,  but  I  must  be  priest  with  the 

"  Holy  is  God  the  Father  of  all  being,  holy  is  God,  whose  wisdom  is 
carried  out  into  execution  by  his  own  Powers  !  .  .  .  Holy  art  Thou,  who 
through  the  Word  had  created  all  !  Therefore,  I  believe  in  Thee,  and 
bear  testimony,  and  go  into  the  life  and  light."  *  Thus  speaks 
Hermes  Trismegistus,  the  heathen  divine.  What  Christian  bishop 
could  have  said  better  than  that  ? 

The  apparent  discrepancy  of  the  four  gospels  as  a  whole,  does  not 
prevent  every  narrative  given  in  the  New  Testament — however  much  dis- 
figured— having  a  ground-work  of  truth.  To  this,  are  cunningly  adapted 
details  made  to  fit  the  later  exigencies  of  the  Church.  So,  propped  up 
partially  by  indirect  evidence,  still  more  by  blind  faith,  they  have  become, 
with  time,  articles  of  faith.  Even  the  fictitious  massacre  of  the  "  Inno- 
cents "  by  King  Herod  has  a  certain  foundation  to  it,  in  its  allegorical 
sense.  Apart  from  the  now-discovered  fact  that  the  whole  story  of  such 
a  massacre  of  the  Innocents  is  bodily  taken  from  the  Hindu  Bagaved- 
gitta,  and  Brahmanical  traditions,  the  legend  refers,  moreover,  allegori- 
cally,  to  an  historical  fact.  King  Herod  is  the  type  of  Kansa,  the  tyrant 
of  Madura,  the  maternal  uncle  of  Christna,  to  whom  astrologers  pre- 
dicted that  a  son  of  his  niece  Devaki  would  deprive  him  of  his  throne. 
Therefore  he  gives  orders  to  kill  the  male  child  that  is  born  to  her  ;  but 
Christna  escapes  his  fury  through  the  protection  of  Mahadeva  (the  great 
God)  who  causes  the  child  to  be  carried  away  to  another  city,  out  of 
Kansa's  reach.  After  that,  in  order  to  be  sure  and  kill  the  right  boy,  on 
whom  he  failed  to  lay  his  murderous  hands,  Kansa  has  all  the  male  new- 
born infants  within  his  kingdom  killed.  Christna  is  also  worshipped  by 
the  gopas  (the  shepherds)  of  the  land. 

Though  this  ancient  Indian  legend  bears  a  very  suspicious  resem- 
blance to  the  more  modern  biblical  romance,  Gaffarel  and  others  attribute 
the  origin  of  the  latter  to  the  persecutions  during  the  Herodian  reign  of 
the  kabalists  and  the  Wise  me?i,  who  had  not  remained  strictly  orthodox. 
The  latter,  as  well  as  the  prophets,  were  nicknamed  the  "  Innocents,"  and 
the  "  Babes,"  on  account  of  their  holiness.  As  in  the  case  of  certain 
degrees  of  modern  Masonry,  the  adepts  reckoned  their  grade  of  initia- 
tion by  a  symbolic  age.  Thus  Saul  who,  when  chosen  king,  was  "a 
choice  and  goodly  man,"  and  "  from  his  shoulders  upward  was  higher 
than  any  of  the  people,"  is  described  in  Catholic  versions,  as  "child 
oi  one  year  when  he  began  to  reign,"  which,  in  its  literal  sense,  is  a  palpa- 

*  "Hermes  Trismegistus,"  pp.  S6,  87,  90. 


ble  absurdity.  But  in  i  Samuel  yi.,  his  anointing  by  Samuel  and  initia- 
tion are  described  ;  and  at  verse  6th,  Samuel  uses  this  significant  lan- 
guage :  "...  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  will  come  upon  thee  and  thou 
shalt  prophesy  with  them,  and  shall  be  turned  into  another  man."  The 
phrase  above  quoted  is  thus  made  plain — he  had  received  one 
degree  of  initiation  and  was  symbolically  described  as  "  a  child  one 
year  old."  The  Catholic  Bible,  from  which  the  text  is  quoted,  with 
charming  candor  says  in  a  foot-note:  "It  is  extremely  difficult  to 
explain  "  (meaning  that  Saul  was  a  child  of  one  year).  But  un- 
daunted by  any 'difficulty  the  Editor,  nevertheless,  does  take  upon  him- 
self to  explain  it,  and  adds  :  "A  child  of  one  year.  That  is,  he  was 
good  and  like  an  innocent  child."  An  interpretation  as  ingenious  as  it 
is  pious  ;  and  which  if  it  does  no  good  can  certainly  do  no  harm.  * 

If  the  explanation  of  the  kabalists  is  rejected,  then  the  whole  sub- 
ject falls  into  confusion  ;  worse  still — for  it  becomes  a  direct  plagiarism 
from  the  Hindu  legend.  All  the  commentators  have  agreed  that  a  lit- 
teral  massacre  of  young  children  is  nowhere  mentioned  in  history  ;  and 
that,  moreover,  an  occurrence  hke  that  would  have  made  such  a  bloody 
page  in  Roman  annals  that  the  record  of  it  would  have  been  preserved  for  us 
by  every  author  of  the  day.  Herod  himself  was  subject  to  the  Roman 
law  ;  and  undoubtedly  he  would  have  paid  the  penalty  of  such  a  mon- 
strous crime,  with  his  own  life.  But  if,  on  the  one  hand,  we  have  not 
the  slightest  trace  of  this  fable  in  history,  on  the  other,  we  find  in  the 

*  It  is  the  correct  interpretation  of  the  Bible  allegories  that  makes  the  Catholic 
clergy  so  wrathful  with  the  Protestants  who  freely  scrutinize  the  Bible.  How 
bitter  this  feeling  has  become,  we  can  judge  by  the  following  words  of  the  Reverend 
Father  Parker  of  Hyde  Park,  New  York,  who,  lecturing  in  St.  Teresa's  CathoUc 
Church,  on  the  loth  of  December,  1S76,  said:  "To  whom  does  the  Protestant 
Church  owe  its  possession  of  the  Bible,  which  they  wish  to  place  in  the  hands  of  every 
ignorant  person  and  child?  To  monkish  hands,  that  laboriously  transcribed  it  before 
the  age  of  printing.  Protestantism  has  produced  dissension  in  Church,  rebellions  and 
outbreaks  in  State,  unsoundness  in  social  life,  and  will  never  be  satisfied  short  of  the 
downfall  of  the  Bible  !  Protestants  must  admit  that  the  Roman  Church  has  done 
more  to  scatter  Christianity  and  extirpate  idolatry  than  all  their  sects.  From  one  pul- 
pit it  is  said  that  there  is  no  hell,  and  from  another  that  there  is  immediate  and  unmit- 
igated damnation.  One  says  that  Jesus  Christ  was  only  a  man  ;  another  that  you 
must  be  plunged  bodily  into  water  to  be  baptized,  and  refuses  the  rites  to  infants. 
Most  of  them  have  no  prescribed  form  of  worship,  no  sacred  vestments,  and  their 
doctrines  are  as  undefined  as  their  service  is  informal.  The  founder  of  Protestantism, 
Martin  Luther,  was  the  worst  man  in  Europe.  The  advent  of  the  Reformation  was 
the  signal  for  civil  war,  and  from  that  time  to  this  the  world  has  been  in  a  restless 
state,  uneasy  in  regard  to  Governments,  and  every  day  becoming  more  skeptical.  The 
ultimate  tendency  of  Protestantism  is  clearly  nothing  less  than  the  destruction  of  all 
respect  for  the  Bible,  and  the  disruption  of  government  and  society."  Very  plain  talk 
this.     The  Protestants  might  easily  return  the  compliment. 


official  complaints  of  the  Synagogue  abundant  evidence  of  the  persecu- 
tion of  the  initiates.     The  Talmud  also  corroboraites  it. 

The  Jewish  version  of  the  birth  of  Jesus  is  recorded  in  the  Sepher- 
Toldos  Jeshu  in  the  following  words  :    . 

"  Mary  having  become  the  mother  of  a  Son,  named  Jehosuah,  and 
the  boy  growing  up,  she  entrusted  him  to  the  care  of  the  Rabbi  Elhanan, 
and  the  child  progressed  in  knowledge,  for  he  was  well  gifted  with  spirit 
and  understanding. 

"Rabbi  Jehosuah,  son  ofPerachiah,  continued  the  education  of  Jeho- 
suah (Jesus)  after  Elhanan,  and  initiated  him  in  the  secret  knowledge  ;  " 
but  the  King,  Janneus,  having  given  orders  to  slay  all  the  initiates,  Jeho 
suah  Ben  Perachiah,  fled  to  Alexandria,  in  Egypt,  taking  the  boy  with  him. 

While  in  Alexandria,  continues  the  story,  they  were  received  in  the 
house  of  a  rich  and  learned  lady  (personified  Egypt).  Young  Jesus 
found  her  beautiful,  notwithstanding  "  a  defect  in  her  eyes,''  and  declared 
so  to  his  master.  Upon  hearing  this,  the  latter  became  so  angry  that  his 
pupil  should  find  in  the  land  of  bondage  anything  good,  that  "  he  cursed 
him  and  drove  the  young  man  from  his  presence."  Then  follow  a  series 
of  adventures  told  in  allegorical  language,  which  show  that  Jesus  supple- 
mented his  initiation  in  the  Jewish  Kabala  with  an  additional  acquisition 
of  the  secret  wisdom  of  Egypt.  When  the  persecution  ceased,  they 
both  returned  to  Judea.  * 

The  real  grievances  against  Jesus  are  stated  by  the  learned  author 
of  Tela  Ignea  SatancB  (the  fiery  darts  of  Satan)  to  be  two  in  number  : 
ist,  that  he  had  discovered  the  great  Mysteries  of  their  Temple,  by 
having  been  initiated  in  Egypt ;  and  2d,  that  he  had  profaned  them  by 
exposing  them  to  the  vulgar,  who  misunderstood  and  disfigured  them. 
.This  is  what  they  say :  f 

"  There  exists,  in  the  sanctuary  of  the  living  God,  a  cubical  stone,  on 
which  are  sculptured  the  holy  characters,  the  combination  of  which  gives 
the  explanation  of  the  attributes  and  powers  of  the  incommunicable 
name.  This  explanation  is  the  secret  key  of  all  the  occult  sciences  and 
forces  in  nature.  It  is  what  the  Hebrews  call  the  Schani  hainphorash. 
This  stone  is  watched  by  two  lions  of  gold,  who  roar  as  soon  as  it  is 
approached. I     The  gates  of  the  temple  were  never  lost  sight  of,  and  the 

*  Eliphas  Levi  ascribes  this  narrative  to  the  Talmudist  authors  of  "  Sota "  and 
''Sanhedrin,"  p.  ig,  book  of  "Jenhiel." 

f  This  fragment  is  translated  from  the  original  Hebrew  by  Eliphas  Levi  in  his  "  La 
Science  des  Esprits." 

X  Those  who  know  anything  of  the  rites  of  the  Hebrews  must  recognize  in  these 
lions  the  gigantic  figures  of  the  Cherubim,  whose  symbolical  monstrosity  was  well  cal-, 
culated  to  frighten  and  put  to  flight  the  profane. 


door  of  the  sanctuary  opened  but  once  a  year,  to  admit  the  High  Pnest 
alone.  But  Jesus,  who  had  learned  in  Egypt  the  'great  secrets'  at  the 
initiation,  forged  for  himself  invisible  keys,  and  thus  was  enabled  to  pen- 
etrate into  the  sanctuary  unseen.  ...  He  copied  the  characters  on  the 
cubical  stone,  and  hid  them  in  his  thigh ;  *  after  which,  emerging  from 
the  temple,  he  went  abroad  and  began  astounding  people  with  his  mira- 
cles. The  dead  were  raised  at  his  command,  the  leprous  and  the  obsessed 
were  healed.  He  forced  the  stones  which  lay  buried  for  ages  at  the  bot- 
tom of  the  sea  to  rise  to  the  surface  until  they  formed  a  mountain,  from 
the  top  of  which  he  preached."  The  Sepher  Toldos  states  further  that, 
unable  to  displace  the  cubical  stone  of  the  sanctuary,  Jesus  fabricated  one 
of  clay,  which  he  showed  to  the  nations  and  passed  it  off  for  the  true 
cubical  stone  of  Israel. 

This  allegory,  like  the  rest  of  them  in  such  books,  is  written  "  inside 
and  outside" — it  has  its  secret  meaning,  and  ought  to  be  read  two  ways. 
The  kabalistic  books  explain  its  mystical  meaning.  Further,  the  same 
Talmudist  says,  in  substance,  the  following  :  Jesus  was  thrown  in  prison,  f 
and  kept  there  forty  days  ;  then  flogged  as  a  seditious  rebel ;  then  stoned 
as  a  blasphemer  in  a  place  called  Lud,  and  finally  allowed  to  expire  upon 
a  cross.  "All  this,"  explains  Levi,  "because  he  revealed  to  the  people 
the  truths  which  they  (the  Pharisees)  wished  to  bury  for  their  own  use. 
He  had  divined  the  occult  theology  of  Israel,  had  compared  it  with  the 
wisdom  of  Egypt,  and  found  thereby  the  reason  for  a  universal  religious 
synthesis."  \ 

However  cautious  one  ought  to  be  in  accepting  anything  about  Jesus 
from  Jewish  sources,  it  must  be  confessed  that  in  some  things  they  seem 
to  be  more  correct  in  their  statements  (whenever  their  direct  interest  in 
stating  facts  is  not  concerned)  than  our  good  but  too  jealous  Fathers. 
One  thing  is  certain,  James,  the  "  Brother  of  the  Lord,"  is  silent  about 
the  resun-ection.  He  terms  Jesus  nowhere  "Son  of  God,"  nor  even 
Christ-God.  Once  only,  speaking  of  Jesus,  he  calls  him  the  "  Lord  of 
Glory,"  but  so  do  the  Nazarenes  when  writing  about  their  prophet /(7/i(7«a« 
bar  Zacharia,  or  John,  son  of  Zacharias  (St.  John  Baptist).  Their  favo- 
rite expressions  about  their  prophet  are  the  same  as  those  used  by  James 
when  speaking  of  Jesus.  A  man  "  of  the  seed  of  a  man,"  "  Messenger  of 
Life,"  of  light,  "my  Lord  Apostle,"  "King  sprung  of  Light,"  and  so  on. 
,"FIave  not  the  faith  of  our  Z^/v/ Jesus  Christ,  the  Lord  of  Glory"  etc., 

*  Ai"nobius  tells  the  same  story  of  Jesus,  and  narrates  how  he  was  accused  of  having 
robbed  the  sanctuary  of  the  secret  names  of  the  Holy  One,  by  means  of  which  knowledge 
he  performed  all  the  miracles. 

f  This  is  a  translation  of  Eliphas  Levi.  %  "  La  Science  des  Esprits,"  p.  37, 


says  James  in  his  epistle  (ii.  i),  presumably  addressing  CJirist  as  God. 
"  Peace  to  thee,  my  Lord,  John  Abo  Sabo,  Lord  of  Glory  !  "  says  the 
Codex  Nazaraus  (ii.,  ig),  known  to  address  but  a  prophet.  "Ye  have 
condemned  and  killed  the  Just"  says  James  (v.  6).  "  lohanan  (John)  is 
the  Just  one,  he  comes  in  the  way  oi  justice"  says  Matthew  (xxi.  32, 
Syriac  text). 

James  does  not  even  call  Jesus  Messiah,  in  the  sense  given  to  the 
title  by  the  Christians,  but  alludes  to  the  kabalistic  "King  Messiah," 
who  is  Lord  of  Sabaoth  *  (v.  4),  and  repeats  several  times  that  the 
"  Lord  "  will  come,  but  identifies  the  latter  nowhere  with  Jesus.  "Be 
patient,  therefore,  brethren,  unto  the  coming  of  the  Lord  ...  be 
patient,  for  the  coming  of  the  Lord  draweth  nigh "  (v.  7,  8).  And  he 
adds:  "Take,  my  brethren,  the  prophet  (Jesus)  who  has  spoken  in  the 
7iame  of  the  Lord  for  an  example  of  suffering,  affliction,  and  of  patience." 
Though  in  the  present  version  the  word  "  prophet  "  stands  in  the  plural, 
yet  this  is  a  deliberate  falsification  of  the  original,  the  purpose  of  which 
is  too  evident.  James,  immediately  after  having  cited  the  "  prophets  "  as 
an  example,  adds  :  "  Behold  ...  ye  have  heard  of  the  patience  of  Job, 
3.ndL  have  seen  the  end  of  the  Lord" — thus  combining  the  examples  of 
these  two  admirable  characters,  and  placing  them  on  a  perfect  equality. 
But  we  have  more  to  adduce  in  support  of  our  argument.  Did  not  Jesus 
himself  glorify  the  prophet  of  the  Jordan?  "What  went  ye  out  for  to 
see  ?  A  prophet  ?  Yea,  I  say  unto  you,  and  more  than  a  prophet.  .  .  . 
Verily,  I  say  unto  you,  among  them  that  are  born  of  -women  there  hath 
not  risen  a  greater  than  John  the  Baptist." 

And  of  whom  was  he  who  spoke  thus  born  ?  It  is  but  the  Roman 
Catholics  who  have  changed  Mary,  the  mother  of  Jesus,  into  a  goddess. 
In  the  eyes  of  all  other  Christians  she  was  a  woman,  whether  his  own 
birth  was  immaculate  or  otherwise.  According  to  strict  logic,  then,  Jesus 
confessed  John  greater  than  himself.  Note  how  completely  this  matter 
is  disposed  of  by  the  language  employed  by  the  Angel  Gabriel  when 
addressing  Mary  :  "  Blessed  art  thou  among  women."  These  words  are 
unequivocal.  He  does  not  adore  her  as  the  Mother  of  God,  nor  does  he 
call  her  goddess ;  he  does  not  even  address  her  as  "Virgin,"  but  he  calls 
her  woman,  and  only  distinguishes  her  above  other  women  as  having  had 
better  fortune,  through  her  purity. 

The  Nazarenes  were  known  as  Baptists,  Sabians,  and  John's  Chris- 
tians. Their  behef  was  that  the  Messiah  was  not  the  Son  of  God,  but  sim- 
ply a  prophet  who  would  follow  John.  "Johanan,  the  Son  of  the  Abo 
Sabo  Zachariah,  shall  say  to  himself,  '  Whoever  will  believe  in  my  justice 

*  "  Israelite  Indeed,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  61. 


and  ray  Baptism  shall  be  joined  to  my  association  ;  he  shall  share  with 
nie  the  seat  which  is  the  abode  of  life,  of  the  supreme  Mano,  and  of  living 
fire"  {Codex NazarcEus,  ii.,  p.  115).  Origan  remarks  "  there  are  some  who 
said  of  John  (the  Baptist)  that  he  was  the  anointed  (Christus).  *  The 
Angel  Rasiel  of  the  kabalists  is  the  Angel  Gabriel  of  the  Nazarenes,  and 
it  is  the  latter  who  is  chosen  of  all  the  celestial  hierarchy  by  the  Chris- 
tians to  become  the  messenger  of  the  '  annunciation.'  The  genius  sent 
by  the  'Lord  of  Celsitude'  is  ^Ebel  Zivo,  whose  name  is  also  called 
Gabriel  Legatus."  f  Paul  must  have  had  the  sect  of  the  Nazarenes  in 
mind  when  he  said  :  "  And  last  of  all  he  (Jesus)  was  seen  of  me  also,  as 
of  one  born  out  of  due  time"  (i  Coritith.,  xv.  8),  thus  reminding  his  listen- 
ers of  the  expression  usual  to  the  Nazarenes,  who  termed  the  Jews  "  the 
abortions,  or  born  out  of  time."  Paul  prides  himself  of  belonging  to  a 

When  the  metaphysical  conceptions  of  the  Gnostics,  who  saw  in  Jesus 
the  Logos  and  the  anointed,  began  to  gain  ground,  the  earliest  Christians 
separated  from  the  Nazarenes,  who  accused  Jesus  of  perverting  the  doc- 
trines of  John,  and  changing  the  baptism  of  the  Jordan.  §  "Directly," 
says  Milman,  "  as  it  (the  Gospel)  got  beyond  the  borders  of  Palestine, 
and  the  name  of  'Christ'  had  acquired  sanctity  and  veneration  in  the 
Eastern  cities,  he  became  a  kind  of  metaphysical  itnpersonation,  while  the 
religion  lost  its  purely  moral  cast  and  assumed  the  character  of  a  specula- 
tive theogony."  ||  The  only  half-original  document  that  has  reached  us 
from  the  primitive  apostolic  days,  is  the  Logia  of  Matthew.  The  real, 
genuine  doctrine  has  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  Nazarenes,  in  this 
Gospel  0/ Afatthew  zontaXmng  the  "Secret  doctrine,"  the  "Sayings  of 
Jesus,"  mentioned  by  Papias.  These  sayings  were,  no  doubt,  of  the  same 
nature  as  the  small  manuscripts  jilaced  in  the  hands  of  the  neophytes, 
who  were  candidates  for  the  Initiations  into  the  Mysteries,  and  which 
contained  the  Aporrheta,  the  revelations  of  some  important  rites  and 
symbols.  For  why  should  Matthew  take  such  precautions  to  make  them 
"secret"  were  it  otherwise  ? 

Primitive  Christianity  had  its  grip,  pass-words,  and  degrees  of  initia- 
tion. The  innumerable  Gnostic  gems  and  amulets  are  weighty  proofs  of 
it.  It  is  a  whole  symbolical  science.  The  kabalists  were  the  first  to 
embellish  the  universal  Logos,^  with  such  terms  as  "  Light  of  Light,"  the 

*  "Origen,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  150.  \  "Codex  Nazarseus,"  vol.  i.,  p.  23. 

X  "  In  the  way  these  call  heresy  I  worship"  (Acts  xxiv.  14). 

§  "Codex  Nazaraeus,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  109.  J  "Milman,"  p.  200. 

T[  Dunlap  says  in  "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man  :  "  "  Mr  Hall,  of  India,  informs  us 
that  he  has  seen  Sanscrit  philosophical  treatises  in  which  the  Logos  continually  occur," 
p.  39,  foot-note. 


Messenger  of  Life  and  Light,  *  and  we  find  these  expressions  adopted 
in  toto  by  the  Christians,  with  the  addition  of  nearly  all  the  ,Gnostic  terms 
such  as  Pleroma  (fulness),  Archons,  ^-Eons,  etc.  As  to  the  "First-Born," 
the  First,  and  the  '-Only-Begotten,"  these  are  as  old  as  the  world. 
Origen  shows  the  word  ''Logos"  as  existing  among  the  Brachmanes. 
"The  Brachinaiics  say  that  the  God  is  Light,  not  such  as  one  sees,  nor 
such  as  the  sun  and  fire  ;  but  they  have  the  God  Logos,  not  the  articu- 
late, the  Logos  of  the  Gnosis,  through  whom  the  highest  mysteries  of 
the  Gnosis  are  seen  by  the  wise."  f  The  Acts  and  the  fourth  Gospel 
teem  with  Gnostic  expressions.  The  kabalistic  :  "  God's  first-born 
emanated  from  the  AEost  High,"  together  with  that  which  is  the  "  Spirit 
of  the  Anointing ;"  and  again  "  they  called  him  the  anointed  of  die 
Highest,"  \  are  reproduced  in  Spirit  and  substance  by  the  author  of  the 
Gospel  according  to  John.  "That  was  the  true  light,"  and  "  the  light 
shineth  in  darkness."  "  And  the  word  was  rnade  flesh."  "  And  his 
fulness  (pleroma)  have  all  we  received,"  etc.   {John  i.  et  seq.). 

The  "  Christ,"  then,  and  the  "  Logos"  existed  ages  before  Christian- 
ity ;  the  Oriental  Gnosis  was  studied  long  before  the  days  of  Moses,  and 
we  have  to  seek  for  the  origin  of  all  these  in  the  archaic  periods  of  the 
primeval  Asiatic  philosophy.  Peter's  second  Epistle  and  Jude's  fragment, 
preserved  in  the  New  Testament,  show  by  their  phraseology  that  they 
belong  to  the  kabalistic  Oriental  Gnosis,  for  they  use  the  same  expres- 
sions as  did  the  Christian  Gnostics  who  built  a  part  of  their  system  from 
the  Oriental  Kahala.  "  Presumptuous  are  they  (the  Ophites),  self-willed, 
they  are  not  afraid  to  speak  evil  of  Dignities,"  says  Peter  (2d  Epistle 
ii.  10),  the  original  model  for  the  later  abusive  Tertullian  and  Irensus.  § 
"  Likewise  (even  as  Sodom  and  Gomorrah)  also  these  filthy  dreamers 
defile  the  flesh,  despise  Dominion"  and  speak  evil  of  Dignities,"  says 
Jude,  repeating  the  very  words  of  Peter,  and  thereby  expressions  con- 
secrated in  the  Kahala.  Dominion  is  the  "  Empire,"  the  tenth  of  the 
kabalistic  sephiroth.||     The  Powers  and  Dignities   are   the  subordinate 

*  See  John  i.  f  Origen  :    "  Philosophumena,"  xxiv. 

\  Kleuker  :  "  Natur  und  Ursprung  der  Emanationslehre  bei  den  Kabbalisten,"  pp. 
10,  II  ;  see  "  Libri  Slysterii." 

§  "  These  as  natural  brtite  beasts."  "  The  dog  has  turned  to  its  own  vomit  again  ; 
and  the  sow  that  was  washed  to  her  wallowing  in  the  mire  "  (22). 

I  The  types  of  the  creation,  or  the  attributes  of  the  Supreme  Being,  are  through  the 
emanations  of  Adam  Kadmou  ;  these  are  :  ''The  Crawn^  IVisdovi,  Prudence,  Magni- 
ficence, Severity,  Beauty,  Victory,  Glory,  Foundation,  Empire.  Wisdom  is  called 
yeh;  Prudence,  jfehovah  ;  Severity,  Elokim ;  Magnificence,  El;  Victory  and  Glory, 
S.\BA.OTH  ;  Empire  or  Dominion,  Adomai.  "  Thus  when  the  Nazarenes  and  other 
Gnostics  of  the  more  Platonic  tendency  twitted  the  Jews  as  "abortions  who  worship 


genii  of  the  Archangels  and  Angels  of  the  SoJiar.  *  These  emana- 
tions are  the  very  life  and  soul  of  the  Kabala  and  Zoroastranism  ;  and 
the  Talmud  itself,  in  its  present  state,  is  all  borrowed  from  the  Zend- 
avesta.  Therefore,  by  adopting  the  views  of  Peter,  Jude,  and  other  Jew- 
ish apostles,  the  Christians  have  become  but  a  dissenting  sect  of  the  Per- 
sians, for  they  do  not  even  interpret  the  meaning  of  all  such  Powers  as 
the  true  kabalists  do.  Paul's  warning  his  converts  against  the  worship- 
ping of  angels,  shows  how  well  he  appreciated,  even  so  early  as  his  period, 
the  dangers  of  borrowing  from  a  metaphysical  doctrine  the  philosophy  of 
which  could  be  rightly  interpreted  but  by  its  well-learned  adherents,  the 
Magi  and  the  Jewish  Tanai'm.  "  Let  no  man  beguile  you  of  your  reward 
iu  a  voluntary  humility  and  worshipping  of  angels,  intruding  into  those 
things  which  he  hath  not  seen,  vainly  puffed  up  by  his  fleshly  mind,"  f  is 
a  sentence  laid  right  at  the  door  of  Peter  and  his  champions.  In  the 
Talmud,  Michael  is  Prince  of  Water,  who  has  seven  inferior  spirits  sub- 
ordinate to  him.  He  is  the  patron,  the  guardian  angel  of  the  Jews,  as 
Daniel  informs  us  (v.  21),  and  the  Greek  Ophites,  who  identified  him  with 
their  Ophiomorphos,  the  personified  creation  of  the  envy  and  mahce  of 
Ilda-Baoth,  the  Demiurgus  (Creator  of  the  material  world),  and  under- 
took to  prove  that  he  was  also  Samuel,  the  Hebrew  prince  of  the  evil 
sjiirits,  or  Persian  devs,  were  naturally  regarded  by  the  Jews  as  blas- 
phemers. But  did  Jesus  ever  sanction  this  belief  in  angels  except  in  so 
far  as  hinting  that  they  were  the  messengers  and  subordinates  of  God  ? 
And  here  the  origin  of  the  later  splits  between  Christian  beliefs  is  directly 
traceable  to  these  two  early  contradictory  views. 

Paul,  believing  in  all  such  occult  powers  in  the  world  "  unseen,"  but 
ever  "  present,"  says  :  "Ye  walked  according  to  the  ^on  of  this  world, 
according  to  the  Archon  (Ilda-Baoth,  the  Demiurg)  that  has  the  domina- 
tion of  the  air,"  and  "  We  wrestle  not  against  flesh  and  blood,  but 
against  the  dominations,  the  po7uers  ;  the  lords  of  darkness,  the  mischiev- 
ousness  of  spirits  in  the  upper  regions."  This  sentence,  "  Ye  were  dead 
in  sin  and  error,"  for  "  ye  walked  according  to  the  Archon,"  or  Ilda- 
Baoth,  the  God  and  creator  of  matter  of  the  Ophites,  shows  unequivocally 
that :  ist,  Paul,  notwithstanding  some  dissensions  with  the  more  important 
doctrines  of  the  Gnostics,  shared  more  or  less  their  cosmogonical  views 
on  the  emanations  ;  and  2d,  that  he  was  fully  aware  that  this  Demiurge, 

their  god  Turbo,  Adiinai,''''  we  need  not  wonder  at  the  wrath  of  those  who  had  ac- 
cepted the  old  Mosaic  system,  but  at  that  of  Peter  and  Jude  who  claim  to  be  followers 
of  Jesus  and  dissent  from  the  views  of  him  who  was  also  a  Nazarene. 

*  According  to  the  "  Kabala,"  Empire  or  Dominion  is  "  the  consuming  fire,  and 
his  wife  is  the  Temple  or  the  Church." 

\  Colossians  ii.  18. 


whose  Jewish  name  was  Jehovah,  was  not  the  God  preached  by  Jesus. 
And  now,  if  we  compare  the  doctrine  of  Paul  with  the  religious  views  of 
Peter  and  Jude,  we  find  that,  not  only  did  they  worship  Michael,  the 
Archangel,  but  that  also  they  reverenced  Satan,  because  the  latter  was 
also,  before  his  fall,  an  angel  !  This  they  do  quite  openly,  and  abuse  the 
Gnostics*  for  speaking  "  evil"  of  him.  No  one  can  deny  the  following: 
Peter,  when  denouncing  those  who  are  not  afraid  to  speak  evil  of  ''dig- 
nities^' adds  immediately,  "  Whereas  angels,  which  are  greater  in  power 
and  might,  bring  Jiot  railing  accusations  against  them  (the  dignities) 
before  the  Lord"  (ii.  ii).  Who  are  the  dignities?  Jude,  in  his  general 
epistle,  makes  the  word  as  clear  as  day.  The  dignities  are  the  devils  !  ! 
Complaining  of  the  disrespect  shown  by  the  Gnostics  to  the  -powers  and 
dominions,  Jude  argues  in  the  very  words  of  Peter  :  "  And  yet,  Michael, 
the  Archangel,  when  contending  with  the  devil,  he  disputed  about  the 
body  of  Moses,  durst  not  bring  against  him  a  railing  accusation,  but  said. 
The  Lord  rebuke  thee  "  (i.  9).  Is  this  plain  enough  ?  If  not,  then  we 
have  the  Kabala  to  prove  who  were  the  dignities. 

Considering  that  Deuteronomy  tells  us  that  the  "  Lord "  Himself 
buried  Moses  in  a  valley  of  Moab  (xxxiv.  6),  "  and  no  man  knoweth  of 
his  sepulchre  unto  this  day,"  this  biblical  lapsus  lingtca  of  Jude  gives  a 
strong  coloring  to  the  assertions  of  some  of  the  Gnostics.  They  claimed 
but  what  was  secretly  taught  by  the  Jewish  kabalists  themselves  ;  to 
wit  :  that  the  highest  supreme  God  was  unknown  and  invisible  ;  "  the 
King  of  Light  is  a  closed  eye  ;  "  that  Ilda-Baoth,  the  Jewish  second  Adam, 
was  the  real  Demiurge ;  and  that  lao,  Adonai,  Sabaoth,  and  Eloi  were 
the  quaternary  emanation  which  formed  the  unity  of  the  God  of  the  He- 
brews— Jehovah.  Moreover,  the  latter  was  also  called  Michael  and 
Samael  by  them,  and  regarded  but  as  an  angel,  several  removes  from  the 
Godhead.  In  holding  to  such  a  belief,  the  Gnostics  countenanced  the 
teachings  of  the  greatest  of  the  Jewish  doctors,  Hillel,  and  other  Babylo- 
nian divines.  Josephus  shows  the  great  deference  of  the  official  Synagogue 
in  Jerusalem  to  the  wisdom  of  the  schools  of  Central  Asia.  The  colleges 
of  Sora,  Pumbiditha,  and  Nahaidea  were  considered  the  headquarters  of 
esoteric  and  theological  learning  by  all  the  schools  of  Palestine.  The 
Chaldean  version  of  the  Pentateuch,  made  by  the  well-known  Babylonian 
divine,  Onkelos,  was  regarded  as  the  most  authoritative  of  all  ;  and  it  is 
according  to  this  learned  Rabbi  that  Hillel  and  other  Tanaim  after  him 
held  that  the  Being  who  appeared  to  Moses  in  the  burning  bush,  on 
Mount   Sinai,  and  who   finally  buried   him,  was  the   angel  of  the   Lord, 

*  It  is  more  likely  that  both  abused  Paul,  who  preached  against  this  belief;  and 
that  the  Gnostics  were  only  a  pretext.     (See  Peter's  second  Epistle.) 


Memro,  and  not  the  Lord  Himself ;  and  that  he  whom  the  Hebrews  of  the 
Old  Testament  mistook  for  lahoh  was  but  His  messenger,  one  of  His  sons, 
or  emanations.  All  this  establishes  but  one  logical  conclusion — namely, 
that  the  Gnostics  were  by  far  the  superiors  of  the  disciples,  in  point  of 
education  and  general  information  ;  even  in  a  knowledge  of  the  religious 
tenets  of  the  Jews  themselves.  While  they  were  perfectly  well-versed  in 
the  Chaldean  wisdom,  the  well-meaning,  pious,  but  fanatical  as  well  as 
ignorant  disciples,  unable  to  fully  understand  or  grasp  the  religious  spirit 
of  their  own  system,  were  driven  in  their  disputations  to  such  convincing 
logic  as  the  use  of  "  brute  beasts,"  "  sows,"  "  dogs,"  and  other  epithets 
so  freely  bestowed  by  Peter. 

Since  then,  the  epidemic  has  reached  the  apex  of  the  sacerdotal  hier- 
archy. From  the  day  when  the  founder  of  Christianity  uttered  the  warn- 
ing, that  he  who  shall  say  to  his  brother,  "  Thou  fool,  shall  be  in  danger 
ofliell-fire,"  all  who  have  passed  as  its  leaders,  beginning  with  the  ragged 
fishermen  of  Galilee,  and  ending  with  the  jewelled  pontiffs,  have  seemed 
to  vie  with  each  other  in  the  invention  of  opprobrious  epithets  for  their 
opponents.  So  we  find  Luther  passing  a  final  sentence  on  the  Catholics, 
and  exclaiming  that  "  The  Papists  are  all  asses,  put  them  in  whatever 
form  you  like  ;  whether  they  are  boiled,  roasted,  baked,  fried,  skinned, 
hashed,  they  will  be  always  the  same  asses."  Calvin  called  the  victims 
he  persecuted,  and  occasionally  burned,  "malicious  barking  dogs,  full  of 
bestiality  and  insolence,  base  corrupters  of  the  sacred  writings,"  etc. 
Dr.  Warburton  terms  the  Popish  religion  "  an  impious  farce,"  and  JMon- 
seigneur  Dupanloup  asserts  that  the  Protestant  Sabbath  service  is  the 
"Devil's  mass,"  and  all  clergymen  are  "thieves  and  ministers  of  the 

The  same  spirit  of  incomplete  inquiry  and  ignorance  has  led  the 
Christian  Church  to  bestow  on  its  most  holy  apostles,  titles  assumed  by 
their  most  desperate  opponents,  the  "  Hasretics  "  and  Gnostics.  So  we 
find,  for  instance,  Paul  termed  the  vase  of  election  "  Vas  Electio?iis"  a 
title  chosen  by  Manes,  *  the  greatest  heretic  of  his  day  in  the  eyes  of  the 
Church,  Manes  meaning,  in  the  Babylonian  language,  the  chosen  vessel 
or  receptacle,  f 

So  with  the  Virgin  Mary.  They  were  so  little  gifted  with  originality, 
that  they  copied  from  the   Egyptian  and  Hindu  religions  their  several 

*  The  true  name  of  Manes — who  was  a  Persian  by  birth — was  Cubricus.  (See 
Epiph.  "Life  of  Manes,"  Ha;ret.  Ixv.)  He  was  flayed  alive  at  the  instance  of  the 
Magi,  by  the  Persian  King  Varanes  I.  Plutarch  says  that  Manes  or  Manis  means 
Masses  or  anointed.  The  vessel,  or  vase  of  election,  is,  therefore,  the  vessel  full  of 
that  light  of  God,  which  he  pours  on  one  he  has  selected  for  his  interpreter. 
\  See  King's  "  Gnostics,"  p.  38. 


apostrophes  to  their  respective  Virgin-mothers, 
few  examples  will  make  this  clear. 


Litany  of  our  Lady  Nari : 


{Also  Devanaki.) 

1.  Holy  Nari — Mariama, 
Mother  of  perpetual  fe- 

2.  Mother  of  an  incarnated 
God — Vishnu  (Devan- 

3.  Mother  of  Christna. 

4.  Eternal  Virginity — Kan- 

5.  Mother — Pure  Essence, 

6.  Virgin  most  chaste — 

7.  Mother  Taumatra,  of 
the  five  virtues  or  ele- 

8.  Virgin  Trigana  (of  the 
three  elements,  power 
or  richness,  love,  and 

9.  Mirror  of  Supreme  Con- 
science— Ahancara. 

10.  Wise  Mother — Saras- 

11.  Virgin  of  the  white 
Lotos,  Pedma  or  Kam- 

12.  Womb  of  Gold — Hy- 

13.  Celestial  Light — Lak- 

14.  Ditto. 

15.  Queen  of  Heaven,  and 
of  the  universe — Sakti. 

16.  Mother  soul  of  all 
beings — Paramatma. 

17.  Devanaki  is  conceived 
without  sin,  and  immacu- 
late herself.  (According 
to  the  Brahmanic  fancy. ) 



Litany  of  our  Lady  Lsis  : 


I.   Holy      lsis,      universal 
mother — Muth. 

2.  Mother      of 


The  juxtaposition  of  a 

Roman  Catholic. 
Litany   of  our    La^y   of 
Loretto  :   Virgin.      * 

1.  Holy  Mary,   mother  of 
divine  grace. 

2.  Mother  of  God. 

3.  Mother  of  Horus. 

4.  Virgo  generatrix — 

5.  Mother-soul  of  the  uni- 
verse— Anouke. 

6.  Virgin  sacred  earth — 

7.  Mother  of  all  the  vir- 
tues— Thmei,  with  the 
same  qualities. 

8.  Illustrious  lsis,  most 
powerful,  merciful,  just. 
{Book  of  the  Dead.) 

g.  Mirror  of  Justice  and 
Truth — Thmei. 

10.  Mysterious  mother  of 
the  world — Buto  (secret 

11.  Sacred  Lotos. 

12.  Sistrum  of  Gold. 

13.  Astarte    (Syrian),    As- 
taroth  (Jewish). 

14.  Argua  of  the  Moon. 

15.  Queen  of  Heaven,  and 
of  the  universe — Sati. 

16.  Model  of   all    mothers 
— Athor. 

17.  lsis  is  a  Virgin  Mother. 

3.  Mother  of  Christ. 

4.  Virgin  of  Virgms. 

5.  Mother  of  Divine  Grace. 

6.  Virgin  most  chaste. 

7.  Mother  most  pure. 
Mother  undefiled. 
Mother  inviolate. 
Mother  most  amiable. 
Mother  most  admirable. 

8.  Virgin  most  powerful. 
Virgin  most  merciful. 
Virgin  most  faithful. 

9.  Mirror  of  Justice. 

10.  Seat  of  Wisdom. 

11.  Mystical  Rose. 

12.  House  of  Gold. 

13.  Morning  Star. 

14.  Ark  of  the  Covenant. 

15.  Queen  of  Heaven. 

16.  Mater  Dolorosa. 

17.  Mary  conceived  with- 
out sin.  (In  accordance 
with  later  orders.) 


If  the  Virgin  Mary  has  her  nuns,  who  are  consecrated  to  her  and 
bound  to  live  in  chastity,  so  had  Isis  her  nuns  in  Egypt,  as  Vesta  had 
hers  at  Rome,  and  the  Hindu  Nari,  "  mother  of  the  world  hers."  The 
virgins  consecrated  to  her  cultus — the  Devadasi  of  the  temples,  whu 
were"^the  nuns  of  the  days  of  old — lived  in  great  chastity,  and  were 
objects  of  the  most  extraordinary  veneration,  as  the  holy  women  of  the 
goddess.  Would  the  missionaries  and  some  travellers  reproachfully  point 
to  the  modern  Devadasis,  or  Nautch-girls  ?  For  all  response,  we  would 
beg  them  to  consult  the  official  reports  of  the  last  quarter  century,  cited 
in  chapter  II.,  as  to  certain  discoveries  made  at  the  razing  of  convents, 
in  Austria  and  Italy.  Thousands  of  infants'  skulls  were  exhumed  from 
ponds,  subterranean  vaults,  and  gardens  of  convents.  Nothing  to  match 
this  was  ever  found  in  heathen  lands. 

Christian  theology,  getting  the  doctrine  of  the  archangels  and  angels 
directly  from  the  Oriental  Kabala,  of  which  the  Mosaic  Bible  is  but  an 
allegorical  screen,  ought  at  least  to  remember  the  hierarchy  invented  by 
the  former  for  these  personified  emanations.  The  hosts  of  the  Cherubim 
and  Seraphim,  with  which  we  generally  see  the  Catholic  Madonnas  sur- 
rounded in  their  pictures,  belong,  together  with  the  Elohira  and  Beni 
Elohim  of  the  Hebrews,  to  the  third  kabalistic  world,  Jezirah.  This 
world  is  but  one  remove  higher  than  Asiah.  the  fourth  and  lowest  world, 
in  which  dwell  the  grossest  and  most  material  beings — the  klippoih,  who 
delight  in  evil  and  mischief,  and  whose  chief  is  Belial ! 

Explaining,  in  his  way,  of  course,  the  various  "  heresies  "  of  the  first 
two  centuries,  Irenseus  says  :  "  Our  Haeretics  hold  .  .  .  that  Propator 
is  known  but  to  the  only-begotten  son,  that  is  to  the  mind"  (the  nous). 
It  was  the  Valentinians,  the  followers  of  the  "  profoundest  doctor  of  the 
Gnosis,"  Valentinus,  who  held  that  "there  was  a  perfect  Ai6n,  who 
existed  before  Bythos,  or  Buthon  (the  Depth),  called  Propator.  This  is 
again  kabalistic,  for  in  the  Sohar  of  Simon  Ben  lochai,  we  read  the  fol- 
lowing :  "  Senior  occiiltatus  est  et  absco?iditus  ;  Microprosopus  manifestus 
est,  ei  non  manifestus"  (Rosenroth  :   The   Sohar  Liber  Mysteries,  \v.,  \). 

In  the  rehgious  metaphysics  of  the  Hebrews,  fhe  Highest  One  is  an 
abstraction  ;  he  is  "without  form  or  being,"  "with  no  likeness  with  any- 
thing else."  *  And  even  Philo  calls  the  Creator,  the  Logos  who  stands 
next  God,  "  the  second  God."  "The  second  God  who  is  his  wisdom."  \ 
God  is  NOTHING,  he  is  nameless,  and  therefore  called  Ain-Soph — the  word 
Ain  meaning  nothing.  \  But  if,  according  to  the  older  Jews,  Jehovah  is 
the  God,  and  He  manifested   Himself  several  times   to  Moses  and  the 

*  Franck:     "  Die  Kabbala,"  p.  126.  \  Philo  :     "  Quaest.  et  Solut." 

%  See  Franck  :      "  Die  Kabbala,"  p.  153  ff. 


prophets,  and  the  Christian  Church  anathematized  the  Gnostics  who  denied 
the  fact — how  comes  it,  then,  that  we  read  in  the  fourth  gospel  that  '■'■No 
man  hath  seen  God  at  any  time,  but  the  only-begotten  Son  ...  he  hath 
declared  him  ?  "  The  very  words  of  the  Gnostics,  in  spirit  and  substance. 
This  sentence  of  St.  John — or  rather  whoever  wrote  the  gospel  now 
bearing  his  name — floors  all  the  Petrine  arguments  against  Simon  Magus, 
without  appeal.  The  words  are  repeated  and  emphasized  in  chapter  vi. : 
"  Not  that  any  man  hath  seen  the  Father,  save  he  which  is  of  God,  he 
(Jesus)  hath  seen  the  Father"  (46) — the  very  objection  brought  forward 
by  Simon  in  the  Homilies.  These  words  prove  that  either  the  author  of 
the  fourth  evangel  had  no  idea  of  the  existence  of  the  Homilies,  or  that 
he  was  not  John,  the  friend  and  companion  of  Peter,  whom  he  contradicts 
point-blank  with  this  emphatic  assertion.  Be  it  as  it  may,  this  sentence, 
hke  many  more  that  might  be  profitably  cited,  blends  Christianity  com- 
pletely with  the  Oriental  Gnosis,  and  hence  with  the  kabala. 

While  the  doctrines,  ethical  code,  and  observances  of  the  Christian 
religion  were  all  appropriated  from  Brahmanism  and  Buddhism,  its  cere- 
monials, vestments,  and  pageantry  were  taken  bodily  from  Lamaism. 
The  Romish  monastery  and  nunnery  are  almost  servile  copies  of  similar 
religious  houses  in  Thibet  and  Mongolia,  and  interested  explorers  of  Budd- 
hist lands,  when  obliged  to  mention  the  unwelcome  fact,  have  had  no 
other  alternative  left  them  but,  with  an  anachronism  unsurpassed  in  reck- 
lessness, to  charge  the  offense  of  plagiarism  upon  the  religious  system 
their  own  mother  Church  had  despoiled.  This  makeshift  has  served  its 
purpose  and  had  its  day.  The  time  has  at  last  come  when  this  page  of 
history  must  be  written. 


*'  Learn  to  know  all,  but  keep  thyself  unknown." — Gnostic  Maxim. 

**There  is  one  God  supreme  over  all  gods,  diviner  than  mortals, 
Whose  form  is  not  like  unto  man's,  and  as  unlike  his  nature  ; 
But  vain  mortals  imagine  that  gods  like  themselves  are  begatteii 
With  human  sensations,  and  voice,  and  corporeal  members." 

— Xenophanes  :     Clem.  Al.  Strom. ^  v.  14,  §  no. 

"TvcHlADES. — Can  you  tell  me  the  reason,  Philocles,  why  most  men  desire  to  lye,  and  delight  not 
only  to  speak  fictions  themselves,  but  give  busie  attention  to  others  who  do  ? 

"  Philocles. — There  be  many  reasons,  Tychiades,  which  compell  some  to  speak  lyes,  because  they 
see  'tis  profitable." — A  Dialogue  0/ Lucian. 

"  Spartan. — Is  it  to  thee,  or  to  God,  that  I  must  confess  ? 

"  Priest.— To  God. 

"  Spartan. — Then,  man,  stand  back  ! " — Plutarch  :     Retnarkahle  Lacede»tonian  Sayings, 

WE  will  now  give  attention  to  some  of  the  most  important  Mysteries 
of  the  Kabala,  and  trace  their  relations  to  the  philosophical 
myths  of  various  nations. 

In  the  oldest  Oriental  Kabala,  the  Deity  is  represented  as  three  cir- 
cles in  one,  shrouded  in  a  certain  smoke  or  chaotic  exhalation.  In  the 
preface  to  the  Sohar,  which  transforms  the  three  primordial  circles  into 
Three  Heads,  over  these  is  described  an  exhalation  or  smoke,  neither 
black  nor  white,  but  colorless,  and  circumscribed  within  a  circle.  This 
is  the  unknown  Essence.*  The  origin  of  the  Jewish  image  may,  perhaps, 
be  traced  to  Hermes'  Pimander,  the  Egyptian  Logos,  who  appears  within 
a  cloud  of  a  humid  nature,  with  a  smoke  escaping  from  it.  f  In  the  Sohar 
the  highest  God  is,  as  we  have  shown  in  the  preceding  chapter,  and  as 
in  the  case  of  the  Hindu  and  Buddhist  philosophies,  a  pure  abstraction, 
whose  objective  existence  is  denied  by  the  latter.  It  is  Hakama,  the 
"  Supreme  Wisdom,  that  cannot  be  understood  by  reflection,"  and  that 
lies  within  and  without  the  Cranium  of  Long  Face  \  (Sephira),  the 
uppermost  of  the  three  "  Heads."  It  is  the  "  boundless  and  the  infinite 
En-Soph,"  the  No-Thing. 

The  "  three  Heads,"  superposed  above  each  other,  are  evidently  taken 
from  the  three  mystic  triangles  of  the  Hindus,  which  also  superpose  each 
other.  The  highest  "  head  "  contains  the  Trinity  in  Chaos,  out  of  which 
springs  the  manifested  trinity.      En-Soph,  the  unrevealed  forever,  who  is 

*  "  Kabbala  Denudata  ;  "   preface  to  the  "  Sohar,"  ii.,  p.  242. 

f  See  ChampoUion's  "  Egypte."  %  "  Idra  Rabba,"  vi.,  p.  58. 


boundless  and  unconditioned,  cannot  create,  and  therefore  it  seems  to  us 
a  great  error  to  attribute  to  him  a  "  creative  thought,"  as  is  commonly 
done  by  the  interpreters.  In  every  cosmogony  this  supreme  Essence  is 
passive ;  if  boundless,  infinite,  and  unconditioned,  it  can  have  no  thought 
nor  idea.  It  acts  not  as  the  result  of  volition,  but  in  obedience  to  its  own 
nature,  and  according  to  the  fatality  of  the  laiv  of  which  it  is  itself  the 
embodiment .  Thus,  with  the  Hebrew  kabalists,  En-Soph  is  non-existent 
I't!,  for  it  is  incomprehensible  to  our  finite  intellects,  and  therefore  cannot 
exist  to  our  minds.  Its  first  emanation  was  Sephira,  the  crown  -ina.  When 
the  time  for  an  active  period  had  come,  then  was  produced  a  natural 
expansion  of  this  Divine  essence  from  within  outwardly,  obedient  to  eter- 
nal and  immutable  law ;  and  from  this  eternal  and  infinite  light  (which  to 
us  is  darkness)  was  emitted  a  spiritual  substance.*  This  was  the  First 
Sephiroth,  containing  in  herself  the  other  nine  ni-i^£0  Sephiroth,  or  intel- 
ligences. In  their  totality  and  unit_y  they  represent  the  archetypal 
man,  Adam  Kadmon,  the  TrpwToyovos,  who  in  his  individuality  or  unity  is 
yet  dual,  or  bisexual,  the  Greek  Didumos,  for  he  is  the  prototype  of  all 
humanity.  Thus  we  obtain  three  trinities,  each  contained  in  a  "head." 
In  the  first  head,  or  face  (the  three-faced  Hindu  Trunurti),  we  find 
Sephira,  the  first  androgyne,  at  the  apex  of  the  upper  triangle,  emit- 
ting Hackama,  or  Wisdom,  a  mascuhne  and  active  potency — also  called 
Jah,  IT'— — and  Binah,  n3''a,  or  Intelligence,  a  female  and  passive  potency, 
also  represented  by  the  name  Jehovah  mni.  These  three  form  the 
first  trinity  or  "  face  "  of  the  Sephiroth.  This  triad  emanated  Hesed, 
ion,  or  Mercy,  a  masculine  active  potency,  also  called  El,  from  which 
emanated  Geburah  t^i,  or  Justice,  also  called  Eloha,  a  feminine  passive 
potency  ;  from  the  union  of  these  two  was  produced  Tiphereth  n-Nsn, 
Beauty,  Clemency,  the  Spiritual  Sun,  known  by  the  divine  name  Elohim  ; 
and  the  second  triad,  "  face,"  or  "  head,"  was  formed.  These  emanating, 
in  their  turn,  the  masculine  potency  Netzah,  n:s3,  Firmness,  or  Jehovah 
Sabaoth,  who  issued  the  feminine  passive  potency  Hod,  nin.  Splendor, 
or  Elohim  Sabaoth  ;  the  two  produced  Jesod,  ■no-'.  Foundation,  who  is 
the  mighty  living  one  El-Chai,  thus  yielding  the  third  trinity  or  "head." 
The  tenth  Sephiroth  is  rather  a  duad,  and  is  represented  on  the  diagrams 
as  the  lowest  circle.  It  is  Malchuth  or  Kingdom,  nisVxi,  and  Shekinah  n5''a», 
also  called  Adonai,  and  Cherubim  among  the  atigelic  hosts.  The  first 
"  Head"  is  called  the  Intellectual  world  ;  the  second  "  Head  "  is  the  Sen- 
suous, or  the  world  of  Perception ,  and  the  third  is  the  Material  or 
Physical  world. 

"  Before  he  gave  any  shape  to  the  universe,"  says  the  Kabala,  "  before 

*  Ii3ra  Suta  :   "  Sohar,"  ii. 


he  produced  any  form,  he  was  alone  without  any  form  and  resemblance 
to  anything  else.  Who,  then,  can  comprehend  him,  how  he  was  before 
the  creation,  since  he  was  formless  ?  Hence,  it  is  forbidden  to  represent 
him  by  any  form,  simiHtude,  or  even  by  his  sacred  name,  by  a  single 
letter,  or  a  single  point.  .  .  .  The  Aged  of  the  Aged,  the  Unknown  of 
the  Unknown,  has  a  form,  and  yet  no  form.  He  has  a  form  whereby  the 
universe  is  preserved,  and  yet  has  no  form,  because  he  cannot  be  com- 
prehended. When  he  first  assumed  a  form  (in  Sephira,  his  first  emana- 
tion), he  caused  nine  splendid  lights  to  emanate  from  it."  * 

And  now  we  will  turn  to  the  Hindu  esoteric  Cosmogony  and  defini- 
tion of  "  Him  who  is,  and  yet  is  not." 

"  From  him  who  is,  f  from  this  immortal  Principle  which  exists  in  our 
minds  but  cannot  be  perceived  by  the  senses,  is  born  Purusha,  the 
Divine  male  and  female,  who  became  Narayana,  or  the  Divine  Spirit 
moving  on  the  water." 

Swayambhuva,  the  unknown  essence  of  the  Brahmans,  is  identical  with 
En-Soph,  the  unknown  essence  of  the  kabalists.  As  with  the  latter,  the 
ineffable  name  could  not  be  pronounced  by  the  Hindus,  under  the  pen- 
alty of  death.  In  the  ancient  primitive  trinity  of  India,  that  which  may 
be  certainly  considered  as  pre-Vedic,  the  germ  which  fecundates  the 
mother-principle,  the  mundane  egg,  or  the  universal  womb,  is  called  Nara, 
the  Spirit,  or  the  Holy  Ghost,  which  emanates  from  the  primordial  essence. 
It  is  like  Sephira,  the  oldest  emanation,  called  xhe  primordial  point,  and  the 
Halite  Head,  for  it  is  the  point  of  divine  light  appearing  from  within  the 
fathomless  and  boundless  darkness.  In  Mann  it  is  "  Nara,  or  the  Spirit 
of  God,  which  moves  on  Ayana  (Chaos,  or  place  of  motion),  and  is  called 
Narayana,  or  moving  on  the  waters."  \  In  Hermes,  the  Egyptian,  we 
read :  "  In  the  beginning  of  the  time  there  was  naught  in  the  chaos." 
But  when  the  "  verbum,"  issuing  from  the  void  hke  a  "colorless  smoke," 
makes  its  appearance,  then  "  this  verbum  moved  on  the  humid  princi- 
ple." §  And  in  Genesis  we  find  :  "  And  darkness  was  upon  the  face 
of  the  deep  (chaos).  And  the  Spirit  of  God  movecl  upon  the  face  of  the 
waters."  In  the  Kabala,  the  emanation  of  the  primordial  passive  principle 
(Sephira),  by  dividing  itself  into  two  parts,  active  and  passive,  emits 
Chochma-Wisdom  and  Binah-Jehovah,  and  in  conjunction  with  these  two 
acolytes,  which  complete  the  trinity,  becomes  the  Creator  of  the  abstract 
Universe  ;  the  physical  world  being  the  production  of  later  and  still 
more  material  powers.  ||     In  the  Hindu  Cosmogony,  Swayambhuva  emits 

*  Idra  Suta:     "Sohar,"  iii. ,  p.  28S  a.  f  Ego  sum  qui  sum  (see  "Bible"). 

\  See  *•  Institutes  of  Manu,"  translated  by  Sir  William  Jones.      §  ChampoUion. 
II  We  are  fully  aware  that  some  Christian  kabalists  term  En-Soph  the  "Crown," 


Nara  and  Nari,  its  bisexual  emanation,  and  dividing  its  parts  into  two 
halves,  male  and  female,  these  fecundate  the  mundane  egg,  within  which 
develops  Brahma,  or  rather  Viradj,  the  Creator.  "The  starting-point  of 
the  Egyptian  mythology,"  says  Champollion,  "  is  a  triad  .  .  .  namely, 
Kneph,  Neith,  and  Phtah  ;  and  Ammon,  the  male,  the  father  ;  iSfuth,  the 
female  and  mother  ;  and  Khons,  the  son. 

The  ten  Sephiroth  are  copies  taken  from  the  ten  Prddjapatis  created 
by  Viradj,  called  the  "  Lords  of  all  beings,"  and  answering  to  the  bibli- 
cal Patriarchs. 

Justin  Martyr  explains  some  of  the  "heresies"  of  the  day,  but  in  a 
very  unsatisfactory  manner.  He  shoivs,  howcc'er,  the  identity  of  all  the 
world-religions  at  their  starting-points.  The  first  beginning  opens  inva- 
riably with  the  unknown  and  passive  deity,  producing  from  himself  a  cer- 

identify  him  with  Sephira  ;  call  En-Soph  "  an  emanation  from  God,"  and  make  the  ten 
Sephiroth  comprise  "En  Soph"  as  a  unity.  They  also  very  erroneously  reverse  the 
first  two  emanations  of  Sephira — Chochma  and  Binah.  The  {greatest  kahalists  have 
always  held  Chochma  (Wisdom)  as  a  male  and  active  intelligence,  Jah  p;-,  and  placed 
it  under  the  No.  2  on  the  right  side  of  the  triangle,  whose  apex  is  the  crown,  while 
Binah  (Intelligence)  or  ri:"':>  's  under  No.  3  on  the  left  hand.  But  the  latter,  being 
represented  by  its  divine  name  as  Jehovah  rnn^>  very  naturally  showed  the  God  of 
Israel  as  only  a  third  emanation,  as  well  as  a  feminine,  passive  principle.  Hence  when 
the  time  came  for  the  Talmudists  to  transform  their  multifarious  deities  into  one  living 
God,  they  resorted  to  their  Masoretic  points  and  combined  to  transform  Jehovah  into 
Adonai,  "  the  Lord."  This,  under  the  persecution  of  the  Mediaeval  kabalists  by  the 
Church,  also  forced  some  of  the  former  to  change  their  female  Sephiioth  into  male,  and 
vice  versa,  so  as  to  avoid  being  accused  of  di.srespect  and  blasphemy  to  Jehovah  ; 
whose  name,  moreover,  by  mutual  and  secret  agreement  they  accepted  as  a  substitute 
for  Jah,  or  the  mystery  name  lAO.  Alone  the  initiated  knew  of  it,  but  later  it  gave 
rise  to  a  great  confusion  among  the  uninitiated.  It  would  be  worth  while — were  it  not 
for  lack  of  space — to  quote  a  few  of  the  many  passages  in  the  oldest  Jewish  authorities, 
such  as  Rabbi  Akiba,  and  the  "Sohar,"  which  corroborate  our  assertion.  Chochma- 
Wisdom  is  a  male  prmciple  everywhere,  and  Binah- Jehovah,  a  female  potency.  The 
writings  of  Irenceus,  Theodoret,  and  Epiphanius,  teeming  with  accusations  against  the 
Gnostics  and  •'  Hgeresies,"  repeatedly  show  Simon  Magus  and  Cerenthus  making  of 
Binah  the  feminine  divine  Spirit  which  inspired  Simon.  Binah  is  Sophia,  and  the 
Sophia  of  the  Gnostics  is  surely  not  a  male  potency,  but  simply  the  feminine  AVisdom, 
or  Intelligence.  (See  any  ancient  "Arbor  Kabbalistica,"  or  Tree  of  the  Sephiroth.) 
EliphasLevi,  in  the  "  Rituel  dela  Haute  Magie,"  vol.  i.,  pp.  223  and  231,  places  Choch- 
ma as  No.  2  and  asamale  Sephiroth  on  the  right  hand  of  the  Tree.  In  the  "  Kabala" 
the  three  male  Sephiroth — Chochma,  Chesed,  Netsah — are  known  as  the  Pillar  of  Mercy  ; 
and  the  three  feminine  on  the  left,  namely,  Binah,  Geburah,  Hod,  are  named  the  Pillar 
of  Judgment  ;  while  the  four  Sephiroth  of  the  centre — Kether,  Tiphereth,  Jesod,  and 
Malchuth — are  called  the  Middle  Pillar.  And,  as  Mackenzie,  in  the  "  Royal  Masonic 
Cyclopedia,"  shows,  "  there  is  an  analogy  in  these  three  pillars  to  the  three  Pillars  of 
Wisdom,  Strength,  and  Beauty  in  a  Craft  Lodge  of  Masonry,  while  the  En-Soph  forms 
the  mysterious  blazing  star,  or  mystic  li^jht  of  the  East  "  (p.  407). 


tain  active  power  or  virtue,  "Rational,"  which  is  sometimes  called 
Wisdom,  sometimes  the  Son,  very  often  God,  Angel,  Lord,  and  Logos.* 
The  latter  is  sometimes  applied  to  the  very  first  emanation,  but  m  several 
systems  it  proceeds  from  the  first  androgyne  or  double  ray  produced  at 
the  beginning  by  the  unseen.  Philo  depicts  this  wisdom  as  male  and 
female.  But  though  its  first  manifestation  had  a  beginning,  for  it  pro- 
ceeded from  Oulom  \  (Aion,  time),  the  highest  of  the  ^:ons,  when  emitted 
from  the  Fathers,  it  had  remained  with  him  before  all  creations,  for  it  is 
part  of  him.  I  Therefore,  Philo  Judseus  calls  Adam  Kadmon  "■mind'' 
(the  Ennoia  of  Bythos  in  the  Gnostic  system).  "  The  mind,  let  it  be 
named  Adam."  § 

Strictly  speaking,  it  is  difficult  to  view  the  Jewish  Book  of  Genesis 
otherwise  than  as  a  chip  from  the  trunk  of  the  mundane  tree  of  universal 
Gosmogony,  rendered  in  Oriental  allegories.  As  cycle  succeeded  cycle, 
and  one  nation  after  another  came  upon  the  world's  stage  to  play  its  brief 
part  in  the  majestic  drama  of  human  life,  each  new  people  evolved  from 
ancestral  traditions  its  own  religion,  giving  it  a  local  color,  and  stamping 
it  with  its  individual  characteristics.  While  each  of  these  religions  had 
its  distinguishing  traits,  by  which,  were  there  no  other  archaic  vestiges, 
the  physical  and  psychological  status  of  its  creators  could  be  estimated, 
all  preserved  a  common  likeness  to  one  prototype.  This  parent  cult  was 
none  other  than  the  primitive  "wisdom-religion."  The  Israelitish  Scrip- 
tures are  no  exception.  Their  national  history — if  they  can  claim  any 
autonomy  before  the  return  from  Babylon,  and  were  anything  more  than 
migratory  septs  of  Hindu  pariahs,  cannot  be  carried  back  a  day  beyond 
Moses  ;  and  if  this  ex-Egyptian  priest  must,  from  theological  necessity,  be 
transformed  into  a  Hebrew  patriarch,  we  must  insist  that  the  Jewish  nation 
was  lifted  with  that  smiling  infant  out  of  the  bulrushes  of  Lake  Moeris. 
Abraham,  their  alleged  father,  belongs  to  the  universal  mythology.  Most 
likely  he  is  but  one  of  the  numerous  aliases  oi  Zeruan  (Saturn),  the  king 
of  the  golden  age,  who  is  also  called  the  old  man  (emblem  of  time).  || 

It  is  now  demonstrated  by  Assyriologists  that  in  the  old  Chaldean 
books  Abraham  is  called  Zeru-an,  or  Zerb-an — meaning  one  very  rich  in 
gold  and  silver,  and  a  mighty  prince.^  He  is  also  called  Zarouan  and 
Zarman — a  decrepit  old  man.  ** 

*Justin  :     "Cum.  Trypho,"  p.  284.  -I-  A  division  indicative  of  time. 

\  Sanchoiiiat'iou  calls  time  the  oldest  ^on,  ProtogonoSy  the  *^ first-borny 
§  Philo  Jiidasus  :      "  Cain  and  his  Birth,"  p.  xvii. 

II  Azrael,  angel  of  death,  is  also  Israel.     Ab-ram  means  father  of  elevation,  high' 
placed  father,- for  Saturn  is  the  highest  or  outmost  planet. 
1[  See  (ienesis  xiii.  2. 
**  Saturn  is  generally  represented  as  a  very  old  man,  with  a  sickle  in  his  hand. 


The  ancient  Babylonian  legend  is  that  Xisuthriis  (Hasisadra  of  the 
Tablets,  or  Xisuthrus)  sailed  with  his  ark  to  Armenia,  and  his  son  Sim 
became  supreme  king.  Pliny  says  that  Sim  was  called  Zeruan  ;  and 
Sim  is  Shem.  In  Hebrew,  his  name  writes  izv,  Shem — a  sign.  Assyria 
is  held  by  the  ethnologists  to  be  the  land  of  Shem,  and  Egypt  called 
that  of  Ham.  Shem,  in  the  tenth  chapter  of  Ge?tesis  is  made  the  father 
of  all  the  children  of  Eber,  of  Elam  (Oulam  or  Eilara),  and  Ashur  (Assur 
or  Assyria).  The  "  Jiephelim"  or  fallen  men,  Gebe?-s,  mighty  men  spoken 
of  in  Genesis  (vi.  4),  come  from  Oulam,  "men  of  Shem."  Even  Ophir, 
which  is  evidently  to  be  sought  for  in  the  India  of  the  days  of  Hiram,  is 
made  a  descendant  of  Shem.  The  records  are  purposely  mixed  up  to 
make  them  fit  into  the  frame  of  the  Mosaic  Bible.  But  Gettesis,  from  its 
first  verse  down  to  the  last,  has  naught  to  do  with  the  "  chosen  people  ; " 
it  belongs  to  the  world's  history.  Its  appropriation  by  the  Jewish  authors 
in  the  days  of  the  so-called  restoration  of  the  destroyed  books  of  the  Is- 
raelites, by  Ezra,  proves  nothing,  and,  until  now,  has  been  self-propped 
on  an  alleged  divine  revelation.  It  is  simply  a  compilation  of  the  uni- 
versal legends  of  the  universal  humanity.  Bunsen  says  that  in  the 
"Chaldean  tribe  immediately  connected  with  Abraham,  we  find  remin- 
iscences of  dates  disfigured  and  misunderstood,  as  genealogies  of  single 
men,  or  indications  of  epochs.  The  Abrahamic  recollections  go  back  at 
least  three  millenia  beyond  the  grandfather  of  Jacob."  * 

Alexander  Polyhistor  says  that  Abraham  was  born  at  Kamarina  or 
Uria,  a  city  of  soothsayers,  and  invented  astronomy.  Josephus  claims 
the  same  for  Terah,  Abraham's  father.  The  tower  of  Babel  was  built  as 
much  by  the  direct  descendants  of  Shem  as  by  those  of  the  "  accursed  " 
Ham  and  Canaan,  for  the  people  in  those  days  were  "  one,"  and  the 
"whole  earth  was  of  one  language  ;  "  and  Babel  was  simply  an  astrologi- 
cal tower,  and  its  builders  were  astrologers  and  adepts  of  the  primitive 
Wisdom-Religion,  or,  again,  what  we  term  Secret  Doctrine. 

The  Berosian  Sybil  says :  Before  the  Tower,  Zeruan,  Titan,  and 
Vapetosthe  governed  the  earth,  Zeru-an  wished  to  be  supreme,  but  his 
two  brothers  resisted,  when  their  sister,  Astlik,  intervened  and  appeased 
them.  It  was  agreed  that  Zeru-an  should  rule,  but  his  male  children 
should  be  put  to  death  ;  and  strong  Titans  were  appointed  to  carry  this 
into  effect. 

Sar  (circle,  saros)  is  the  Babylonian  god  of  the  sky.  He  is  also 
Assaros  or  Asshur  (the  son  of  Shem),  and  Zero — Zero-ana,  the  chakkra, 
or  wheel,  boundless  time.  Hence,  as  the  first  step  taken  by  Zoroaster, 
while  founding  his   new  religion,  was   to  change  the  most  sacred  deities 

*  Bunsen  :    "  Egypt's  Place  in  Universal  History,"  vol.  v.,  p.  85, 


of  the  Sanscrit  Veda  into  names  of  evil  spirits,  in  his  Zend  Scriptures, 
and  even  to  reject  a  number  of  them,  we  find  no  traces  in  the  Avesta  of 
Chakkra — the  symboHc  circle  of  the  sky. 

Elam,  another  of  the  sons  of  Shem,  is  Oidam  ttViy  and  refers  to  an 
order  or  cycle  of  events.  In  Ecclesiastes  iii.  ii,  it  is  termed  "world." 
In  Ezekiel  xxvi.  20,  "of  old  time."  In  Genesis  iii.  22,  the  word  stands 
as  "  forever  ;"  and  in  chapter  ix.  16,  "eternal."  Finally,  the  term  is 
completely  defined  in  Genesis  vi.  4,  in  the  following  words  :  "  There  were 
nepliclim  (giants,  fallen  men,  or  Titans)  on  the  earth."  The  word  is 
synonymous  with  ^on,  atwv.  In  Proverbs  viii.  23,  it  reads  :  "  I  was 
effused  from  Oulam,  from  Ras"  (wisdom).  By  this  sentence,  the 
wise  king-kabalist  refers  to  one  of  the  mysteries  of  the  human  spirit — the 
immortal  crown  of  the  man-trinity.  While  it  ought  to  read  as  above,  and 
Ije  interpreted  kabalistically  to  mean  that  the  /(or  my  eternal,  immortal 
Ego),  the  spiritual  entity,  was  effused  from  the  boundless  and  nameless 
eternity,  through  the  creative  wisdom  of  the  unknown  God,  it  reads  in  the 
canonical  translation  :  "  The  Lord  possessed  me  in  the  beginning  of  his 
way,  before  his  works  of  old  !  "  which  is  unintelligible  nonsense,  without 
the  kabalistic  interpretation.  When  Solomon  is  made  to  say  that  /was 
"  from  the  beginning  .  .  .  while,  as  yet,  he  (the  Supreme  Deity)  had  not 
noade  the  earth  nor  the  highest  part  of  the  dust  of  the  world  ...  I  was 
there,"  and  "when  he  appointed  the  foundations  of  the  earth  .  .  .  then 
I  was  by  him,  as  one  brought  up  loith  him,"  what  can  the  kabalist  mean 
by  the  "  /,"  but  his  own  divine  spirit,  a  drop  effused  from  that  eternal 
fountain  of  light  and  wisdom — the  universal  spirit  of  the  Deity  ? 

The  thread  of  glory  emitted  by  En-Soph  from  the  highest  of  the  three 
kabalistic  heads,  through  which  "  all  things  shine  with  light,"  the  thread 
which  makes  its  exit  through  Adam  Primus,  is  the  individual  spirit  of 
every  man.  "  I  was  daily  his  (En-Soph's)  delight,  rejoicing  always  be- 
fore him  .  .  .  and  my  delights  were  with  the  sons  of  men,'''  adds  Solo- 
mon, in  the  same  chajiter  of  the  Proverbs.  The  immortal  spirit  delights 
in  the  sons  of  men,  who,  without  this  spirit,  are  but  dualities  (physical 
body  and  astral  soul,  or  that  life-principle  which  animates  even  the  low- 
est of  the  animal  kingdom).  But,  we  have  seen  that  the  doctrine  teaches 
that  this  spirit  cannot  unite  itself  with  that  man  in  whom  matter  and  the 
grossest  propensities  of  his  animal  soul  will  be  ever  crowding  it  out. 
Therefore,  Solomon,  who  is  made  to  speak  under  the  inspiration  of  his 
own  spirit,  that  possesses  him  for  the  time  being,  utters  the  following 
words  of  wisdom  :  "  Hearken  unto  me,  my  son "  (the  dual  man), 
"  blessed  are  they  who  keep  my  ways.  .  .  .  Blessed  is  the  man  that 
heareth  nie,  watching  daily  at  my  gates.  .  .  .  For  whoso  findeth  me, 
findeth  life,  and    shall    obtain    favor   of   the    Lord.    .    .    .   But  he  that 


sinneth  against  me  wrongeth  his  own  soul  ,  .  .  and  loves  death  "  [Pro- 
verbs vii.  1-36). 

This  chapter,  as  interpreted,  is  made  by  some  theologians,  like  every- 
thing else,  to  apply  to  Christ,  the  "  Son  of  God,"  who  states  repeatedly, 
that  he  who  follows  him  obtains  eternal  life,  and  conquers  death.  But 
even  in  its  distorted  translation  it  can  be  demonstrated  that  it  referred  to 
anything  but  to  the  alleged  Saviour.  Were  we  to  accept  it  in  this  sense, 
then,  the  Christian  theology  would  have  to  return,  nolens  volens,  to 
iVverroism  and  Buddhism  ;  to  the  doctrine  of  emanation,  in  short ;  for 
Solomon  says  :  "  I  was  eft'used  "  from  Oulam  and  Rasit,  both  of  which 
are  a  part  of  the  Deity  ;  and  thus  Christ  would  not  be  as  their  doctrine 
claims,  God  himself,  but  only  an  emanation  of  Him,  like  the  Christos  of 
the  Gnostics.  Hence,  the  meaning  of  the  personified  Gnostic  ^on, 
the  word  signifying  cycles  or  determined  periods  in  the  eternity  and  at 
the  same  time,  representing  a  hierarchy  of  celestial  beings — spirits. 
Thus  Christ  is  sometimes  termed  the  "  Eternal  ^.on."  But  the  word 
"eternal"  is  erroneous  in  relation  to  the  ^ons.  Eternal  is  that  which 
has  neither  beginning  nor  end ;  but  the  "  Emanations  "  or  yEons,  although 
having  lived  as  absorbed  in  the  divine  essence  from  the  eternity,  when 
once  individually  emanated,  must  be  said  to  have  a  beginning.  They  may 
be  therefore  endless  in  this  spiritual  life,  never  eternal. 

These  endless  emanations  of  the  one  First  Cause,  all  of  which  were 
gradually  transformed  by  the  popular  fancy  into  distinct  gods,  spirits, 
angels,  and  demons,  were  so  little  considered  immortal,  that  all  were 
assigned  a  limited  existence.  And  this  belief,  common  to  all  the  peoples 
of  antiquity,  to  the  Chaldean  Magi  as  well  as  to  the  Egyptians,  and  even 
in  our  day  held  by  the  Brahmanists  and  Buddhists,  most  triumphantly 
evidences  the  monotheism  of  the  ancient  religious  systems.  This  doc- 
trine calls  the  life-period  of  all  the  inferior  divinities,  "one  day  of  Para- 
brahma."  After  a  cycle  of  fourteen  milliards,  three  hundred  and  twenty- 
millions  of  human  years — the  tradition  says — the  trinity  itself,  with  all  the 
lesser  divinities,  will  be  annihilated,  together  with  the  universe,  and  cease 
to  exist.  Then  another  universe  will  gradually  emerge  from  the  pra- 
laya  (dissolution),  and  men  on  earth  will  be  enabled  to  comprehend 
SwAYAMBHUVA  as  he  is.  Alone,  this  primal  cause  will  exist  forever,  in 
all  his  glory,  filling  the  infinite  space.  What  better  proof  could  be  adduced 
of  the  deep  reverential  feeling  with  which  the  "heathen"  regard  the  one 
Supreme  eternal  cause  of  all  things  visible  and  invisible. 

This  is  again  the  source  from  which  the  ancient  kabalists  derived 
identical  doctrines.  If  the  Christians  understood  Genesis  in  their  own 
way,  and,  if  accepting  the  texts  literally,  they  enforced  upon  the  unedu- 
cated masses  the  belief  in  a  creation  of  our  world  out  of  nothing  ;  and 


moreover  assigned  to  it  a  heginning,  it  is  surely  not  the  Tanaim,  the  sole 
expounders  of  the  hidden  meaning  contained  in  the  Bible,  who  are  to  be 
blamed.  No  more  than  any  other  philosophers  had  they  ever  believed 
either  in  spontaneous,  limited,  or  ex  nihilo  creations.  The  Kabala  has 
survived  to  show  that  their  philosophy  was  precisely  that  of  the  modern 
Nepal  Buddhists,  the  Svubhavikas.  They  believed  in  the  eternity  and 
the  indestructibility  of  matter,  and  hence  in  many  prior  creations  and 
destructions  of  worlds,  before  our  own.  "  There  were  old  worlds 
which  perished."  *  "  From  this  we  see  that  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
His  name,  had  successively  created  and  destroyed  sundry  worlds,  before 
he  created  the  present  world  ;  and  when  he  created  this  world  he  said  : 
'  This  pleases  me  ;  the  previous  ones  did  not  please  me.'  "f  Moreover, 
they  believed,  again  like  the  Svabhavikas,  now  termed  Atheists,  that  every 
thing  proceeds  (is  created)  from  its  own  nature  and  that  once  that  the 
first  impulse  is  given  by  that  Creative  Force  inherent  in  the  "  Self- 
created  substance,"  or  Sephira,  everything  evolves  out  of  itself,  following 
its  pattern,  the  more  spiritual  prototype  which  precedes  it  in  the  scale  of 
infinite  creation.  "  The  indivisible  point  which  has  no  limit,  and  cannot 
be  comprehended  (for  it  is  absolute),  expanded  from  within,  and  formed 
a  brightness  which  served  as  a  garment  (a  veil)  to  the  indivisible  points. 
...  It,  too,  expanded  from  within.  .  .  .  Thus,  everything  originated 
through  a  constant  upheaving  agitation,  and  thus  finally  the  world 
originated."  J 

In  the  later  Zoroastrian  books,  after  that  Darius  had  restored  both 
the  worship  of  Ormazd  and  added  to  it  the  purer  magianism  of  the  primi- 
tive Secret  ]Visdom — mnDi-mum,  of  which,  as  the  inscription  tells  us, 
he  was  himself  a  hierophant,  we  see  again  reappearing  the  Zeru-ana,  or 
boundless  time,  represented  by  the  Brahmans  in  the  chakkra,  or  a  circle  ; 
that  we  see  figuring  on  the  uplifted  finger  of  the  principal  deities. 
Further  on,  we  will  show  the  relation  in  which  it  stands  to  the  Pythago- 
rean, mystical  numbers — the  first  and  the  last — which  is  a  zero  (0), 
and  to  the  greatest  of  the  Mystery-Gods  lAO.  The  identity  of  this 
symbol  alone,  in  all  the  old  religions,  is  sufficient  to  show  their  common 
descent  from  one  primitive  Faith.  §  This  term  of  "boundless  time," 
which  can  be  applied  but  to  the  one  who  has  neither  beginning  nor  end,  is 

*  Idra  Suta  ;   "  Sohar,"  iii.,  p.  292  b.  \  Bereshith  Rabba  :  "  Parsha,"  ix. 

\  "  Sohar,"  i.,  p.  20  a. 

§  "  The  Sanscrit  j,"  says  Max  Miiller,  "is  represented  by  the  s  and  h.  Thus  the 
geograpliical  name  '  hapta  hendu,'  which  occurs  in  the  '  Avesta,'  becomes  intelligible, 
if  we  retranslate  the  z  and  h  into  the  Sanscrit  J".  Kor  '  Sapta  Sindhu,'  or  the  seven 
rivers,  is  the  old  Vaidic  name  for  India  itself"  ("  Chips,"  vol.  i.,  p.  81).  The 
"Avesta  "  is  the  spirit  of  the  "  Vedas  " — the  esoteric  meaning  made  partially  known. 


called  by  the  Zoroastrians  Zeruana-Akarene,  because  he  has  always  existed. 
"His  glory,"  they  say,  is  too  exalted,  his  light  too  resplendent  for  either 
human  intellect  or  mortal  eyes  to  grasp  and  see.  His  primal  emana- 
tion is  eternal  light  which,  from  having  been  previously  concealed  in 
darkness,  was  called  out  to  manifest  itself,  and  thus  was  formed  Ormazd, 
"the  King  of  Life."  He  is  the  first-born  of  boundless  time,  but  like  his 
own  antit)'pe,  or  preexisting  spiritual  idea,  has  lived  within  primitive 
darkness  from  all  eternity.  His  Logos  created  the  pure  intellectual 
world.  After  the  lapse  of  three  grand  cycles  *  he  created  the  material 
world  in  six  periods.  The  six  Amshaspands,  or  primitive  spiritual  men, 
whom  Ormazd  created  in  his  own  miage,  are  the  mediators  between  this 
world  and  himself.  Mithras  is  an  emanation  of  the  Logos  and  the  cliief 
of  the  twenty  eight  izeds,  who  are  the  tutelary  angels  over  the  spiritual 
portion  of  mankind — -the  souls  of  men.  The  Ferouers  are  infinite  in 
number.  They  are  the  ideas  or  rather  the  ideal  conceptions  of  things 
which  formed  themselves  in  the  mind  of  Ormazd  or  .Ahuramazda  before 
he  willed  them  to  assume  a  concrete  form.  They  are  what  Aristotle 
terms  "  privations  "  of  forms  and  substances.  The  religion  of  Zarathus- 
tra,  as  he  is  always  called  in  the  Avesta,  is  one  from  which  the  ancient 
Jews  have  the  most  borrowed.  In  one  of  the  Yashts,  Ahuramazda,  the 
Supreme,  gives  to  the  seer  as  one  of  his  sacred  names,  Ahmi,  "I  am  ;" 
and  in  another  place,  ahmi  yat  ahmi,  "  I  am  that  I  am,"  as  Jehovah  is 
alleged  to  have  given  it  to  Moses. 

This  Cosmogony,  adopted  with  a  change  of  names  in  the  Rabbinical 
Kabala,  found  its  way,  later,  with  some  additional  speculations  of  Manes, 
the  half-Magus,  half-Platonist,  into  the  great  body  of  Gnosticism.  The 
real  doctrines  of  the  Basilideans,  Valentinians,  and  the  Marcionites  can- 
not be  correctly  ascertained  in  the  prejudiced  and  calumnious  writings  of 
the  Fathers  of  the  Church;  but  rather  in  what  remains  of  the  works  of 
the  Bardesanesians,  known  as  the  Nazarenes.  It  is  next  to  impossible, 
now  that  all  their  manuscripts  and  books  are  destroyed,  to  assign  to  any 
of  these  sects  its  due  part  in  dissenting  views.  But  there  are  a  few  men 
still  living  who  have  preserved  books  and  direct  traditions  about  the 
Ophites,  although  they  care  little  to  impart  them  to  the  world.  Among 
the  unknown  sects  of  Mount  Lebanon  and  Palestine  the  truth  has  been 
concealed  for  more  than  a  thousand  years.  And  their  diagram  of  the 
Ophite  scheme  differs  with  the  description  of  it  given  by  Origen  and 
hence  with  the  diagram  of  Matter,  f 

*  What  is  generally  understood  in  the  "  Avesta  "  system  as  a  thousand  years,  means, 
in  the  esoteric  doctrine,  a  cycle  of  a  duration  known  but  to  the  initiates  and  which  has 
an  allegorical  sense. 

f  Matter  :    "  Histoire  Critique  du  Gnosticisme,"  pi.  x. 


The  kabalistic  trinity  is  one  of  tlie  models  of  the  Christian  one.  "  The 
ANCIENT  whose  name  be  sanctified,  is  with  three  heads,  but  which  make 
only  one."  *  Tria  capita  exsculpa  sunt,  unum  intra  alterum,  et  alterum 
supra  alterum.  Three  heads  are  inserted  in  one  another,  and  one  over 
the  other.  The  first  head  is  the  Concealed  Wisdom  {Sapientia  Abscon- 
dita).  Under  this  head  is  the  ancient  (Pythagorean  Monad),  the  most 
hidden  of  mysteries  ;  a  head  which  is  no  head  [captU  quod  non  est  caput)  ; 
no  one  can  know  what  that  is  in  this  head.  No  intellect  is  able  to  com- 
prehend this  wisdom,  f  This  Senior  Sanctissimus  is  surrounded  by  the 
three  heads.  He  is  the  eternal  light  of  the  wisdom  ;  and  the  wisdom  is 
the  source  from  which  all  the  manifestations  have  begun.  These  three 
heads,  included  in  one  head  (which  is  no  head)  ;  and  these  three  are 
bent  down  (overshadow)  short-face  (the  son)  and  through  them  all 
things  shine  with  light."  \  "  En-Soph  emits  a  thread  from  El  or  Al  (the 
highest  God  of  the  Trinity),  and  the  light  follows  the  thread  and  enters, 
and  passuig  through  makes  its  exit  through  Adam  Primus  (Kaduion), 
who  is  concealed  until  the  plan  for  arranging  {^statuni  dispositionis)  is 
ready  ;  it  threads  through  him  from  his  head  to  his  feet ;  and  in  him  (in 
the  concealed  Adam)  is  the  figure  of  A  man."  § 

"  Whoso  wishes  to  have  an  insight  into  the  sacred  unity,  let  him  con- 
sider a  flame  rising  from  a  burning  coal  or  a  burning  lamp.  He  will  see 
first  a  two-fold  light — a  bright  white,  and  a  black  or  blue  light ;  the  white 
light  is  above,  and  ascends  in  a  direct  light,  while  the  blue,  or  dark  light, 
is  below,  and  seems  as  the  chair  of  the  former,  yet  both  are  so  intimately 
connected  together  that  they  constitute  only  one  flame.  The  seat,  how- 
ever, formed  by  the  blue  or  dark  light,  is  again  connected  with  the  burning 
matter  which  is  u?ider  it  again.  The  white  light  never  changes  its  color, 
it  always  remains  white  ;  but  various  shades  are  observed  in  the  lower 
light,  whilst  the  lowest  light,  moreover,  takes  two  directions  ;  above,  it  is 
connected  with  the  white  light,  and  below  with  the  burning  matter.  Now, 
this  is  constantly  consuming  itself,  and  perpetually  ascends  to  the  upper 
light,  and  thus  everything  merges  into  a  single  unity."  || 

Such  were  the  ancient  ideas  of  the  trinity  in  the  unity,  as  an  ab- 
straction.    Man,  who  is  the  microcosmos  of  the  macrocosmos,  or  of  the 

*  Idra  Suta:  "  Sohar,"  iii.,  p.  288. 

f  Ibid.,  sect,  ii.  \  Ibid.,  vil. 

§  Jam  vero  quoniam  hoc  in  loco  recondita  est  ilia  plane  non  utuntur,  et  tantum 
de  parte  lucis  ejus  particepant  quze  demittitur  et  ingreditur  intra  filum  Ain  Soph  pro- 
tensum  e  Persona  V^  (At-OoA)  deorsum :  intratque  et  perrumpit  et  transit  per  Adam 
primum  occuUum  usque  in  statum  dispositionis  transitque  per  eum  a  capite  usque  ad 
pedes  ejus  :   et  in  co  est figura  hominis  ("  Kabbala  Denudata,"  ii.,  p.  246). 

1  "Sohar,"  i.,  p.  51  a. 


archetypal  heavenly  man,  Adam  Kadmon,  is  likewise  a  trinity  ;  for  he  is 
body,  soul,  and  spirit. 

"  All  that  is  created  by  the  '  Ancient  of  the  Ancients  '  can  live  and 
exist  only  by  a  male  and  a  female,"  says  the  Sohar.  *  He  alone,  to  whom 
no  one  can  say,  "  Thou,"  for  he  is  the  spirit  of  the  White-Head  in 
whom  the  "  Three  Heads  "  are  united,  is  uncreated.  Out  of  the  sub- 
tile fire,  on  one  side  of  the  White  Head,  and  of  the  "subtile  air,"  on 
the  other,  emanates  Shekinah,  his  veil  (the  femininized  Holy  Ghost). 
"This  air,"  says  Idra  Rabba,  "  is  the  most  occult  (occultissimus)  attribute 
of  the  Ancient  of  die  Days,  f  The  Ancienter  of  the  Ancienter  is  the 
Concealed  of  the  Concealed.  J  All  things  are  Himself,  and  Himself  is 
concealed  on  every  way.  §  The  cranium  of  the  White-Head  has  no 
beginning,  but  its  end  has  a  shining  reflection  and  a  roundness  which  is 
our  universe." 

"  They  regard,"  says  Klenker,  "  the  first-born  as  man  and  wife,  in  so 
far  as  his  Hght  includes  in  itself  all  other  lights,  and  in  so  far  as  his 
spirit  of  life  or  breath  of  life  includes  all  other  life  spirits  in  itself."  | 
The  kabalistic  Shekinah  answers  to  the  Ophite  Sophia.  Properly 
speaking,  Adam  Kadmon  is  the  Bythos,  but  in  this  emanation-system, 
where  everything  is  calculated  to  perplex  and  place  an  obstacle  to 
inquiry,  he  is  the  Source  of  Light,  the  first  "  primitive  man,"  and  at  the 
same  time  Ennoia,  the  Thought  of  Bythos,  the  Depth,  for  he  is 

The  Gnostics,  as  well  as  the  Nazarenes,  allegorizing  on  the  personifi- 
cation, said  that  the  First  and  Second  man  loved  the  beauty  of  Sophia, 
(Sephira)  the  first  woman,  and  thus  the  Father  and  the  Son  fecundated 
the  heavenly  "  Woman  "  and,  from  primal  darkness  procreated  the  visi- 
ble light  (Sephira  is  the  Invisible,  or  Spiritual  Light),  "  whom  they 
called  the  Anointed  Christum,  or  King  Messiah."^  This  Christus  is 
the  Adam  of  Dust  before  his  fall,  with  the  spirit  of  the  Adonai,  his 
Father,  and  Shekinah  Adonai,  his  mother,  upon  him  ;  for  Adam  Primus 
is  Adon,  .A.donai,  or  Adonis.  The  primal  existence  manifests  itself  by 
its  wisdom,  and  produces  the  Intelligible  Logos  (all  visible  creation). 
This  wisdom  was  venerated  by  the  Ophites  under  the  form  of  a  serpent. 
So  far  we  see  that  the  first  and  second  life  are  the  two  Adams,  or  the 
first  and  the  second  man.  In  the  former  lies  Eva,  or  the  yet  unborn 
spiritual  Eve,  and  she  is  within  Adam  Primus,  for  she  is  a  part  of  him- 
self, who  is   androgyne.     The   Eva  of  dust,  she  who  will  be  called  in 

*  Book  iii.,  p.  290.  t  "  Idra  Rabba,"  §§  541,  542. 

t  Ibid.,  iii.,  p.  36.  §    Ibid.,  p.  171. 

j  "Nat.  und  Urspr.  d.  Emanationslehre  b.d.  Kabbalisten,"  p.  ii. 

T  "Iren^eus,"  p.  637. 


Genesis  "  the  mother  of  all  that  live,"  is  within  Adam  the  Second- 
And  now,  from  the  moment  of  its  first  manifestation,  the  Lord  Mano, 
the  UnintelHgible  Wisdom,  disappears  from  the  scene  of  action.  It  will 
manifest  itself  only  as  Shekinah,  the  grace  ;  for  the  Corona  is  "  the 
innermost  Light  of  all  Lights,"  and  hence  it  is  darkness' s  own  sub- 
stance. * 

In  the  Kabala,  Shekinah  is  the  ninth  emanation  of  Sephira,  which 
contains  the  whole  of  the  ten  Sephiroth  within  herself.  She  belongs  to 
the  third  triad  and  is  produced  together  with  Malchuth  or  "  Kingdom," 
of  which  she  is  the  female  counterpart.  Otherwise  she  is  held  to  be 
higher  than  any  of  these  ;  for  she  is  the  "  Divine  Glory,"  the  "  veil,"  or 
"  garment,"  of  En-Soph.  The  Jews,  whenever  she  is  mentioned  in  the 
Targum,  say  that  she  is  the  glory  of  Jehovah,  which  dwelt  in  the  tab- 
ernacle, manifesting  herself  hke  a  visible  cloud  ;  the  "  Glory"  rested  over 
the  Mercy-Seat  in  the  Sanctum  Sanctorum. 

In  the  Nazarene  or  Bardesanian  System,  which  may  be  termed  the 
Kabala  within  the  Kabala,  the  Ancient  of  Days — Antiquus  Altus,  who 
is  the  Father  of  the  Demiurgus  of  the  universe,  is  called  the  Third  Life, 
or  Abatur ;  and  he  is  the  Father  of  Fetahil,  who  is  the  architect  of 
the  visible  universe,  which  he  calls  into  existence  by  the  powers  of  his 
genii,  at  the  order  of  the  "  Greatest  ;  "  the  Abatur  answering  to  the 
"  Father  "  of  Jesus  in  the  later  Christian  theology.  These  two  superior 
Lives  then,  are  the  crown  within  which  dwfclls  the  greatest  Ferho.  "  Be- 
fore any  creature  came  into  existence  the  Lord  Ferho  existed."  \  This 
one  is  the  First  Life,  formless  and  invisible  ;  in  whom  the  living  Spirit 
of  Life  exists,  the  Highest  Grace.  The  two  are  one  from  eternity, 
for  they  are  the  I^ight  and  the  cause  of  the  Light.  Therefore,  they 
answer  to  the  kabalistic  concealed  wisdom,  and  to  the  concealed  She- 
kinah— the  Holy  Ghost.  "  This  light,  which  is  manifested,  is  the  gar- 
ment of  the  Heavenly  Concealed,"  says  Idra  Suta.  And  the  "  heavenly 
man  "  is  the  superior  Adam.  "  No  one  knows  his  paths  except  Macro- 
prosopus"  (Long-face) — the  Superior  active  god.  \  Not  as  I  am  written 
will  I  be  read  ;  in  this  world  my  name  will  be  written  Jehovah  and  read 
Adonai,"§  say  the  Rabbins,  very  correctly.  Adonai  is  the  Adam  Kad- 
raon ;  he  is  Father  and  Mother  both.  By  this  double  mediatorship 
the  Spirit  of  the  "  Ancient  of  the  Ancient  "  descends  upon  the  Micropro- 
sopiis  (Short-face)  or  the  Adam  of  Eden.  And  the  "  Lord  God  breathes 
into  his  nostrils  the  breath  of  life." 

When  the  woman  se])arates  herself  from  her  androgyne,  and  becomes 

*  "Idra  Suta,"  ix. ;   "  Kabbala  Denudata  ;"  see  Pythagoras:  "Monad," 

\  "  Codex  Nazaraeus,"  i.,  p.  145. 

X  "  Idra  Rabba,"  viii.,  pp.  107-109.  §  "  Ausziige  aus  dem  Sohar,"  p.  II. 


a  distinct  individuality,  the  first  story  is  repeated  over  again.  Both  the 
Father  and  Son,  the  two  Adams,  love  her  beauty  ;  and  then  follows  the 
allegory  of  the  temptation  and  fall.  It  is  in  the  Kaba/a,  as  in  the  Ophite 
system,  in  which  both  the  Ophis  and  the  Ophiomorphos  are  emanations 
emblematized  as  serpents,  the  former  representing  Eternity,  Wisdom, 
and  Spirit  (as  in  the  Chaldean  Magisni  of  Aspic-worship  and  Wisdom- 
Doctrine  in  the  olden  times),  and  the  latter  Cunning,  Envy,  and  Matter. 
Both  spirit  and  matter  are  serpents  ;  and  Adam  Kadmon  becomes  the 
Ophis  who  tempts  himself — man  and  woman — to  taste  of  the  "  Tree  of 
Good  and  Evil,"  in  order  to  teach  them  the  mysteries  of  spiritual  wis- 
dom. Light  tempts  Darkness,  and  Darkness  attracts  Light,  for  Dark- 
ness is  matter,  and  "  the  Highest  Light  shines  not  in  its  Teneh-a." 
With  knowledge  comes  the  temptation  of  the  Ophiomorphos,  and  he 
prevails.  The  dualism  of  every  existing  religion  is  shown  forth  by  the 
fall.  "  I  have  gotten  a  man  from  the  Lord"  exclaims  Eve,  when  the 
Dualism,  Cain  and  Abel — evil  and  good — is  born.  "  And  the  Adam 
knew  Hua,  his  woman  (astu),  and  she  became  pregnant  and  bore  Ji^in, 
and  she  said  :  nini-rN  o^n  Tij^p!  Kiniti  ais  Yava. — I  have  gained  or 
obtained  a  husband,  even  Yava — Is,  Ais — man."  "  Cum  arbore  peccati 
Deus  creavit  seailum." 

And  now  we  will  compare  this  system  with  that  of  the  Jewish  Gnos- 
tics— the  Nazarenes,  as  well  as  with  other  philosophies. 

The  ISH  Amon,  the  pleroma,  or  the  boundless  circle  within  which  lie 
"  all  forms,"  is  the  thought  of  the  power  divine  j  it  works  in  silence, 
and  suddenly  light  is  begotten  by  darkness ;  it  is  called  the  second  life  ; 
and  this  one  produces,  or  generates  the  third.  This  third  light  is  "  the 
FATHER  of  all  things  that  live,"  as  Eua  is  the  "  mother  of  all  that 
live."  He  is  the  Creator  who  calls  inert  matter  into  life,  through  his 
vivifying  spirit,  and,  therefore,  is  called  the  ancient  of  the  world.  Abatur 
is  the  Father  who  creates  the  first  Adam,  who  creates  in  his  turn  the 
second.  Abatur  opens  a  gate  and  walks  to  the  dark  water  (chaos),  and 
looking  down  into  it,  the  darkness  reflects  the  image  of  Himself  .  .  . 
and  lo  !  a  Son  is  formed — the  Logos  or  Demiurge  ;  Fetahil,  who  is  the 
builder  of  the  material  world,  is  called  into  existence.  According  to  the 
Gnostic  dogma,  this  was  the  Metatron,  the  Archangel  Gabriel,  or  mes- 
senger of  life  ;  or,  as  the  biblical  allegory  has  it,  the  androgynous  Adam- 
Kadmon  again,  the  Son,  who,  with  his  Father's  spirit,  produces  the 
anointed,  or  Adam  before  his  fall. 

When  Swayambhuva,  the  "  Lord  who  exists  through  himself,"  feels 
impelled  to  manifest  himself,  he  is  thus  described  in  the  Hindu  sacred 

Having  been  impelled  to  produce  various  beings  from  his  own  divine 



substance,  he  first  manifested  the  waters  which  developed  withm  them- 
selves a  productive  seed. 

The  seed  became  a  germ  bright  as  gold,  blazing  like  the  luminary 
with  a  thousand  beams  ;  and  in  that  egg  he  was  born  himself,  in  the  form 
of  Brahma,  the  great  principle  of  all  the  beings  [Manu,  book  i.,  slokas 

The  Egyptian  Kneph,  or  Chnuphis,  Divine  Wisdom,  represented  by 
a  serpent,  produces  an  egg  from  his  mouth,  from  which  issues  Phtha. 
In  this  case  Phtha  represents  the  universal  germ,  as  well  as  Brahma,  who 
is  of  the  neuter  gender,  when  the  final  a  has  a  diaresis  on  it ;  *  otherwise 
it  becomes  simply  one  of  the  names  of  the  Deity.  The  former  was  the 
model  of  the  Three  Lives  of  the  Nazarenes,  as  that  of  the  kabalistic 
"  Faces,"  Pharazupha,  which,  in  its  turn,  furnished  the  model  for  the 
Christian  Trinity  of  Irenaeus  and  his  followers.  The  egg  was  the  primi- 
tive matter  which  served  as  a  material  for  the  building  of  the  visible  uni- 
verse ;  it  contained,  as  well  as  the  Gnostic  Pleroma,  the  kabalistic  She- 
kinah,  the  man  and  wife,  the  spirit  and  life,  "  whose  light  includes  all 
other  lights"  or  life-spirits.  This  first  manifestation  was  symbolized  by- a 
serpent,  which  is  at  first  divine  wisdom,  but,  falling  into  generation, 
becomes  polluted.  Phtha  is  the  heavenly  man,  the  Egyptian  Adam- 
Kadmon,  or  Christ,  who,  in  conjunction  with  the  female  Holy  Ghost,  the 
ZoE,  produces  the  five  elements,  air,  water,  fire,  earth,  and  ether  ;  the 
latter  being  a  servile  copy  from  the  Buddhist  A'd,  and  his  five  Dhyana 
Buddhas,  as  we  have  shown  in  the  preceding  chapter.  The  Hindu 
Swayambhuva-Nara,  develops  from  himself  the  mother-principle,  enclosed 
within  his  own  divine  essence — Nari,  the  immortal  Virgin,  who,  when 
impregnated  by  his  spirit,  becomes  Taumitra,  the  mother  of  the  five 
elements — air,  water,  fire,  earth,  and  ether.  Thus  may  be  shown  how 
from  the  Hindu  cosmogony  all  others  proceed. 

Knorr  von  Rosenroth,  busying  himself  with  the  interpretation  of  the 
Kabala,  argues  that,  "  In  this  first  state  (of  secret  wisdom),  the  infinite 
God  Himself  can  be  understood  as  '  Father '  (of  the  new  covenant). 
But  the  Light  being  let  down  by  the  Infinite  through  a  canal  into  the 
'primal  Adam,'  or  Messiah,  and  joined  with  him,  can  be  applied  to  the 
name  Son.  And  the  influx  emitted  down  from  him  (the  Son)  to  the 
lower  parts  (of  the  universe),  can  be  applied  to  the  character  of  the  Holy 
Ghost."  f  Sophia-Achamoth,  the  half-spiritual,  half-material  Life,  which 
vivifies  the  inert  matter  in  the  depths  of  chaos,  is  the  Holy  Ghost  of  the 
Gnostics,  and  the  Spiritus  (female)  of  the  Nazarenes.     She  is — be  it  re- 

*  He  is  the  universal  and  spiritual  germ  of  all  things, 
t  "Ad.  Kabb.  Chr.,"  p.  6. 



membered— the  sister  of  Christos,  the  perfect  emanation,  and  both  are 
children  or  emanations  of  Sophia,  the  purely  spiritual  and  intellectual 
daughter  of  Bythos,  the  Depth.  For  the  elder  Sophia  is  Shekmah,  the 
Face  of  God,  "  God's  Shekinah,  which  is  his  image."  * 

"  The  Son  Zeus-Belus,  or  Sol-Mithra  is  an  image  of  the  Father,  an 
emanation  from  the  Supreme  Light,"  says  Movers.  "He  passed  for 
Creator."  \ 

"  Philosophers  say  the  first  air  is  anima  mundi.  But  the  garment 
(Shekinah)  is  higher  than  the  first  air,  since  it  is  joined  closer  to  the  En- 
Soph,  the  Boundless."  J  Thus  Sophia  is  Shekinah,  and  Sophia-Achamoth 
the  ani77ia  mundi,  the  astral  light  of  the  kabalists,  which  contains  the 
spiritual  and  material  germs  of  all  that  is.  For  the  Sophia-Achamoth, 
like  Eve,  of  whom  she  is  the  prototype,  is  "  the  mother  of  all  that  live." 

There  are  three  trinities  in  the  Nazarene  system  as  well  as  in  the 
Hindu  philosophy  of  the  ante  and  early  Vedic  period.  While  we  see 
the  few  translators  of  the  Kabala,  the  Nazarene  Codex,  and  other  abstruse 
works,  hopelessly  floundering  amid  the  interminable  pantheon  of  names, 
unable  to  agree  as  to  a  system  in  which  to  classify  them,  for  the  one 
hypothesis  contradicts  and  overturns  the  other,  we  can  but  wonder  at  all 
this  trouble,  which  could  be  so  easily  overcome.  But  even  now,  when 
the  translation,  and  even  the  perusal  of  the  ancient  Sanscrit  has  become 
so  easy  as  a  point  of  comparison,  they  would  never  think  it  possible  that 
every  philosophy — whether  Semitic,  Hamitic,  or  Turanian,  as  they  call  it, 
has  its  key  in  the  Hindu  sacred  works.  Still  facts  are  there,  and  facts 
are  not  easily  destroyed.  Thus,  while  we  find  the  Hindu  trimurti  triply 
manifested  as 

Nara  (or  Para-Pouroucha),    Agni, 
Nari  (Mariama),  Vaya, 

Viradj  (Brahma),  Surya, 

and  the  Egyptian  trinity  as  follows  : 
Kneph  (or  Amon),  Osiris, 

Maut  (or  Mut),  Isis, 

Khons,  Horus, 

the  Nazarene  System  runs, 

Feiho  (Ish-Amon),  Mano, 

Chaos  (dark  water),  Spiritus  (female), 

Fetahil,  Ledhaio, 


the  Father, 


the  Mother, 


the  Son, 

Ra  (Horus),  the  Father, 

Isis,  the  Mother, 

Malouli,  the  Son  ;  § 

Abatur,  the  Father, 

Netubto,  the  Mother, 

Lord  Jordan,  the  Son. 

The  first  is  the  concealed  or  non-manifested  trinity — a  pure  abstrac- 
tion.   The  other  the  active  or  the  one  revealed  in  the  results  of  creation, 

*  **  Sohar,"  p.  93. 

X  "Kabbala  Denudata,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  236. 

\  "  Movers,"  p.  265. 

§  ChampoUion,  Junior:   "  Lettres." 


proceeding  out  of  the  former — its  spiritual  prototype.  The  third  is  the 
mutilated  image  of  both  the  others,  crystallized  in  the  form  of  human 
dogmas,  which  vary  according  to  the  exuberance  of  the  national  mate- 
rialistic fancy. 

The  Supreme  Lord  of  splendor  and  of  light,  luminous  and  refulgent, 
before  which  no  other  existed,  is  called  Corona  (the  crown)  ;  Lord  Ferho, 
the  unrevealed  life  which  existed  in  the  former  from  eternity ;  and  Lord 
Jordan — the  spirit,  the  living  water  of  grace.  *  He  is  the  one  through 
whom  alone  we  can  be  saved  ;  and  thus  he  answers  to  the  Shekinah,  the 
spiritual  garment  of  En-Soph,  or  the  Holy  Ghost.  These  three  constitute 
the  trinity  in  abscondito.  The  second  trinity  is  composed  of  the  three 
lives.  The  first  is  the  similitude  of  Lord  Ferho,  through  whom  he  has 
proceeded  forth  ;  and  the  second  Ferho  is  the  King  of  Light — Mano 
{Rex  Lucis).  He  is  the  heavenly  life  and  light,  and  older  than  the 
Architect  of  heaven  and  earth.f  The  second  life  is  Ish  Anion  (Pleroma), 
the  vase  of  election,  containing  the  visible  thought  of  the  lordanus  Alax- 
imus — the  type  (or  its  intelligible  reflection),  the  prototype  of  the  living 
water,  who  is  the  "  spiritual  Jordan."  \  Third  life,  which  is  produced 
by  the  other  two,  is  Abatur  {Ab,  the  Parent  or  Father).  This  is  the 
mysterious  and  decrepit  "  Aged  of  the  Aged,"  the  "  Ancient  Senem  sui 
obtegentem  et  grandcevum  mundi."  This  latter  third  life  is  the  Father  of 
the  Demiurge  Fetahil,  the  Creator  of  the  world,  whom  the  Ophites  call 
Ilda-Baoth,  §  though  F'etahil  is  the  only-begotten  one,  the  reflection  of 
the  Father,  Abatur,  who  begets  him  by  looking  into  the  "  dark  water  ; "  || 
but  the  Lord  Mano,  "  the  Lord  of  loftiness,  the  Lord  of  all  genii,"  is 
higher  than  the  Father,  in  this  kabalistic  Codex — one  is  purely  spiritual, 
the  other  material.  So,  or  instance,  while  Abatur's  "only  begotten" 
one  is  the  genius  Fetahil,  the  Creator  of  the  physical  world,  Lord  Mano, 
the  "  I^ord  of  Celsitude,"  who  is  the  son  of  Him,  who  is  "  the  Father  of 
all  who  preach  the  Gospel,"  produces  also  an  "  only-begotten  "  one,  the 
Lord  Lehdaio,  "a  just  Lord."  He  is  the  Christos,  the  anointed,  who 
l)ours  out  the  "grace"  of  the  Invisible  Jordan,  the  Spirit  of  the  Highest 

In  the  Arcanum,  "  in  the  assembly  of  splendor,  lighted  by  Mano,  to 
whom  the  scintillas  of  splendor  owe  their  origin,"  the  genii  who  live  in 
light  "  rose,  they  went  to  the  visible  Jordan,  and  flowing  water  .  .  .  they 
assembled  for  a  counsel  .  .  .  and  called  forth  the    Only-Begotten  Son 

*  "  Codex  NazarjEus,"  vol.  ii.,  pp.  47-57.       f  Ibid.,  vol.  i. ,  p.  145. 
\  Ibid.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  211.  §  Ibid.,  vol.  i.,  p.  308. 

il  Sophia-Achamoth  also  begets  her  son  Ilda-Baoth,  the  Demiurge,  by  looking  into 
chaos  or  matter,  and  by  coming  in  contact  with  it. 


of  an  imperishable  image,  and  who  cannot  be  conceived  by  reflection, 
Lehdaio,  the  just  Lord,  and  sprung  from  Lehdaio,  the  just  lord,  whom 
the  life  had  produced  by  his  word."  * 

Mano  is  the  chief  of  the  seven  .'^:ons,  who  are  Mano  {Rex  Lucis) 
Aiar  Zivo,  Ignis  Vivus,  Lux,  Vita,  Aqua  Viva  (the  living  water  of 
baptism,  the  genius  of  the  Jordan),  and  Ipsa  Vita,  the  chief  of  the  six 
genii,  which  form  with  him  the  mystic  seven.  The  Nazarene  Mano  is 
simply  the  copy  of  the  Hindu  first  Manu — the  emanation  of  Manu 
Swayambhuva — from  whom  evolve  in  succession  the  six  other  Manus, 
types  of  the  subsequent  races  of  men.  We  find  them  all  represented  by 
the  apostle-kabalist  John  in  the  "  seven  lamps  of  fire  "  burning  before 
the  throne,  which  are  the  seven  spirits  of  God,"  \  and  in  the  seven  angels 
bearing  the  seven  vials.  Again  in  Fetahil  we  recognize  the  original  of 
the  Christian  doctrine. 

In  the  Revelation  of  Joannes  Theologos  it  is  said  :  "  I  turned  and 
saw  in  the  midst  of  the  seven  candlesticks  one  like  unto  the  Son  of 
man  .  .  .  his  head  and  his  hairs  were  white  like  wool,  as  white  as  snow  ; 
and  his  eyes  were  as  a  flame  of  fire  .  .  .  and  his  feet  hke  unto  fine  brass, 
as  if  they  burned  in  a  furnace"  (i.  13,  14,  15).  Johti  here  repeats,  as  is 
well  known,  the  words  of  Daniel  and  Ezekiel.  "  The  Ancient  of  Days 
.  .  .  whose  hair  was  white  as  pure  wool  .  .  .  etc."  And  "  the  appear- 
ance of  a  man  .  .  .  above  the  throne  .  .  .  and  the  appearance  of  fire, 
and  it  had  brightness  round  about."  J  The  fire  being  "  the  glory  of  the 
Lord."  Fetahil  is  son  of  the  man,  the  Third  Life,  and  his  upper  part 
is  represented  as  white  as  snow,  while  standing  near  the  tlnone  of  the 
living  fire  he  has  the  appearance  of  a  flame. 

All  these  "  apocalyptic  "  visions  are  based  on  the  description  of  the 
"  white  head "  of  the  Sohar,  in  whom  the  kabalistic  trinity  is  united. 
The  white  head,  "  which  conceals  in  its  cranium  the  spirit,"  and  which  is 
environed  by  subtile  fire.  The  "  appearance  of  a  man  "  is  that  of  Adam 
Kadmon,  through  which  passes  the  thread  of  light  represented  by  the 
fire.  Fetahil  is  the  Vir  JVbvissimis  (the  newest  man),  the  son  of  Abatur,§ 
the  latter  being  the  "  man,"  or  the  /Aird  life,  ||  now  the  third  personage  of 
the  trinity,  /o/in  sees  "one  like  unto  the  son  of  man,"  holding  in  his 
right  hand  seven  stars,  and  standing  between  "  seven  golden  candle- 
sticks" {Revelation  i.).  Fetahil  takes  his  "  stand  on  high,"  according  to 
the  will  of  his  father,  "  the  highest  JVmvi  who  has  seven  sceptres,",  and 

*  "  Codex  Nazarjeus,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  109.  See  "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  for  trans- 

f  Revelation  iv.  5.  %  Ezekiel.  §  "  Codex  Nazarsus,"  voh  ii.,  p.  127. 

H  The  first  androgyne  duad  being  considered  a  unit  in  all  the  secret  computations, 
is,  therefore,  the  Holy  Ghost. 


seven  genii,  who  astronomically  represent  the  seven  planets  or  stars. 
He  stands  "  shining  in  the  garment  of  the  Lord's,  resplendent  by  the 
agency  of  the  genii,"  *  He  is  the  Son  of  his  Father,  Life,  and  his  mother, 
Spirit,  or  Light,  f  The  Logos  is  represented  in  the  Gospel  according  to 
John  as  one  in  whom  was  '■'Life,  and  the  life  was  the  light  of  men"  (i.  4). 
Fetahil  is  the  Demiurge,  and  his  father  created  the  visible  universe  of 
matter  through  him.  J  In  the  Epistle  of  Paul  to  the  Ephesians  (iii.  g), 
God  is  said  to  have  "  created  all  things  by  Jesus."  In  the  Codex  the 
Parent-LiFE  says:  "Arise,  go,  our  son  first-begotten,  ordained  for  all 
creatures."  §  "As  the  living  father  hath  sent  me,"  says  Christ,  "God 
sent  his  only-begotten  son  that  we  might  live."  ||  Finally,  having  per- 
formed his  work  on  earth,  Fetahil  reascends  to  his  father  Abatur.  "  Et 
qui,  relicto  guetn  procreavit  mundo,  ad  Abatur  suum  pair  em  contendit."  1 
"  My  father  sent  me  .  .   .   I  go  to  the  Father,"  repeats  Jesus. 

Laying  aside  the  theological  disputes  of  Christianity  which  try  to 
blend  together  the  Jewish  Creator  of  the  first  chapter  of  Genesis  with 
the  "  Father "  of  the  New  Testament,  Jesus  states  repeatedly  of  his 
Father  that  "  He  is  in  secret."  Surely  he  would  not  have  so  termed  the 
ever-present  "Lord  God"  of  the  Mosaic  books,  vvho  showed  Himself  to 
Moses  and  the  Patriarchs,  and  finally  allowed  all  the  elders  of  Israel 
to  look  on  Himself.  **  When  Jesus  is  made  to  speak  of  the  temple  at 
Jerusalem  as  of  his  "  Father's  house,"  he  does  not  mean  the  physical 
building,  which  he  maintains  he  can  destroy  and  then  again  rebuild  in 
three  days,  but  of  the  temple  of  Solomon  ;  the  wise  kabalist,  who  indi- 
cates in  his  Proverbs  that  every  man  is  the  temple  of  God,  or  of  his 
own  divine  spirit.  This  term  of  the  "Father  who  is  in  secret,"  we  find 
used  as  much  in  the  Kabala  as  in  the  Codex  Nazara-us,  and  elsewhere. 
No  one  has  ever  seen  the  wisdom  concealed  in  the  "Cranium,"  and 
no  one  has  beheld  the  "Depth"  (Bythos).  Simon,  the  Magician, 
preached    "one  Father  unknown  to  all."  f  f 

We  can  trace  this  appellation  of  a  "  secret  "  God  still  farther  back. 
In  the  Kabala  the  "  Son  "  of  the  co?icealed  Father  who  dwells  in  light 
and  glory,  is  the  "Anointed,"  the  Seir-Anpin,  who  unites  in  himself  all 
the  Sephiroth,  he  is  Christos,  or  the  Heavenly  man.  It  is  through 
Christ    that   the   Pneuma,    or   the    Holy    Ghost,    creates    "all   things" 

*  _"  Codex  Nazaraaus,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  59.  \  Ibid.,  vol.  i.,  p.  285. 

X  Ibid,,  vol.  i.,  p.  309. 

§Ibid.,  vol.  i.,  p.  287.    See  "Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  roi. 
I)  John  iv.  9.  T[  "  Codex  Nazarasus,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  123. 

**  "  Then  went  up  Moses  and  Aaron,  Nadab  and  Abihu,   and  seventy  of  the  elders 
of  Israel.     And  they  saw  the  God  of  Israel^''  Exodus  xxiv.  9,  10. 
ff  Irenoius:  "  Clementine  Homilies,"  I.,  x.\ii.,  p.  118. 


{Ephesians  iii.  9),  and  produces  the  four  elements,  air,  water,  fire,  and 
earth.  This  assertion  is  unquestionable,  for  we  find  Irensus  basing  on 
this  fact  his  best  argument  for  the  necessity  of  there  being  four  gospels. 
There  can  be  neither  more  nor  fewer  than  four — he  argues.  "  For  as 
there  are  four  quarters  of  the  world,  and  four  general  winds  {KadoXlKo. 
irvevfj.aTa)  .  .  .  it  is  right  that  she  (the  Church)  should  have  four  pillars. 
From  which  it  is  manifest  that  the  Word,  the  maker  of  all,  he  who  sUteth 
upon  the  Cherubim  ...  as  David  says,  supplicating  his  advent,  '  Thou 
that  sittest  between  the  Cherubim,  shine  forth  ! '  For  the  Cherubim  also 
are  four-faced  and  their  faces  are  symbols  of  the  working  of  the  Son  of 
God."  * 

We  will  not  stop  to  discuss  at  length  the  special  holiness  of  the  four- 
faced  Cherubim,  although  we  might,  perhaps,  show  their  origin  in  all 
the  ancient  pagodas  of  India,  in  the  vehans  (or  vehicles)  of  their  chief 
gods  ;  as  likewise  we  might  easily  attribute  the  respect  paid  to  them  to 
the  kabalistic  wisdom,  .which,  nevertheless,  the  Church  rejects  with 
great  horror.  But,  we  cannot  resist  the  temptation  to  remind  the 
reader  that  he  may  easily  ascertain  the  several  significances  attributed 
to  these  Cherubs  by  reading  the  Kabala.  "  When  the  souls  are  to  leave 
their  abode,"  says  the  Sohar,  holding  to  the  doctrine  of  the  pre-exist- 
ence  of  souls  in  the  world  of  emanations,  "  each  soul  separately 
appears  before  the  Holy  King,  dressed  in  a  sublime  form,  with  the  fea- 
tures in  which  it  is  to  appear  in  this  world.  It  is  from  this  sublime  form 
that  the  image  proceeds  "  [Sohar,  iii.,  p.  104  ab).  Then  it  goes  on  to 
say  that  the  types  or  forms  of  these  faces  are  four  in  number — those  of 
the  angel  or  man,  of  the  Hon,  the  bull,  and  the  eagle."  Furthermore, 
we  may  well  express  our  wonder  that  Irenseus  should  not  have  re-en- 
forced his  argument  for  the  four  gospels — by  citing  the  whole  Pantheon 
of  the  four-armed  Hindu  gods  ? 

Ezekiel  in  representing  his  four  animals,  now  called  Cherubim,  as 
types  of  the  four  symbolical  beings,  which,  in  his  visions  support  the 
throne  of  Jehovah,  had  not  far  to  go  for  his  models.  The  Chaldeo- 
Babylonian  protecting  genii  were  familiar  to  him ;  the  Sed,  Alap  or 
Kirub  (Cherubim),  the  bull,  with  the  human  face  ;  the  Nirgal,  human- 
headed  hon  ;  Oustour  the  Sphinx-man  ;  and  the  Nathga,  with  its  eagle's 
head.  The  religion  of  the  masters — the  idolatrous  Babylonians  and 
Assyrians — was  transferred  almost  bodily  into  the  revealed  Scripture  of 
the  Captives,  and  from  thence  came  into  Christianity. 

Already,  we  find  Ezekiel  addressed  by  the  likeness  of  the  glory 
of  the   Lord,  "  as  Son  of  man."     This  peculiar  title  is  used  repeatedly 

'Adv.  Haes.,"lII.,  il,  iS. 


throughout  the  whole  book  of  this  prophet,  which  is  as  kabalistic  as 
the  "roll  of  a  book  "  which  the  "  Glory  "  causes  him  to  eat.  It  is  writ- 
ten within  and  without ;  and  its  real  meaning  is  identical  with  that  of 
the  Apocalypse.  It  appears  strange  that  so  much  stress  should  be  laid 
on  this  pecuhar  appellation,  said  to  have  been  applied  by  Jesus  to  him- 
self, when,  in  the  symbolical  or  kabalistic  language,  a  prophet  is  so 
addressed.  It  is  as  extraordinary  to  see  Irenaeus  indulging  in  such 
graphic  descriptions  of  Jesus  as  to  show  him,  "  the  maker  of  all,  sitting 
upon  a  Cherubim,"  unless  he  identifies  him  with  Shekinah,  whose  usual 
place  was  among  the  Charoubs  of  the  Mercy  Seat.  We  also  know  that 
the  Cherubim  and  Seraphim  are  titles  of  the  "  Old  Serpent  "  (the  ortho- 
dox Devil)  the  Seraphs  being  the  burning  or  fiery  serpents,  in  kabalistic 
symbolism.  The  ten  emanations  of  Adam  Kadmon,  called  the 
Sephiroth,  have  all  emblems  and  titles  corresponding  to  each.  So,  for 
instance,  the  last  two  are  Victory,  or  Jehovah-Sabaoth,  whose  symbol 
is  -the  right  column  of  Solomon,  the  Pillar  Jachiii ;  while  glory  is  the 
left  Pillar,  or  Boaz,  and  its  name  is  "  the  Old  Serpent,"  and  also  "  Sera- 
phim and  Cherubim."  * 

The  "Son  of  man"  is  an  appellation  which  could  not  be  assumed 
by  any  one  but  a  kabalist.  Except,  as  shown  above,  in  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, it  is  used  but  by  one  prophet — Ezekiel,  the  kabalist.  In  their 
mysterious  and  mutual  relations,  the  yEons  or  Sephiroth  are  represented 
in  the  Kahala  by  a  great  number  of  circles,  and  sometimes  by  the  figure 
of  a  MAN,  which  is  symbolically  formed  out  of  such  circles.  This  man 
is  Seir-Anpin,  and  the  243  numbers  of  which  his  figure  consists  relate 
to  the  different  orders  of  the  celestial  hierarchy.  The  original  idea  of 
this  figure,  or  rather  the  model,  may  have  been  taken  from  the  Hindu 
Brahma,  and  the  various  castes  typified  by  the  several  parts  of  his  body, 
as  King  suggests  in  his  G?iostics.  In  one  of  the  grandest  and  most 
beautiful  cave-temples  at  EUora,  Nasak,  dedicated  to  Vishvakarma, 
son  of  Brahma,  is  a  representation  of  this  God  and  his  attributes.  To 
one  acquainted  with  Ezekiel's  description  of  the  "likeness  of  four 
living  creatures,"  every  one  of  which  had  four  faces  and  the  hands  of 
a  man  under  its  wings,  etc.,-  f  this  figure  at  EUora  must  certainly  appear 
absolutely  biblical.  Brahma  is  called  the  father  of  "  man,"  as  well  as 
Jupiter  and  other  highest  gods. 

It  is  in  the  Buddhistic  representations  of  Mount  Meru,  called  by  the 
Burmese  My'e-nmo,  and  by  the  Siamese  Sineru,  that  we  find  one  of  the 
originals  of  the  Adam  Kadmon,  Seir-Anpin,  the  "  heavenly  man,"  and 
of  all  the  ^ons,  Sephiroth,  Powers,  Dominions,  Thrones,  Virtues,  and 

*  See  King's  "Gnostics."  f  Ezekiel  i.-ii. 


Dignities  of  the  Kabala.  Between  two  pillars,  whicli  are  connected  by 
an  arch,  the  key-stone  of  the  latter  is  represented  by  a  crescent.  This  is 
the  domain  in  which  dwells  the  Supreme  Wisdom  of  A'di  Buddha,  the 
Supreme  and  invisible  Deity.  Beneath  this  highest  central  point  comes 
the  circle  of  the  direct  emanation  of  the  Unknown— the  circle  of  Brahma 
with  some  Hindus,  of  the  first  avatar  of  Buddha,  according  to  others. 
This  answers  to  Adam  Kadraon  and  the  ten  Sephiroth.  Nine  of  the 
emanations  are  encircled  by  the  tenth,  and  occasionally  represented  by 
pagodas,  each  of  which  bears  a  name  which  expresses  one  of  the  chief 
attributes  of  the  manifested  Deity.  Then  below  come  the  seven  stages, 
or  heavenly  spheres,  each  sphere  being  encircled  by  a  sea.  These  are 
the  celestial  mansions  of  the  devatas,  or  gods,  each  losing  somewhat  in 
holiness  and  purity  as  it  approaches  the  earth.  Then  comes  Meru  itself, 
formed  of  numberless  circles  within  three  large  ones,  typifying  the  trinity 
of  man  ;  and  for  one  acquainted  with  the  numerical  value  of  the  letters  in 
bibhcal  names,  like  that  of  the  "  Great  Beast,"  or  that  of  Mithra  fjiuOpas 
afipa^ai,  and  others,  it  is  an  easy  matter  to  establish  the  identity  of  the 
Meru-gods  with  the  emanations  or  Sephiroth  of  the  kabahsts.  Also  the 
genii  of  the  Nazarenes,  with  their  special  missions,  are  all  found  on  this 
most  ancient  mythos,  a  most  perfect  representation  of  the  symbolism  of 
the  "secret  doctrine,"  as  taught  in  archaic  ages. 

King  gives  a  few  hints — though  doubtless  too  insufficient  to  teach 
anything  important,  for  they  are  based  upon  the  calculations  of  Bishop 
Newton  * — as  to  this  mode  of  finding  out  mysteries  in  the  value  of  letters. 
However,  we  find  this  great  archaeologist,  who  has  devoted  so  much  time 
and  labor  to  the  study  of  Gnostic  gems,  corroborating  our  assertion.  He 
shows  that  the  entire  theory  is  Hindu,  and  points  out  that  the  durga,  or 
female  counterpart  of  each  Asiatic  god,  is  what  the  kabalists  term  active 
Virtue  \  in  the  celestial  hierarchy,  a  term  which  the  Christian  Fathers 
adopted  and  repeated,  without  fully  appreciating,  and  the  meaning  of 
which  the  later  theology  has  utterly  disfigured.     But  to  return  to  Meru. 

*  "  Gnostics  and  their  Remains." 

■)•  "Although  this  science  is  commonly  supposed  to  be  peculiar  to  the  Jewish  Tal- 
mudists,  there  is  no  doubt  that  they  borrowed  the  idea  from  a  foreign  source,  and  that 
from  the  Chaldeajis,  the  founders  of  magic  art"  says  King,  in  the  "  Gnostics."  The 
titles  lao  and  Abraxas,  etc.,  instead  of  being  recent  Gnostic  figments,  were  indeed  holy 
names,  borrowed  from  the  most  ancient  formulse  of  the  East.  Pliny  must  allude  to 
them  when  he  mentions  the  virtues  ascribed  by  the  Magi  to  amethysts  engraved  with 
the  names  of  tlie  sun  and  moon,  names  not  expressed  in  either  the  Greek  or  Latin 
tontmes.  In  the  "  Eternal  Sun,"  the  ^'Airaxas,"  the  "  Adonai,"  of  these  gems,  we 
recognize  the  very  amulets  ridiculed  by  the  philosophic  Pliny  ("  Gnostics,"  pp.  79,  80) ; 
Virtues  (miracles)  as  employed  by  Irenseus. 


The  whole  is  surrounded  by  the  Maha  Samut,  or  the  great  sea— the 
astral  light  and  ether  of  the  kabalists  and  scientists  ;  and  within  the  cen- 
tral circles  appears  "  the  likeness  of  a  man."  He  is  the  Achadoth  of 
the  Nazarenes,  the  twofold  unity,  or  the  androgyne  man  ;  the  heavenly 
incarnation,  and  a  perfect  representation  of  Seir-Anpin  (short-face),  the 
son  of  Arkh  Ajipin  (long-face).  *  This  likeness  is  now  represented  in 
many  lamaseries  by  Gautama-Buddha,  the  last  of  the  incarnated  avatars. 
Still  lower,  under  the  Meru,  is  the  dwelling  of  the  great  Naga,  who  is 
called  Rajah  Naga,  the  king-serpent — the  serpent  of  Genesis,  the  Gnostic 
Ophis — and  the  goddess  of  the  earth,  Bhumay  Nari,  or  Yama,  who  waits 
upon  the  great  dragon,  for  she  is  Eve,  "  the  mother  of  all  that  live."  Still 
lower  is  the  eighth  sphere,  the  infernal  regions.  The  uppermost  regions 
of  Brahma  are  surrounded  by  the  sun,  moon,  and  planets,  the  seven  stel- 
lars  of  the  Nazarenes,  and  just  as  they  are  described  in  the  Codex. 

"  The  seven  impostor-D»mons  who  deceive  the  sons  of  Adam.  The 
name  of  one  is  Sol ;  of  another  Spiritus  Vencreus,  Astro  ;  of  the  third 
Nebii,  Mercurius  a  false  Messiah;  .  .  .  the  name  of  a  fourth  is  Sin 
Luna ;  the  fifth  is  Kiiin,  Saturnus ;  the  sixth,  Bel-Zeus  ;  the  seventh, 
Nerig-J/tz;'j-. "  \  Then  there  are  "  Seven  Lives  procreated,"  seven  good 
Stellars,  "  which  are  from  Cabar  Zio,  and  are  those  bright  ones  who  shine 
in  their  own  form  and  splendor  that  pours  from  on  high.  ...  At  the 
gate  of  the  House  of  Life  the  throne  is  fitly  placed  for  the  Lord  of 
Splendor,  and  there  are  three  habitations. "  J  ,  The  habitations  of  the 
Triinurti,  the  Hindu  trinity,  are  placed  beneath  the  key-stone — the  golden 
crescent,  in  the  representation  of  Meru.  "  And  there  was  under  his  feet 
(of  the  God  of  Israel)  as  it  were  a  paved  work  of  a  sapphire-stone  " 
{Exodus  xxiv.  lo).  Under  the  crescent  is  the  heaven  of  Brahma,  all 
paved  with  sapphires.  The  paradise  of  Indra  is  resplendent  with  a  thou- 
sand suns  ;  that  of  Siva  (Saturn),  is  in  the  northeast ;  his  throne  is  formed 
of  lapis-lazuli  and  the  floor  of  heaven  is  of  fervid  gold.  "  When  he  sits 
on  the  throne  he  blazes  with  fire  up  to  the  loins."  At  Hurdwar,  during 
the  fair,  in  which  he  is  more  than  ever  Mahadeva,  the  highest  god,  the 
attributes  and  emblems  sacred  to  the  Jewish  "  Lord  God,"  may  be  recog- 
nized one  by  one  in  those  of  Siva.  The  Binlang  stone,  §  sacred  to  this 
Hindu  deity,  is  an  unhewn  stone  like  the  Beth-el,  consecrated  by  the 
Patriarch  Jacob,  and   set  up  by  him  "for  a  pillar,"  and  hke  the  latter 

*  So  called  to  distinguish  the  short-face,  who  is  exterior,  "  from  the  venerable  sacred 
ancient  "  (the  "  Idra  Rabba,"  iii.,  36 ;  v  54).  Seir-Anpin  is  the  "image  of  the  Father." 
"  He  that  hath  seen  me  hath  seen  my  Father  "  (John  xiv.  9). 

f  "  Codex  Nazaraius,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  57.  \  Ibid.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  6l. 

^  This  stone,  of  a  sponge-like  surface,  is  found  in  Narmada  and  seldom  to  be  seen 
in  other  places. 


Binlang  is  anointed.  We  need  hardly  remind  the  student  that  the  linga, 
the  emblem  sacred  to  Siva  and  whose  temples  are  modelled  after  this 
form,  is  identical  in  shape,  meaning,  and  purpose  with  the  "pillars"  set 
up  by  the  several  patriarchs  to  mark  their  adoration  of  the  Lord  God. 
In  fact,  one  of  these  patriarchal  hthoi  might  even  now  be  carried  in  the 
Sivaitic  processions  of  Calcutta,  without  its  Hebrew  derivation  being  sus- 
pected. The  four  arms  of  Siva  are  often  represented  with  appendages 
like  wings  ;  he  has  three  eyes  and  a  fourth  in  the  crescent,  obtained 
by  him  at  the  churning  of  the  ocean,  as  Pancha  Mukhti  Siva  has  four 

In  this  god  we  recognize  the  description  given  by  Ezekiel,  in  the  first 
chapter  of  his  book,  of  his  vision,  in  which  he  beholds  the  "  likeness  of  a 
man"  in  the  four  living  creatures,  who  had  "four  faces,  four  wings," 
who  had  one  pair  of  "  straight  feet  .  .  .  which  sparkled  like  the  color  of 
burnished  brass  .  .  .  and  their  rings  were  full  of  eyes  round  about  them 
four."  It  is  the  throne  and  heaven  of  Siva  that  the  prophet  describes  in 
saying  "...  and  there  was  the  likeness  of  a  throne  as  the  appearance 
of  a  sapphire  stone  .  .  .  and  I  saw  as  the  color  of  amber  (gold)  as  the  ap- 
pearance of  fire  around  about  .  .  .  from  his  loins  even  upward,  and  from 
the  appearance  of  his  loins  even  downward,  I  saw  as  it  were  the  appear- 
ance of  fire"  [Ezekieli.  27).  "  And  his  feet  like  unto  fine  brass,  as  if 
they  burned  in  a  furnace"  {Revelation  \.  15).  "As  for  their  faces  .  .  , 
one  had  the  face  of  a  cherub,  and  the  face  of  a  lion  .  .  .  they  also  had 
the  face  of  an  ox  and  the  face  of  an  eagle"  {Ezekiel  \.  10,  x.  14).  This 
foiitfold  appearance  which  we  find  in  the  two  cherubims  of  gold  on  the 
two  ends  of  the  ark;  these  symbolic  ioxix  faces  being  adopted,  moreover, 
later,  one  by  each  evangelist,  as  may  be  easily  ascertained  from  the 
pictures  of  Matthew,  Mark,  Luke,  and  John,*  prefixed  to  their  respective 
gospels  in  the  Roman  Vulgate  and  Greek  Bibles. 

"Taaut,  the  great  god  of  the  Phoenicians,"  says  Sanchoniathon,  "to 
express  the  character  of  Saturn  or  Kronos,  made  his  image  having  four 
eyes  .  .  .  two  before,  two  behind,  open  and  closed,  and  four  wings,  two 
expanded,  two  folded.  The  eyes  denote  that  the  god  sees  in  sleep,  and 
sleeps  in  waking  ;  the  position  of  the  wings  that  he  flies  in  rest,  and  rests 
in  flying." 

The  identity  of  Saturn  with  Siva  is  corroborated  still  more  when  we 
consider  the  emblem  of  the  latter,  the  damara,  which  is  an  hour-glass,  to 
show  the  progress  of  time,  represented  by  this  god  in  his  capacity  of  a 
destroyer.     The  bull  Nardi,  the  vehan  of  Siva  and  the  most  sacred  em- 

*  John  has  an  eagle  near  him  ;   Luke,    a  bull ;   Mark,   a  lion  ;  and  Matthew,   an 
angel— the  kabalistic  quaternary  of  the, Egyptian  Tarot. 


bleiii  of  this  god,  is  reproduced  in  the  Egyptian  Apis ;  and  in  the  bull 
created  by  Ormazd  and  killed  Ahriman.  The  religion  of  Zoroaster, 
all  based  upon  the  "  secret  doctrine,"  is  found  held  by  the  people  of 
Eritene  ;  it  was  the  religion  of  the  Persians  when  they  conquered  the 
Assyrians.  From  thence  it  is  easy  to  trace  the  introduction  of  this  em- 
blem of  Life  represented  by  the  Bull,  in  every  religious  system.  The 
college  of  the  Magians  had  accepted  it  with  the  change  of  dynasty;* 
Daniel  is  described  as  a  Rabbi,  the  chief  of  the  Babylonian  astrologers 
and  Magi ;  f  therefore  we  see  the  Assyrian  little  bulls  and  the  attributes 
of  Siva  reappearing  under  a  hardly  modified  form  in  the  cherubs  of  the 
Talmudistic  Jews,  as  we  have  traced  the  bull  Apis  in  the  sphinxes  or 
cherubs  of  the  Mosaic  Ark ;  and  as  we  find  it  several  thousand  years 
later  in  the  company  of  one  of  the  Christian  evangelists,  Luke. 

Whoever  has  lived  in  India  long  enough  to  acquaint  himself  even 
superficially  with  the  native  deities,  must  detect  the  similarity  between 
Jehovah  and  other  gods  besides  Siva.  As  Saturn,  the  latter  was 
always  held  in  great  respect  by  the  Tahnudists.  He  was  held  in 
reverence  by  the  Alexandrian  kabalists  as  the  direct  inspirer  of  the  law 
and  the  prophets  ;  one  of  the  names  of  Saturn  was  Israel,  and  we  will 
show,  in  time,  his  identity  in  a  certain  way  with  Abram,  which  Movers  and 
others  hinted  at  long  since.  Thus  it  cannot  be  wondered  at  if  Valen- 
tinus,  Basilides,  and  the  Ophite  Gnostics  placed  the  dwelling  of  their 
Ilda-Baoth,  also  a  destroyer  as  well  as  a  creator,  in  the  planet  Saturn ; 
for  it  was  he  who  gave  the  law  in  the  wilderness  and  spoke  through  the 
prophets.  If  more  proof  should  be  required  we  will  show  it  in  the  testi- 
mony of  the  canonical  Bible  itself.  In  Amos  the  "  I^ord  "  pours  vials 
of  wrath  upon  the  people  of  Israel.  He  rejects  their  burnt-offerings  and 
will  not  listen  to  their  prayers,  but  inquires  of  Amos,  "  have  ye  offered 
unto  me  sacrifices  and  offerings  in  the  wilderness  forty  years,  O  house  of 
Israel?"  "But  ye  have  borne  the  tabernacles  of  your  Moloch  and 
Chiun  your  images,  the  star  of  your  god"  (v.  25,  26).  Who  are  Moloch 
and  Chiun  but  Baal — Saturn — Siva,  and  Chiun,  Kivan,  the  same  Saturn 
whose  star  the  Israelites  had  made  to  themselves  ?  There  seems  no 
escape  in  this  case  ;  all  these  deities  are  identical. 

The  same  in  the  case  of  the  numerous  Logoi.  While  the  Zoroastrian 
Sosiosh  is  framed  on  that  of  the  tenth  Brahmanical  Avatar,  and  the  fifth 
Buddha  of  the  followers  of  Gautama  ;  and  we  find  the  former,  after  having 
passed  part  and  parcel  into  the  kabalistic  system  of  king  Messiah,  re- 
flected in  the  Apostle  Gabriel  of  the  Nazarenes,  and  yEbel-Zivo,  the 
Legatus,  sent  on  earth  by  the  Lord  of  Celsitude  and  Light ;  all  of  these — 

*  See  Matter,  upon  the  subject.  f  Consult  Book  of  Daniel,  iv.,  v. 


Hindu  and  Persian,  Buddhist  and  Jewish,  the  Christos  of  the  Gnostics 
and  the  Philonean  Logos — are  found  combined  in  '-the  Word  made 
flesh"  of  the  fourth  Gospel.  Christianity  includes  all  these  systems, 
patched  and  arranged  to  meet  the  occasion.  Do  we  take  up  the  Avesta 
■ — we  find  there  the  dual  system  so  prevalent  in  the  Christian  scheme. 
The  struggle  between  Ahriman,  *  Darkness,  and  Ormazd,  Light,  has  been 
going  on  in  the  world  continually  since  the  beginning  of  time.  When  the 
worst  ariives  and  Ahriman  will  seera  to  have  conquered  the  world  and 
corrupted  all  mankind,  then  will  appear  the  ^ff7'w?/r  of  mankind,  Sosiosh. 
He  will  come  seated  upon  a  white  horse  and  followed  by  an  army  of  good 
genii  equally  mounted  on  milk-white  steeds.  \  And  this  we  find  faith- 
fully copied  in  the  Revelation  :  "  I  saw  heaven  opened,  and  beheld  a 
white  horse ;  and  he  that  sal  upon  him  was  called  faithful  and  true.  .  .  . 
And  the  armies  which  were  in  heaven  followed  him  upon  white  horses  " 
{^Revelation  xix.  11,  14).  Sosiosh  himself  is  but  a  later  YQxi\zx\  permu- 
tation of  the  Hindu  Vishnu.  The  figure  of  this  god  may  be  found  unto 
this  day  representing  him  as  the  Saviour,  the  "  Preserver  "  (the  preserv- 
ing spirit  of  God),  in  the  temple  of  Rama.  The  picture  shows  him  in  his 
tenth  incarnation- — the  Kalki  avatar,  which  is  yet  to  come — as  an  armed 
warrior  mounted  upon  a  white  horse.  Waving  over  his  head  the  sword 
destruction,  he  holds  in  his  other  hand  a  discus,  made  up  of  rings  en- 
circled in  one  another,  an  emblem  of  the  revolving  cycles  or  great  ages,J 
for  Vishnu  will  thus  appear  but  at  the  end  of  the  Kaliyug,  answering  to 
the  end  of  the  world  expected  by  our  Adventists.  "  And  out  of  his 
mouth  goeth  a  sharp  sword  ...  on  his  head  were  many  crowns" 
{Revelation  xix.  12).  Vishnu  is  often  represented  with  several  crowns 
superposed  on  his  head.  "  And  I  saw  an  angel  standing  on  the  Sun  " 
(17).  The  white  horse  is  the  horse  of  the  Sun.^  Sosiosh,  the  Persian 
Saviour,  is  also  born  of  a  virgin,  ||  and  at  the  end  of  days  he  will  come  as 
a  Redeemer  to  regenerate  the  world,  but  he  will  be  preceded  by  two 
prophets,  who  will  come  to  announce  him.  ^  Hence  the  Jews  who  had 
Moses  and   Elias,  are  now  waiting  for  the  Messiah.      "  Then  comes  the 

*  Ahriman,  the  production  of  Zoroaster,  is  so  called  in  hatred  of  the  Arias  or 
Aryas,  the  Brahmans  against  whose  dominion  the  Zoroastrians  had  revolted.  Although 
an  Arya  (a  noble,  a  sage)  himself,  Zoroaster,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Devas  whom  he  dis- 
graced from  gods  to  the  position  of  devils,  hesitated  not  to  designate  this  type  of  the 
spirit  of  evil  under  the  name  of  his  enemies,  the  Brahman-Aryas.  The  whole  struggle 
of  Ahura-mazd  and  Ahriman  is  but  the  allegory  of  the  great  religious  and  political  war 
between  Brahmanism  and  Zoroastrianism. 

\   "  Nork,"  ii.,  146.  t  '^^^-   '^'''  Maurice  takes  it  also  to  mean  the  cycles. 

§  "  Duncker,"  ii.,  363  ;  Spiegel's  "  Avesta,"  i.,  32,  34, 

II  See  the  "  Book  of  Dehesh,"  47. 

^  See  King's  translation  of  the  "  Zend  Avesta,"  in  his  "  Gnostics,"  p.  9. 


general  resurrection,  when  the  good  will  immediately  enter  into  this 
happy  abode — the  regenerated  earth  ;  and  Ahriman  and  his  angels 
(the  devils),*  and  the  wicked,  be  purified  by  immersion  in  a  lake  of 
molten  metal.  .  .  .  Henceforward,  all  will  enjoy  unchangeable  happi- 
ness, and,  headed  by  Sosiosh,  ever  sing  the  praises  of  the  Eternal  One."f 
The  above  is  a  perfect  repetition  of  Vishnu  in  his  tenth  avatar,  for  he 
will  then  throw  the  wicked  into  the  infernal  abodes  in  which,  after  purify- 
ing themselves,  they  will  be  pardoned — even  those  devils  which  rebelled 
against  Brahma,  and  were  hurled  into  the  bottomless  pit  by  Siva,  \  as 
also  the  "  blessed  ones  "  will  go  to  dwell  with  the  gods,  over  the  Mount 

Having  thus  traced  the  similarity  of  views  respecting  the  Logos,  Met- 
atron,  and  Mediator,  as  found  in  the  Kabala  and  the  Codex  of  the  Chris- 
tian Nazarenes  and  Gnostics,  the  reader  is  prepared  to  appreciate  the 
audacity  of  the  Patristic  scheme  to  reduce  a  purely  metaphysical  figure 
into  concrete  form,  and  make  it  appear  as  if  the  finger  of  prophecy  had 
from  time  immemorial  been  pointing  down  the  vista  of  ages  to  Jesus  as 
the  coming  Messiah.  A  theomythos  intended  to  symbolize  the  coming 
day,  near  the  close  of  the  great  cycle,  when  the  "glad  tidings"  from 
heaven  should  proclaim  the  universal  brotherhood  and  common  faith  of 
humanity,  the  day  of  regeneration — was  violently  distorted  into  an  ac- 
complished fact. 

"  Why  callest  thou  me  good  ?  there  is  none  good  but  one,  that  is 
God,"  says  Jesus.  Is  this  the  language  of  a  God  ?  of  the  second  person 
in  the  Trinity,  who  is  identical  with  the  First  ?  And  if  this  Messiah,  or 
Holy  Ghost  of  the  Gnostic  and  Pagan  Trinities,  had  come  in  his  person, 
what  did  he  mean  by  distinguishing  between  himself  the  "Son  of  man," 
and  the  Holy  Ghost  ?  "  And  whosoever  shall  speak  a  word  against  the 
Son  of  man,  it  shall  be  forgiven  him  ;  but  unto  him  that  blasphemeth 
against  the  Holy  Ghost,  it  shall  not  be  forgiven,"  he  says.§  And  how 
account  for  the  marvellous  identity  of  this  very  language,  with  the  pre- 
cepts enunciated,  centuries  before,  by  the  Kabahsts  and  the  "Pagan" 
initiates  ?     The  following  are  a  few  instances  out  of  many. 

"  No  one  of  the  gods,  no  man  or  Lord,  can  be  good,  but  only  God 
alone,"  says  Hermes.  || 

*  The  daevas  or  devils  of  the  Iranians  contrast  with  the  devas  or  deities  of  India. 

f  "Nork,"  ii.,  146. 

|Tlie  Bishop  of  Ephesus,  218  A.D.  ;  Eiisebius  :  "  H.  E."  iii.,  31.  Origen  stoutly 
maintained  the  doctrine  of  eternal  punishment  to  be  erroneous.  He  held  that  at  the 
second  advent  of  Christ  even  the  devils  among  the  damned  would  be  forgiven.  The 
eternal  damnation  is  a  later  Christian  thought. 

g  Lulce  xii.  10.  ]  "  Hermes  Trismegistus,"  vi.  55. 


"To  be  a  good  man  is  impossible,  God  alone  possesses  this  privil- 
ege," repeats  Plato,  with  a  slight  variation.  * 

Six  centuries  before  Christ,  the  Chinese  philosopher  Confucius  said 
that  his  doctrine  was  simple  and  easy  to  comprehend  {Lun-yii,  chap.  5, 
§  ij).  To  which  one  of  his  disciples  added:  "The  doctrine  of  our 
Master  consists  in  having  an  invariable  correctness  of  heart,  and  in 
doing  toward  others  as  we  would  that  they  should  do  to  us."  f 

"  Jesus  of  Nazareth,  a  man  approved  of  God  among  you  by  miracles,"  % 
exclaims  Peter,  long  after  the  scene  of  Calvary.  "  There  was  a  man  sent 
from  God,  whose  name  was  John,"  §  says  the  fourth  Gospel,  thus  placing 
the  Baptist  on  an  equality  with  Jesus.  John  the  Baptist,  in  one  of  the 
most  solemn  acts  of  his  life,  that  of  baptizing  Christ,  thinks  not  that  he 
is  going  to  baptize  a  God,  but  uses  the  word  man.  "This  is  he  of  whom 
I  said,  after  me  cometh  a  man."  ||  Speaking  of  himself,  Jesus  says,  "  You 
seek  to  kill  me.  a  man  that  hath  told  you  the  truth,  which  /  have  heard 
of  God."  T  Even  the  blind  man  of  Jerusalem,  healed  by  the  great  thau- 
raaturgist,  full  of  gratitude  and  admiration  for  his  benefactor,  in  narrat- 
ing the  miracle  does  not  call  Jesus  God,  but  simply  says,  "...  a  7nan 
that  is  called  Jesus,  made  clay."  ** 

We  do  not  close  the  list  for  lack  of  other  instances  and  proofs,  but 
simply  because  what  we  now  say  has  been  repeated  and  demonstrated 
by  others,  many  times  before  us.  But  there  is  no  more  incurable  evil 
than  blind  and  unreasoning  fanaticism.  Few  are  the  men  who.  like  Dr. 
Priestley,  have  the  courage  to  write,  "  We  find  nothing  like  divinity 
ascribed  to  Christ  before  Justin  Martyr  (a.d.  141),  who,  from  being  a 
philosopher,  became  a  Christian."  ff 

Mahomet  appeared  nearly  six  hundred  years  JJ  after  the  presumed 
deicide.  The  Grjeco-Roman  world  was  still  convulsed  with  religious  dis- 
sensions, withstanding  all  the  past  imperial  edicts  and  forcible  Christian- 
ization.  While  the  Council  of  Trent  was  disputing  about  the  Vulgate,  the 
unity  of  God  quietly  superseded  the  trinity,  and  soon  the  Mahometans 
outnumbered  the  Christians.  Why?  Because  their  prophet  never 
sought  to  identify  himself  with  Allah.  Otherwise,  it  is  safe  to  say,  he 
would  not  have  lived  to  see  his  religion  flourish.  Till  the  present  day 
Mahometanism  has  made  and  is  now  making  more  proselytes  than  Chris- 
tianity. Buddha  Siddhartha  came  as  a  simple  mortal,  centuries  before 
Christ.     The  religious  ethics   of  this  faith  are   now  found   to   far   exceed 

*  Plato  Protogoras  ;  "  Cory,"  p.  274. 

f  Panthier  :  "  La  Chine,"  ii.,  375  ;   "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  97. 

%  Acts  ii.  22.      §  John  i.  6.        1  Ibid.,  30.      If  John  viii.  40.       **  Ibid.,  ix.  11. 

if  Priestley  :  "  History  of  Early  Christianity,"  p.  2,  sect.  2. 

\X  Mahomet  was  born  in  571  A.D. 


in  moral  beauty  anything  ever  dreamed  of  by  the  TertuUlans  and  Au- 

The  true  spirit  of  Christianity  can  alone  be  fully  found  in  Buddhism  : 
partially,  it  shows  itself  in  other  "heathen"  religions.  Buddha  never 
made  of  himself  a  god,  nor  was  he  deified  by  his  followers.  The  Budd- 
hists are  now  known  to  far  outnumber  Christians  ;  they  are  enumerated 
at  nearly  500,000,000.  While  cases  of  conversion  among  Buddhists, 
Brahmanists,  Mahometans,  and  Jews  become  so  rare  as  to  show  how  sterile 
are  the  attempts  of  our  missionaries,  atheism  and  materialism  spread 
their  gangrenous  ulcers  and  gnaw  every  day  deeper  'at  the  very  heart 
of  Christianity.  There  are  no  atheists  among  heathen  populations,  and 
those  few  among  the  Buddhists  and  Brahmans  who  have  become  infected 
with  materialism  may  always  be  found  to  belong  to  large  cities  densely 
thronged  with  Europeans,  and  or ly  among  educated  classes.  Truly  says 
Bishop  Kidder:  "Were  a  wise  man  to  choose  his  religion  from  those 
who  profess  it,  perhaps  Christianity  would  be  the  last  religion  he  would 
choose  ! " 

In  an  able  httle  pamphlet  from  the  pen  of  the  popular  lecturer,  J. 
M.  Peebles,  M.D.,  the  author  quotes,  from  the  London  AthencBum,  an 
article  in  which  are  described  the  welfare  and  civilization  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Yarkand  and  Kashgar,  "  who  seem  virtuous  and  happy." 
"  Gracious  Heavens  !  "  fervently  exclaims  the  honest  author,  who  him- 
self was  once  a  Universalist  clergyman,  "  Grant  to  keep  Christian  mis- 
sionaries away  from  '  happy'  and  heathen  Tartary  !  "  * 

From  the  earliest  days  of  Christianity,  when  Paul  upbraided  the 
Church  of  Corinth  for  a  crime  "  as  is  not  so  much  as  named  among  the 
Gentiles — that  one  should  have  his  father's  wife  ; "  and  for  their  mak- 
ing a  pretext  of  the  "  Lord's  Sa|5per  "  for  debauch  and  drunkenness 
(i  Corinthians,  v.  i),  the  profession  of  the  name  of  Christ  has  ever  been 
more  a  pretext  than  the  evidence  of  holy  feeling.  However,  a  correct 
form  of  this  verse  is:  "  Eveiywhere  the  lewd  practice  among  you  is 
heard  about,  such  a  lewd  practice  as  is  nowhere  among  the  heathen 
nations — even  the  having  or  marrying  of  the  father's  wife. "  The  Per- 
sian influence  would  seem  to  be  indicated  in  this  language.  The  prac- 
tice existed  "  nowhere  among  the  nations,"  except  in  Persia,  where  it 
was  esteemed  especially  meritorious.  Hence,  too,  the  Jewish  stories  of 
Abraham  marrying  his  sister,  Nahor,  his  niece,  Amram  his  father's  sister, 
and  Judah  his  son's  widow,  whose  children  appear  to  have  been  legiti- 
mate. The  Aryan  tribes  esteemed  endogamic  marriages,  while  the 
Tartars  and  all  barbarous  nations  required  all  alliances  to  be  exagamous. 

*  J.  M.  Peebles:  "  Jesus— Man,  Myth,  or  God  ?  " 


There  was  but  one  apostle  of  Jesus  worthy  of  that  name,  and  that 
was  Paul.  However  disfigured  were  his  Epistles  by  dogmatic  hands 
before  being  admitted  into  the  Canon,  his  conception  of  the  great  and 
divine  figure  of  the  philosopher  who  died  for  his  idea  can  still  be  traced 
in  his  addresses  to  the  various  Gentile  nations.  Only,  he  who  would 
understand  him  better  yet  must  study  the  Philonean  Logos  reflecting  now 
and  then  the  Hindu  Sabda  (logos)  of  the  Mimansa  school. 

As  to  the  other  apostles,  those  whose  names  are  prefixed  to  the  Gos- 
pels— we  cannot  well  believe  in  their  veracity  when  we  find  them  attrib- 
uting to  their  Master  miracles  surrounded  by  circumstances,  recorded,  if 
not  in  the  oldest  books  of  India,  at  least  in  such  as  antedated  Chris- 
tianity, and  in  the  very  phraseology  of  the  traditions.  Who,  in  his  days  of 
simple  and  bhnd  credulity,  but  marvelled  at  the  touching  narrative  given 
in  the  Gospels  according  to  Mark  and  Luke  of  the  resurrection  of  the 
daughter  of  Jairus  ?  Who  has  ever  doubted  its  originality  ?  And  yet 
the  story  is  copied  entirely  from  the  Hari-Purana,  and  is  recorded  among 
the  miracles  attributed  to  Christna.  We  translate  it  from  the  French 
version  : 

"The  King  Angashuna  caused  the  betrothal  of  his  daughter,  the 
beautiful  Kalavatti,  with  the  young  son  of  Varnadeva,  the  powerful  King 
of  Antarvedi,  named  Govinda,  to  be  celebrated  with  great  pomp. 

"  But  as  Kalavatti  was  amusing  herself  in  the  groves  with  her  com- 
panions, she  was  stung  by  a  serpent  and  died.  Angashuna  tore  his 
clothes,  covered  himself  with  ashes,  and  cursed  the  day  when  he  was 

"  Suddenly,  a  great  rumor  spread  through  the  palace,  and  the  following 
cries  were  heard,  a  thousand  times  repeated  :  '■  Pacya  pilar  am  ;  pacya 
gurum  ! '  '  The  Father,  the  Master  ! '  Then  Christna  approached, 
smiUng,  leaning  on  the  arm  of  Ardj  una.  .  .  .  '  Master  !' cried  Angashuna, 
casting  himself  at  his  feet,  and  sprinkling  them  with  his  tears,  '  See 
my  poor  daughter  ! '  and  he  showed  him  the  body  of  Kalavatti,  stretched 
upon  a  mat.   .  .   . 

"  '  Why  do  you  weep  ?  '  replied  Christna,  in  a  gentle  voice.  '  Do 
you  not  see  that  she  is  steeping  1  Listen  to  the  sound  of  her  breathing, 
like  the  sigh  of  the  night  wind  which  rustles  the  leaves  of  the  trees. 
See,  her  cheeks  resuming  their  color,  her  eyes,  whose  lids  tremble  as  if 
they  were  about  to  open  ;  her  lips  quiver  as  if  about  to  speak  ;  she  is 
sleeping,  1  tell  you  ;  and  hold  !  see,  she  moves,  Kalavatti  !  Rise  and 
walk  ! ' 

"  Hardly  had  Christna  spoken,  when  the  breathing,  warmth,  move- 
ment, and  life  returned  httle  by  little,  into  the  corpse,  and  the  young 
girl,  obeying  the  injunction  of  the  demi-god,  rose  from  her  couch  and 


rejoined  her  companions.  But  the  crowd  marvelled  and  cried  out : 
'  This  is  a  god,  since  death  is  no  more  for  him  than  sleep  ? '  "  * 

All  such  parables  are  enforced  upon  Christians,  with  the  addition  of 
dogmas  which,  in  their  extraordinary  character,  leave  far  behind  them  the 
wildest  conceptions  of  heathenism.  The  Christians,  in  order  to  believe 
in  a  Deity,  have  found  it  necessary  to  kill  their  God,  that  they  them- 
selves should  live  ! 

And  now,  the  Supreme,  unknown  one,  the  Father  of  grace  and 
mercy,  and  his  celestial  hierarchy  are  managed  by  the  Church  as  though 
they  were  so  many  theatrical  stars  and  supernumeraries  under  salary !  Six 
centuries  before  the  Christian  era,  Xenophones  had  disposed  of  such 
anthropomorphism  by  an  immortal  satire,  recorded  and  preserved  by 
Clement  of  Alexandria : 

"  There  is  one  God  Supreme 

Whose  form  is  not  like  mito  man's,  and  as  unlike  his  nature ; 
But  vain  mortals  imagine  that  gods  like  themselves  are  begotten 
With  human  sensations,  and  voice,  and  corporeal  members  ; 
So  if  oxen  or  lions  had  hands  and  could  work  in  man's  fashion, 
And  trace  out  with  chisel  or  brush  their  conception  of  Go'dhead 
Then  would  horses  depict  gods  like  horses,  and  oxen  like  oxen, 
Each  kind  the  Divine  with  its  own  form  and  nature  endowing."  -j- 

And  hear  Vyasa — the  poet-pantheist  of  India,  who,  for  all  the 
scientists  can  prove,  may  have  lived,  as  Jacolliot  has  it,  some  fifteen 
thousand  years  ago — discoursing  on  Maya,  the  illusion  of  the  senses : 

"  All  rehgious  dogmas  only  serve  to  obscure  the  intelligence  of 
man.  .  .  .  Worship  of  divinities,  under  the  allegories  of  which  is  hidden 
respect  for  natural  laws,  drives  away  truth  to  the  profit  of  the  basest 
superstitions  "  (  Vyasa  Maya). 

It  was  given  to  Christianity  to  paint  us  God  Almighty  after  the  model 
of  the  kabahstic  abstraction  of  the  "Ancient  of  Days."  From  old 
frescos  on  cathedral  ceilings  ;  Catholic  missals,  and  other  icons  and 
images,  we  now  find  him  depicted  by  the  poetic  brush  of  Gustave  Dor6. 
The  awful,  unknown  majesty  of  Him,  whom  no  "  heathen  "  dared  to 
reproduce  in  concrete  form,  is  figuring  in  our  own  century  in  Dore's 
Illustrated  Bible.  Treading  upon  clouds  that  float  in  mid-air,  darkness 
and  chaos  behind  him  and  the  world  beneath  his  feet,  a  majestic  old 
man  stands,  his  left  hand  gathering  his  flowing  robes  about  him,  and  his 
right  raised  in  the  gesture  of  command.     He  has  spoken  the  Word,  and 

"■  Translated  from  the  "  Haii-Purana,"  by  Jacolliot :    "  Christna,  et  le  Christ." 
f  Clement  :   "  Al.  Strom. ,"  v.  14,  §  1 10  ;  translation  given  in  "  Supernatural  Reli- 
gion,"  vol.  i,  p.  77. 


from  his  towering  person  streams  an  effulgence  of  Light — the  Shekinah. 
As  a  poetic  conception,  the  composition  does  honor  to  the  artist,  but 
does  it  honor  God  ?  Better,  the  cliaos  behind  Him,  than  the  figure 
itself ;  for  there,  at  least,  we  have  a  solemn  mystery.  For  our  part,  we 
prefer  the  silence  of  the  ancient  heathens.  With  such  a  gross,  anthropo- 
morphic, and,  as  we  conceive,  blasphemous  representation  of  the  First 
Cause,  who  can  feel  surprised  at  any  iconographic  extravagance  in  the  rep- 
resentation of  the  Christian  Christ,  the  apostles,  and  the  putative  Saints  ? 
With  the  Catholics  St.  Peter  becomes  quite  naturally  the  janitor  of 
Heaven,  and  sits  at  the  door  of  the  celestial  kingdom — a  ticket-taker  to 
the  Trinity  ! 

In  a  religious  disturbance  which  recently  occurred  in  one  of  the 
Spanish-American  provinces,  there  were  found  upon  the  bodies  of  some 
of  the  killed,  passports  signed  by  the  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  and 
addressed  to  St.  Peter;  bidding  him  "  admit  the  bearer  as  a  true  son  of 
the  Church."  It  was  subsequently  ascertained  that  these  unique  docu- 
ments were  issued  by  the  Catholic  prelate  just  before  his  deluded 
parishioners  went  into  the  fight  at  the  instigation  of  their  priests. 

In  their  immoderate  desire  to  find  evidence  for  the  authenticity  of 
the  New  Testament,  the  best  men,  the  most  erudite  scholars  even  among 
Protestant  divines,  but  too  often  fall  into  deplorable  traps.  We  cannot 
believe  that  such  a  learned  commentator  as  Canon  West'cott  could  have 
left  himself  in  ignorance  as  to  Talmudistic  and  purely  kabalistic 
writings.  How  then  is  it  that  we  find  him  quoting,  with  such  serene 
assurance  as  presenting  "  striking  analogies  to  the  Gospel  of  St..  John" 
passages  from  the  work  of  The  Pastor  of  Hernias,  which  are  complete 
sentences  from  the  kabalistic  literature?  "The  view  which  Hermas 
gives  of  Christ's  nature  and  work  is  no  less  harmonious  with  apostolic 
doctrine,  and  it  offers  striking  analogies  to  the  Gospel  of  St.  John. 
.  .  .  He  (Jesus)  is  a  rock  higher  than  the  mountains,  able  to  hold 
the  whole  world,  ancient,  and  yet  having  a  new  gate !  .  .  .  He  is 
older  than  creation,  so  that  he  took  counsel  with  the  Father  about  the 
creation  which  he  made.  .  .  .  No  one  shall  enter  in  unto  him  otherwise 
than  by  his  Son."  * 

Now  while — as  the  author  of  Supernatural  Religion  well  proves — there 

*  This  work,  "  The  Pastor  of  Hermas,"  is  no  longer  extant,  but  appears  only  in 
the  "  Stichometry  "  of  Nicephorus  ;  it  is  now  considered  an  apocrypha.  But,  in  the  days 
of  Irenaaus,  it  was  quoted  as  Holy  Scripture  (see  "Sup.  Religion,"  vol.  i.,  p.  257)  by 
the  Fathers,  held  to  be  divinely  inspired,  and  publicly  read  in  the  churches  (Irenoeus  : 
"Adv.  Hsr.,"  iv.  20).  When  Tertullian  became  a  Montanist  he  rejected  it,  after 
haviug  asserted  its  divinity  (Tertullian  :    "  De  Oral.,"  p,  12). 


is  nothing  in  this  which  looks  like  a  corroboration  of  the  doctrine  taught 
in  the  fourth  gospel,  he  omits  to  state  that  nearly  everything  expressed 
by  the  pseudo-Hermas  in  relation  to  his  parabolic  conversation  with  the 
"  Lord  "  is  a  plain  quotation,  with  repeated  variations,  from  the  Sohar 
and  other  kabalistic  books.  We  may  as  well  compare,  so  as  to  leave 
the  reader  in  no  difficulty  to  judge  for  himself. 

"  God,"  says  Hernias,  "planted  the  vineyard,  that  is,  He  created  the 
people  and  gave  them  to  His  Son  ;  and  the  Son  .  .  .  himself  cleansed 
their  sins,  etc.  ; "  i.  e.,  the  Son  washed  them  in  his  blood,  in  commemo- 
ration of  which  Christians  drink  wine  at  the  communion.  In  the  Kahala 
it  is  shown  that  the  Aged  of  the  Aged,  or  '■^Long-Face"  plants  a  vine- 
yard, the  latter  typifying  mankind  ;  and  a  vine,  meaning  Life.  The 
Spirit  oi  "  King  Messiah"  is,  therefore,  shown  as  washing  his  garments 
in  the  7vine  from  above,  from  the  creation  of  the  world.  *  Adam,  or 
A-Dam  is  "  blood."  The  life  of  the  flesh  is  in  the  blood  (nephesh — soul), 
Leviticus  xvii.  And  Adam-Kadmon  is  the  Only-Begotten.  Noah  also 
plants  a  vineyard — the  allegorical  hot-bed  of  future  humanity.  As  a  con- 
sequence of  the  adoption  of  the  same  allegory,  we  find  it  reproduced  in 
the  Nazarene  Codex.  Seven  vines  are  procreated,  which  spring  from 
lukabar  Ziva,  and  Ferho  (or  Parclia)  Raba  waters  them.  |  When  the 
blessed  will  ascend  among  the  creatures  of  Light,  they  shall  see  lavar- 
Zivo,  Lord  of  Life,  and  the  First  Vine  1  J  These  kabalistic  metaphora 
are  thus  naturally  repeated  in  the  Gospel  according  to  John  (xv.  i)  :  "I 
am  the  true  vine,  and  my  Father  is  the  husbandman."  In  Genesis  (xlix.), 
the  dying  Jacob  is  made  to  say,  "  The  sceptre  shall  not  depart  from 
Judah  (the  lion's  whelp),  nor  a  lawgiver  from  between  his  feet,  until  Shiloh 
(Siloh)  comes.  .  .  .  Binding  his  colt  unto  the  vine,  and  his  ass's  colt  unto 
the  choice  vine,  he  washed  his  garments  iii  wine,  and  his  clothes  in  the 
blood  of  grapes."  Shiloh  is  "King  Messiah,"  as  well  as  the  Shiloh  in 
Ephraim,  which  was  to  be  made  the  capital  and  the  place  of  the  sanc- 
tuary. In  The  Targum  of  Onkelos,  the  Babylonian,  the  words  of  Jacob 
read  :  "Until  the  King  Messiah  shall  come."  The  prophecy  has  failed 
in  the  Christian  as  well  as  in  the  kabalistico-Jewish  sense.  The  sceptre 
has  departed  from  Judah,  whether  the  Messiah  has  already  or  will  come, 
unless  we  believe,  with  the  kabalists,  that  Moses  was  the  first  Messiah, 
who  transferred  his  soul  to  Joshua — Jesus.  § 

Says  Hermas  :  "  And,  in  the  middle  of  the  plain,  he  showed  me  .i 
great  white  rock,  which   had  risen  out  of  the  plain,  and   the  rock   was 

*  "  Sohar,"  xl.,  p.  lo.  f  "Codex  Nazaraeus,"  vol.  iii.,  pp.  6o,6i. 

X  Ibid.,  vol.  ii. ,  p.  281  ;  vol.  iii.,  p.  59. 

§  We  must  remind  the  reader,  in  this  connection,  that  Joshua  and  Jesus  are  one  and 
the  same  name.     In  the  Slavonian  Bibles  Joshua  rta.d.%— lessus  (or  Jesus),  Navin. 


higher  than  the  mountains,  rectangular,  so  as  to  be  able  to  hold  the  whole 
world  ;  but  that  rock  was  old,  having  a  gate  hewn  out  of  it,  and  the  hew- 
ing out  of  the  gate  seemed  to  me  to  be  recent."  In  the  Sohar,  we 
find  :  "  To  40,000  superior  worlds  the  white  of  the  skull  of  His  Head 
(of  the.  most  Sacred  Ancient  in  absconditus)  is  extended.  *  .  .  .  When 
Seir  (the  first  reflection  and  image  of  his  Father,  the  Ancient  of  the  An- 
cient) will,  through  the  mystery  of  the  seventy  names  of  Metatron,  de- 
scend into  lezirah  (the  third  world),  he  will  open  a  new  gate.  .  .  .  The 
Spiritus  Decisorius  will  cut  and  divide  the  garment  (Shekinah)  into  two 
parts,  f  ...  At  the  coming  of  King  Messiah,  from  the  sacred  cubical 
stone  of  the  Temple  a  white  light  will  be  arising  during  forty  days.  This 
will  expand,  until  //  encloses  the  whole  world.  ...  At  that  time  King 
Messiah  will  allow  himself  to  be  revealed,  and  will  be  seen  coming  out 
of  the  gate  of  the  garden  of  Odan  (Eden).  '  He  will  be  revealed  in  the 
land  Galil.'J;  .  .  .  When  'he  has  made  satisfaction  for  the  sins  of 
Israel,  he  will  lead  them  on  through  a  new  gate  to  the  seat  of  judg- 
ment.' §  At  the  Gate  of  the  House  of  Life,  the  throne  is  prepared  for 
the  Lord  of  Splendor."  || 

Further  on,  the  conunentator  introduces  the  following  quotation  : 
"  This  rock  and  this  gate  are  the  Son  of  God.  '  How,  Lord,'  I  said,  '  is 
the  rock  old  and  the  gate  new  ?  '  '  Listen,'  He  said,  '  and  understand, 
thou  ignorant  man.  The  Soji  of  God  is  older  than  all  of  his  creation,  so 
that  he  was  a  Councillor  with  the  Father  in  His  works  of  creation  ;  and 
for  this  is  he  old.'  "  T 

Now,  these  two  assertions  are  not  only  purely  kabalistic,  without 
even  so  much  as  a  change  of  expression,  but  Brahmanical  and  Pagan 
likewise.  "  Vidi  virum  excellentem  cxli  terrceque  conditore  natu  majorem. 
...  I  have  seen  the  most  excellent  (superior)  man,  who  is  older  by  birth 
than  the  maker  of  heaven  and  earth,"  says  the  kabalistic  Codex.  **  The 
Eleusinian  Dionysus,  whose  particular  name  was  lacchos  (laccho,  lahoh)  \\ 
— the  God  from  whom  the  liberation  of  souls  was  expected — was  con- 
sidered older  than  the  Demiurge.  At  the  mysteries  of  the  Anthesteria  at 
the  lakes  (the  Liranae),  after  the  usual  baptism  by  purification  of  water, 
the  Mystce.  were  made   to  pass  through  to  another  door  (gate),  and  one 

*  "  Idra  Rabba,"  vol.  iii.,  §  41 ;  the  "Sohar." 

\  "  Kabbala  Denudata,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  230  ;  the  "Book  of  the  Babylonian  Compan- 
ions," p.  35. 

X  "  Sohar  Ex.,"  p.  II. 

g  "  Midrash  Hashirim  ;  "    "  Rabbi  Akaba ;  "  "  Midrash  Koheleth,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  45. 

I  "Codex  Nazarseus,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  60.  T[  "  On  the  Canon,"  p.  178  ff. 

**  Vol.  ii. ,  p.  57  ;  Norberg's  "Onomasticon  ;  "  "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  103. 

tf  "  Preller,''  vol.  i.,  p.  4S4  ;  K.  O.  Muller  :  "  History  of  Greek  Literature,"  p. 
238;  "Movers,"  p.  553. 


particularly  for  that  purpose,  which  was  called  "  the  gate  of  Dionysus," 
and  that  of  "  ths purified." 

In  the  Sohar,  the  kabalists  are  told  that  the  work-master,  the  Demi- 
urge, said  to  the  Lord  :  "  Let  us  make  man  after  our  image."  *  In  the 
original  texts  of  the  first  chapter  of  Genesis,  it  stands  :  "  And  the  Elohim 
(translated  as  the  Supreme  God),  who  are  the  highest  gods  or  powers, 
said  :  Let  us  make  man  in  our  (?)  image,  after  our  likeness."  In  the 
Vedas,  Brahma  holds  counsel  with  Parabrahma,  as  to  the  best  mode  to 
proceed  to  create  the  world. 

Canon  Westcott,  quoting  Hernias,  shows  him  asking:  '-And  why  is 
the  gate  new,  Lord  ?  I  said.  '  Because,'  he  replied,  '  he  was  manifested 
at  the  last  of  the  days  of  the  dispensation  ;  for  this  cause  the  gate  was 
made  new,  in  order  that  they  who  shall  be  saved  might  enter  by  it  into 
the  Kingdom  of  God.'  "  f  There  are  two  peculiarities  worthy  of  note 
in  this  passage.  To  begin  with,  it  attributes  to  "  the  Lord"  a  false  state- 
ment of  the  same  character  as  that  so  emphasized  by  the  Apostle  John  , 
and  which  brought,  at  a  later  period,  the  whole  of  the  orthodox  Chris- 
tians, who  accepted  the  apostolic  allegories  as  literal,  to  such  inconve- 
nient straits.  Jesus,  as  Messiah,  was  not  manifested  at  the  last  of  the 
days  ;  for  the  latter  are  yet  to  come,  notwithstanding  a  number  of  divinelj- 
inspired  prophecies,  followed  by  disappointed  hopes,  as  a  result,  to  tes- 
tify to  his  immediate  coming.  The  belief  that  the  "  last  times  "  had  come, 
was  natural,  when  once  the  coming  of  King  Messiah  had  been  acknowl- 
edged. The  second  peculiarity  is  found  in  the  fact  that  the  prophecy  could 
have  been  accepted  at  all,  when  even  its  approximate  determination 
is  a  direct  contradiction  of  Mark,  who  makes  Jesus  distinctly  state 
that  neither  the  angels,  nor  the  Son  himself,  know  of  that  day  or  that 
hour.  J  We  might  add  that,  as  the  belief  undeniably  originated  with  the 
Apocalypse,  it  ought  to  be  a  self-evident  proof  that  it  belonged  to  the 
calculations  peculiar  to  the  kabalists  and  the  Pagan  sanctuaries.  It  was 
the  secret  computation  of  a  cycle,  which,  according  to  their  reckoning, 
was  ending  toward  the  latter  part  of  the  first  century.  It  may  also  be 
held  as  a  corroborative  proof,  that  the  Gospel  according  to  Mark,  as  well 
as  that  ascribed  to  John,  and  the  Apocalypse,  were  written  by  men, 
of  whom  neither  was  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  other.  The  Logos 
was  first  definitely  called  petra  (rock)  by  Philo  ;  the  word,  moreover,  as 
we  have  shown  elsewhere,  means,  in  Chaldaic  and  Phcenician,  "  inter- 
preter." Justin  Martyr  calls  him,  throughout  his  works,  "  angel,"  and 
makes   a  clear   distinction    between   the    Logos  and    God   the   Creator. 

*  "Sohar,"  vol.  i.,  fol.  25. 

\  "  Sirail.,"  vol.   ix.,  p.  12  ;    "  Supernatural   Religion,"  vol.  i. ,  p.  257. 

\  Mark   xiii.  32. 


"The  Word  of  God  is  His  Son  .  .  .  and  he  is  also  called  Angel  and 
Apostle,  for  he  declares  whatever  we  ought  to  know  (interprets),  and  is 
sent  to  declare  whatever  is  disclosed."  * 

"  Adan  Inferior  is  distributed  into  its  own  paths,  into  thirty-two  sides 
of  paths,  yet  it  is  not  known  to  any  one  but  Seir.  But  no  one  knows 
the  Superior  Adan  nor  His  paths,  except  that  Long  Face " — the 
Supreme  God.  f  Seir  is  the  Nazarene  "  genius,"  who  is  called  ^bel 
Zivo  ;  and  Gabriel  Legatus — also  "Apostle  Gabriel."  X  The  Nazarenes 
held  with  the  kabalists  that  even  the  Messiah  who  was  to  come  did  not 
know  the  "  Superior  Adan,"  the  concealed  Deity  ;  no  one  except  the 
Supreme  God ;  thus  showing  that  above  the  Supreme  Intelligible  Deity, 
there  is  one  still  more  secret  and  unrevealed.  Seir-Anpin  is  the  third 
God,  while  "  Logos,"  according  to  Philo  Judeeus,  is  the  second  one.  § 
This  is  distinctly  shown  in  the  Codex.  "The  false  Messiah  shall  say: 
"  I  am  Deus,  son  of  Deus  ;  my  Father  sent  me  here.  ...  I  am  the  first 
Legate,  I  am  /Ebel  Zivo,  I  am  come  from  on  liigh  !  But  distrust  him  ; 
for  he  will  not  be  ^bel  Zivo.  JEhsl  Zivo  will  not  permit  himself  to  be 
seen  in  this  age."  ||  Hence  the  belief  of  some  Gnostics  that  it  was  not 
^bel  Zivo  (Archangel  Gabriel)  who  "  overshadowed "  Mary,  but  Ilda- 
Baoth,  who  formed  the  material  body  of  Jesus  ;  Christos  uniting  himself 
with  him  only  at  the  moment  of  baptism  in  the  Jordan. 

Can  we  doubt  Nork's  assertion  that  "  the  Bereshith  Rabba,  the  oldest 
part  of  the  Midrash  Rabboth,  was  known  to  the  Church  Fathers  in  a 
Greek  translation  ?  "  ^ 

But  if,  on  the  one  hand,  they  were  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the 
different  religious  systems  of  their  neighbors  to  have  enabled  them  to 
build  a  new  religion  alleged  to  be  distinct  from  all  others,  their  ignor- 
ance of  the  Old  Testament  itself,  let  alone  the  more  complicated  ques- 
tions of  Grecian  metaphysics,  is  now  found  to  have  been  deplorable. 
"  So ,  for  instance,  in  Matthew  xxvii.  9  f ,  the  passage  from  Zcchariah 
xi.  12,  13,  is  attributed  to  Jeremiah,"  says  the  author  of  Supernatu- 
ral Heligion.      "In  Mark  i.  2,  a   quotation  from  Malachi  iii.    i,  is   as- 

*  "  Apolog.,"  vol.  i.,  p.  63.  f  "  Idra  Rabba,"  x.,  p.  177. 

%  "Codex  Nazar^us,"  vol.  i.,  p.  23. 

§  PMlo  says  that  the  Logos  is  the  ivterpreier  of  the  highest  God,  and  argues, 
"that  he  must  be  the  God  of  us  imperfect  beings  "  ("  Leg.  Alleg.,"  iii.,  t^  73).  Accord- 
ing to  his  opinion  man  was  not  made  in  the  likeness  of  the  most  High  God,  the  Father 
of  all,  but  in  that  of  the  second  God  who  is  his  word — Logos  "  (Pliilo  :  "  Fragments," 
I  ;  ex.  Euseb.  "Praepar.  Evang.,"  vii.,  13). 

I  "  Codex  Nazarseus,"  p.  57  ;    "  Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  59. 

•^  ■'  Hundert  und  ein  Frage,"  p.  xvii. ;  Dunlap  :  "Sod,  the  Son  of  the  Man,"  p.  87  ; 
the  author,  who  quotes  Nork,  says  that  parts  of  the  "  Midrashim  "  and  the  "  Tar- 
gTim"  of  Onkelos,  antedate  the  "New  Testament." 


cribed  to  Isaiah.  In  i  Corinthians,  ii.  9,  a  passage  is  quoted  as  Holy 
Scripture,  which  is  not  found  in  the  Old  Testament  at  all,  but  which  is 
taken,  as  Origen  and  Jerome  state,  from  an  apocryphal  work,  The  Rev- 
elation of  Elias  (Origen  :  Tract,  xxxv.),  and  the  passage  is  similarly 
quoted  by  the  so-called  Epistle  of  Clement  to  the  Corinthians  (xxxiv.). 
How  reliable  are  the  pious  Fathers  in  their  explanations  of  divers  here- 
sies may  be  illustrated  in  the  case  of  Epiphanius,  who  mistook  the 
Pythagorean  sacred  Tetrad,  called  in  the  Valentinian  Gnosis,  Kol-Arbas, 
for  a  heretic  leader.  *  What  with  the  involuntary  blunders,  and  deliber- 
ate falsifications  of  the  teachings  of  those  who  differed  in  views  with 
them  ;  the  canonization  of  the  mythological  Aura  Placida  (gentle 
breeze),  into  a  pair  of  Christian  martyrs — St.  Aura  and  St.  Placida  ;  f 
the  deification  of  a  spear  and  a  cloak,  under  the  names  of  SS.  Longimus 
and  Amphibolus  ;  \  and  the  Patristic  quotations  from  prophets,  of  what 
was  never  in  those  prophets  at  all;  one  may  well  ask  in  blank  amaze- 
ment whether  the  so-called  religion  of  Christ  has  ever  been  other  than 
an  incoherent  dream,  since  the  death  of  the  Great  Master. 

So  malicious  do  we  find  the  holy  Fathers  in  their  unrelenting  perse- 
cution of  pretended  "  haresies,' '  §  that  we  see  them  telling,  without  hesi- 
tation the  most  preposterous  untruths,  and  inventing  entire  narratives, 
the  better  to  impress  their  own  otherwise  unsupported  arguments  upon 
ignorance.  If  the  mistake  in  relation  to  the  tetrad  had  at  first  origin- 
ated as  a  simple  consequence  of  an  unpremeditated  blunder  of  Hippo- 
lytus,  the  explanations  of  Epiphanius  and  others  who  fell  into  the  same 
absurd  error  ||  have  a  less  innocent  look.  When  Hippolytus  gravely 
denounces  the  great  heresy  of  the  Tetrad,  Kol-Arbas,  and  states  that 
the  imaginary  Gnostic  leader  is,  "  Kalorbasus,  who  endeavors  to  explain 

*  Writing  upon  Ptolemseus  and  Heracleon,  the  author  of"  Supernatural  Religion  " 
(vol.  ii.,  p.  217)  says  that  "  the  inaccuracy  of  the  Fathers  keeps  pace  with  their  want  of 
critical  judgment,"  and  then  proceeds  to  illustrate  this  particularly  ridiculous  blunder 
committed  by  Epiphanius,  in  common  with  Hippolytus,  TertuUian,  and  Philostrius. 
"Mistaking  a  passage  of  Irenoeus,  'Adv.  Haer.,'  i.,  p.  14,  regarding  the  Sacred 
Tetrad  (Kol-Arbas),  Hippolytus  supposes  Irenseus  to  refer  to  another  heretic  leader." 
He  at  once  treats  the  Tetrad  as  such  a  leader  named  "  Colarbasus,"  and  after  deahng 
(vi.,  4)  with  the  doctrines  of  Secundus,  and  Ptolemasus,  and  Heracleon,  he  proposes, 
^  5,  to  show,  "what  are  the  opinions  held  by  Marcus  and  Colarbasus^''  these 
two  being,  according  to  him,  the  successors  of  the  school  of  Valentinus  (cf.  Bunsen : 
"Hippolytus,  U.  S.  Zeit.,"  p.  54  f  ;    "  Ref.  Omn.  Ha:r.,"  iv.,  §  13). 

f  See  Godf.  Higgins  :  "  Anacalypsis." 

\  Inman  :  "  Ancient  Pagan  and  Modern  Christian  Symbolism,"  p.  84. 

^  Meaning — holding  up  of  different  views. 

I  "  This  absurd  mistake,"  remarks  the  author  of  "  Supernatural  Religion,"  vol.  ii., 
p.  218,  "shows  how  little  these  writers  knew  of  the  Gnostics  of  whom  they  wrote, 
and  how  the  one  ignorantly  follows  the  other." 


religion  by  measures  and  numbers,"  *  we  may  simply  smile.  But  when 
Epiphanius,  with  abundant  indignation,  elaborates  upon  the  theme, 
"  which  is  Heresy  XV.,"  and  pretending  to  be  thoroughly  acquainted  with 
the  subject,  adds:  "A  certain  Heracleon  follows  after  Colorbasus, 
which  is  Heresy  XVI.,"  |  then  he  lays  himself  open  to  the  charge  of 
deliberate  falsification. 

If  this  zealous  Christian  can  boast  so  unblushingly  of  having  caused 
"  by  his  information  seventy  women,  even  of  rank,  to  be  sent  into  exile, 
through  the  seductions  of  some  in  whose  number  he  had  himself  been 
drawn  into  joining  their  sect,"  he  has  left  us  a  fair  standard  by  which  to 
judge  him.  C.  W.  King  remarks,  very  aptly,  on  this  point,  that  "it  may 
reasonably  be  suspected  that  this  worthy  renegade  had  in  this  case  saved 
himself  from  the  fate  of  his  fellow-religionists  by  turning  evidence  against 
them,  on  the  opening  of  the  persecution."  \ 

And  thus,  one  by  one,  perished  the  Gnostics,  the  only  heirs  to  whose 
share  had  fallen  a  few  stray  crumbs  of  the  unadulterated  truth  of  primitive 
Christianity.  All  was  confusion  and  turmoil  during  these  first  centuries, 
till  the  moment  when  all  these  contradictory  dogmas  were  finally  forced 
upon  the  Christian  world,  and  examination  was  forbidden.  For  long  ages 
it  was  made  a  sacrilege,  punishable  with  severe  penalties,  often  death,  to 
seek  to  comprehend  that  which  the  Church  had  so  conveniently  elevated 
to  the  rank  of  divine  mystery.  But  since  biblical  critics  have  taken  upon 
themselves  to  "  set  the  house  in  order,"  the  cases  have  become  reversed. 
Pagan  creditors  now  come  from  every  part  of  the  globe  to  claim  their 
own,  and  Christian  theology  begins  to  be  suspected  of  complete  bank- 
ruptcy. Such  is  the  sad  result  of  the  fanaticism  of  the  "orthodox"  sects, 
who,  to  borrow  an  expression  of  the  author  of  "  The  Decline  and  Fallot 
the  Roman  Empire,"  never  were,  like  the  Gnostics,  "  the  most  polite,  the 
most  learned,  and  most  wealthy  of  the  Christian  name."  And,  if  not  all 
of  them  "  smelt  garlic,"  as  Renan  will  have  it,  on  the  other  hand,  none 
of  these  Christian  saints  have  ever  shrunk  from  spilling  their  neighbor's 
blood,  if  the  views  of  the  latter  did  not  agree  with  their  own. 

And  so  all  our  philosophers  were  swept  away  by  the  ignorant  and 
superstitious  masses.  The  Philaletheians,  the  lovers  of  truth,  and  their 
eclectic  school,  perished  ;  and  there,  where  the  young  Hypatia  had  taught 
the  highest  philosophical  doctrines  ;  and  where  Ammonius  Saccas  had 
explained  that  "  the  whole  which  Christ  had  in  view  was  to  reinstate  and 
restore  to  its  primitive  integrity  the  wisdom  of  the   ancients— to   reduce 

*  "  Ref.  Omn.  Haer.,"  iv.,  g  13. 

\  Epiph.  :  "  Hser.,"  xxxvi. ,  §  i.  p.  262  (quoted  in  "  Supernatural  Religion  ").    See 
Volkmar's  "Die  Colorabasus-gnosis "  in  Niedner's  " Zeitschr.  Hist.  Theol." 
X  "  Gnostics  and  their  Remains,"  p.  1S2  f.,  note  3. 


within  bounds  the  universally  prevailing  dominion  of  superstition  .  .  . 
and  to  exterminate  the  various  errors  that  had  found  their  way  into  the 
different  popular  religions  "  * — there,  we  say,  freely  raved  the  oi  ttoWol  of 
Christianity.  No  more  precepts  from  the  mouth  of  the  "  God-taught 
philosopher,"  but  others  expounded  by  the  incarnation  of  a  most  cruel, 
fiendish  superstition. 

"  If  thy  father,"  wrote  St.  Jerome,  "  lies  down  across  thy  threshold,  if 
thy  mother  uncovers  to  thine  eyes  the  bosom  which  suckled  thee,  trample 
on  thy  father's  lifeless  body,  trample  on  thy  mother's  bosom,  and,  with 
eyes  unmoistened  and  dry,  fly  to  the  Lord  who  calleth  thee  !  !  " 

This  sentence  is  equalled,  if  not  outrivalled,  by  this  other,  pronounced 
in  a  like  spirit.  It  emanates  from  another  father  of  the  early  Church,  the 
eloquent  Tertullian,  who  hopes  to  see  all  the  "  philosophers "  in  the 
gehenna  fire  of  Hell.  "What  shall  be  the  magnitude  of  that  scene  !  .  .  . 
How  shall  I  laugh  !  How  shall  I  rejoice  !  How  shall  I  triumph  when  I 
see  so  many  illustrious  kings  who  were  said  to  have  mounted  into  heaven, 
groaning  with  Jupiter,  their  god,  in  the  lowest  darkness  of  hell  !  Then 
shall  the  soldiers  who  have  persecuted  the  name  of  Christ  burn  in  more 
cruel  fire  than  any  they  had  kindled  for  the  saints  ! "  f 

These  murderous  expressions  illustrate  the  spirit  of  Christianity  till 
this  day.  But  do  they  illustrate  the  teachings  of  Christ  ?  By  no  means. 
As  Eliphas  Levi  says,  "  The  God  in  the  name  of  whom  we  would  trample 
on  our  mothei^'s  bosom  we  must  see  in  the  hereafter,  a  hell  gaping  widely 
at  his  feet,  and  an  exterminating  sword  in  his  hand.  .  .  .  Moloch  burned 
children  but  a  few  seconds  ;  it  was  reserved  to  the  disciples  of  a  god  who 
is  alleged  to  have  died  to  redeem  humanity  on  the  cross,  to  create  a  new 
Moloch  whose  burning  stake  is  eternal !  "  J 

That  this  spirit  of  true  Christian  love  has  safely  crossed  nineteen  cen- 
turies and  rages  now  in  America,  is  fully  instanced  in  the  case  of  the  rabid 
Moody,  the  revivalist,  who  exclaims  :  "  I  have  a  son,  and  no  one  but 
God  knows  how  I  love  him  ;  but  I  would  see  those  beautiful  eyes  dug  out 
of  his  head  to-night,  rather  than  see  him  grow  up  to  manhood  and  go 
down  to  the  grave  without  Christ  and  without  hope  !  !  " 

To  this  an  American  paper,  of  Chicago,  very  justly  responds  :  "  This 
is  the  spirit  of  the  inquisition,  which  we  are  told  is  dead.  If  Moody  in 
his  zeal  would  '  dig  out '  the  eyes  of  his  darling  son,  to  what  lengths  may 
he  not  go  with  the  sons  of  others,  whom  he  may  love  less  ?  It  is  the 
spirit  of  Loyola,  gibbering  in  the  nineteenth  century,  and  prevented  from 
lighting  the  fagot  flame  and  heating  red-hot  the  instruments  of  torture 
only  by  the  arm  of  law." 

*  Mosheim.  f  Tertullian  :     "  Despectse,"  ch.  xxx. 

j;  Mosheim  :     "  Eccles.  Hist.,"  c.  v.,  §  5. 


"The  curtains  of  Yesterday  drop  down,  the  curtains  of  To-morrow  roll  up  ;  but  Yesterday  and  To- 
morrow both  areP — Sartor  Resartus  :  Natural  SupematuraHsm. 

"  May  we  not  then  be  permitted  to  examine  the  authenticity  of  the  Bible  ?  which  since  the  second  cen- 
tury has  been  put  forth  as  the  criterion  of  scientific  truth?  To  maintain  itself  in  a  position  soexa]ted,it 
must  challenge  human  criticism." — Conflict  between  Religion  atid  Science. 

"One  kiss  of  Nara  upon  the  lips  of  Nari  and  all  Nature  wakes." — Vina  Snati  (A  Hindu  Poet). 

WE  must  not  forget  that  the  Christian  Church  owes  its  present  canon- 
ical Gospels,  and  hence  its  whole  religious  dogmatism,  to  the  Sortes 
Sanctorum.  Unable  to  agree  as  to  which  were  the  most  divinely-inspired 
of  the  numerous  gospels  extant  in  its  time,  the  mysterious  Council  of  Nicea 
concluded  to  leave  the  decision  of  the  puzzling  question  to  miraculous 
-intervention.  This  Nicean  Council  may  well  be  called  mysterious. 
There  was  a  mystery,  first,  in  the  mystical  number  of  its  318  bishops,  on 
which  Barnabas  (viii.  11,  12,  [3)  lays  such  a  stress;  added  to  this,  there 
is  no  agreement  among  ancient  writers  as  to  the  time  and  place  of  its 
assembly,  nor  even  as  to  the  bishop  who  presided.  Notwithstanding 
the  grandiloquent  eulogium  of  Constantine,*  Sabinus,  the  Bishop  of 
Heraclea,  affirms  that  "except  Constantine,  the  emperor,  and  Eusebius 
Pamphilus,  these  bishops  were  a  set  of  illiterate,  simple  creatures,  that 
understood  nothing  ; "  which  is  equivalent  to  saying  that  they  were  a  set 
of  fools.  Such  was  apparently  the  opinion  entertained  of  them  by  Pap- 
pus, who  tells  us  of  the  bit  of  magic  resorted  to  to  decide  which  were  the 
true  gospels.  In  his  Synodicon  to  that  Council  Pappus  says,  having 
"  promiscuously  put  all  the  books  that  were  referred  to  the  Council  for 
determination  under  a  communion-table  in  a  church,  they  (the  bishops) 
besought  the  Lord  that  the  inspired  writings  might  get  upon  the  table, 
while  the  spurious  ones  remained  underneath,  and  it  happened  accord- 
ingly." But  we  are  not  told  who  kept  the  keys  of  the  council  chamber 
over  night ! 

On  the  authority  of  ecclesiastical  eye-witnesses,  therefore,  we  are  at 
liberty  to   say  that   the  Christian  world  owes  its   "  Word  of  God  "  to  a 

*  Socrates  ;     "  Scol.  Eccl.  Hist.,"  b.  I.,  c.  ix. 


method  of  divination,  for  resorting  to  which  the  Church  subsequently 
condemned  unfortunate  victims  as  conjurers,  enchanters,  magicians, 
witches,  and  vaticinators,  and  burnt  them  by  thousands  !  In  treating  of 
this  truly  divine  phenomenon  of  the  self-sorting  manuscripts,  the  Fathers  of 
the  Church  say  that  God  himself  presides  over  the  Sortes.  As  we  have 
shown  elsewhere,  Augustine  confesses  that  he  himself  used  this  sort  of 
divination.  But  opinions,  like  revealed  religions,  are  liable  to  change. 
That  which  for  nearly  fifteen  hundred  years  was  imposed  on  Christendom 
as  a  book,  of  which  every  word  was  written  under  the  direct  supervision 
of  the  Holy  Ghost ;  of  which  not  a  syllable,  nor  a  comma  could  be 
changed  without  sacrilege,  is  now  being  retranslated,  revised,  corrected, 
and  chpped  of  whole  verses,  in  some  cases  of  entire  chapters.  And 
yet,  as  soon  as  the  new  edition  is  out,  its  doctors  would  have  us  accept 
it  as  a  new  "  Revelation  "  of  the  nineteenth  century,  with  the  alternative 
of  being  held  as  an  infidel.  Thus,  we  see  that,  no  more  within  than 
without  its  precincts,  is  the  infallible  Church  to  be  trusted  more  than 
would  be  reasonably  convenient.  The  forefathers  of  our  modern  divines 
found  authority  for  the  Sortes  in  the  verse  where  it  is  said  :  "  The  lot 
is  cast  into  the  lap,  but  the  whole  disposing  thereof  is  of  the  Lord  ;  "  * 
and  now,  their  direct  heirs  hold  that  "  the  whole  disposing  thereof  is  of 
the  Devil."  Perhaps,  they  are  unconsciously  beginning  to  endorse  the 
doctrine  of  the  Syrian  Bardesanes,  that  the  actions  of  God,  as  well  as  of 
man,  are  subject  to  necessity  ? 

It  was  no  doubt,  also,  according  to  strict  "necessity"  that  the  Neo- 
platonists  were  so  summarily  dealt  with  by  the  Christian  mob.  In  those 
days,  the  doctrines  of  the  Hindu  naturalists  and  antediluvian  Pyriho- 
nists  were  forgotten,  if  they  ever  had  been  known  at  all,  to  any  but  a  few 
philosophers  ;  and  Mr.  Darwin,  with  his  modern  discoveries,  had  not  even 
been  mentioned  in  the  prophecies.  In  this  case  the  law  of  the  survival 
of  the  fittest  was  reversed  ;  the  Neo-platonists  were  doomed  to  destruc- 
tion from  the  day  when  they  openly  sided  with  Aristotle. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century  crowds  began  gatliering  at  the 
door  of  the  acadeni)'  where  the  learned  and  unfortunate  Hypatia  expound- 
ed the  doctrines  of  the  divine  Plato  and  Plotinus,  and  thereby  impeded 
the  progress  of  Christian  proselytism.  She  too  successfully  dispelled  the 
mist  hanging  over  the  religious  "  mysteries "  invented  by  the  Fathers, 
not  to  be  considered  dangerous.  This  alone  would  have  been  sufficient 
to  imperil  both  herself  and  her  followers.     It  was  precisely  the  teachings 

'  "  Proverbs,"  chap,  xvi.,  p.  33.  In  ancient  Egypt  and  Greece,  and  among  Israel- 
ites, small  sticks  and  balls  called  tlie  "  sacred  divining  lots  "  were  used  for  this  kmd  of 
or.icle  in  the  temples.  According  to  the  figures  which  were  formed  by  the  accidental 
juxtaposition  of  the  latter,  the  priest  interpreted  the  will  of  the  gods. 


of  this  Pagan  philosopher,  which  had  been  so  freely  borrowed  b)'  the  Chris- 
tians to  give  a  finishing  touch  to  their  otherwise  incomprehensible 
scheme,  that  had  seduced  so  many  into  joining  the  new  religion  ;  and 
now  the  Platonic  light  began  shining  so  inconveniently  bright  upon 
the  pious  patchwork,  as  to  allow  every  one  to  see  whence  the 
"revealed"  doctrines  were  derived.  But  there  was  a  still  greater  peril. 
Hypatia  had  studied  under  Plutarch,  the  head  of  the  Athenian  school, 
and  had  learned  all  the  secrets  of  theurgy.  While  she  lived  to  instruct 
the  multitude,  no  divine  miracles  could  be  produced  before  one  who 
could  divulge  the  natural  causes  by  which  they  took  place.  Her  doom 
was  sealed  by  Cyril,  whose  eloquence  she  eclipsed,  and  whose  authorit}', 
built  on  degrading  superstitions,  had  to  yield  before  hers,  which  was 
erected  on  the  rock  of  immutable  natural  law.  It  is  more  than  curious 
that  Cave,  the  author  of  the  Lives  of  the  Fathers,  should  find  it  incredi- 
ble that  Cyril  sanctioned  her  murder  on  account  of  his  "general  charac- 
ter." A  saint  who  will  sell  the  gold  and  silver  vessels  of  his  church,  and 
then,  after  spending  the  money,  lie  at  his  trial,  as  he  did,  may  well  be  sus- 
pected of  anything.  Besides,  in  this  case,  the  Church  had  to  fight  for 
her  life,  to  say  nothing  of  her  future  supremacy.  Alone,  the  hated  and 
erudite  Pagan  scholars,  and  the  no  less  learned  Gnostics,  held  in  their 
doctrines  the  hitherto  concealed  wires  of  all  these  theological  marion- 
ettes. Once  the  curtain  should  be  lifted,  the  connection  between  the 
old  Pagan  and  the  new  Christian  religions  would  be  exposed  ;  and  then, 
what  would  have  become  of  the  Mysteries  into  which  it  is  sin  and  blas- 
phemy to  pry  ?  With  such  a  coincidence  of  the  astronomical  allegories 
of  various  Pagan  myths  with  the  dates  adopted  by  Christianity  for  the 
nativitv,  crucifixion,  and  resurrection,  and  such  an  identityof  rites  and  cere- 
monies, what  would  have  been  the  fate  of  the  new  religion,  had  not  the 
Church,  under  the  pretext  of  serving  Christ,  got  rid  of  the  too-well- 
informed  philosophers  ?  To  guess  what,  if  the  coup  d'etat  had  then 
failed,  might  have  been  the  prevailing  religion  in  our  own  century  would 
indeed,  be  a  hard  task.  But,  in  all  probability,  the  state  of  things 
which  made  of  the  middle  ages  a  period  of  intellectual  darkness,  which 
degraded  the  nations  of  the  Occident,  and  lowered  the  European  of  those 
days  almost  to  the  level  of  a  Papuan  savage — could  not  have  occurred. 
The  fears  of  the  Christians  were  but  too  well  founded,  and  their 
pious  zeal  and  prophetic  insight  was  rewarded  from  the  very  first.  In 
the  demolition  of  the  Serapeum,  after  the  bloody  riot  between  the 
Christian  mob  and  the  Pagan  worshippers  had  ended  with  the  interference 
of  the  emperor,  a  Latin  cross,  of  a  perfect  Christian  shape,  was  discov- 
ered hewn  upon  the  granite  slabs  of  the  adytum.  This  was  a  lucky  dis- 
covery, indeed  ;    and  the  monks  did  not  fail  to  claim  that   the  cross   had 


been  hallowed  by  the  Pagans  In  a  "  spirit  of  prophecy."  At  least,  Sozo- 
men,  with  an  air  of  triumph,  records  the  fact.*  But,  archceology  and 
symbolism,  those  tireless  and  implacable  enemies  of  clerical  false  pre- 
tences, have  found  in  the  hieroglyphics  of  the  legend  running  around  the 
design,  at  least  a  partial  interpretation  of  its  meaning. 

According  to  King   and   other  numismatists    and  archasologists,  the 
cross  was   placed   there  as   the   symbol  of  eternal  life.     Such   a  Tau,  or 
Egyptian  cross,  was  used  in  the  Bacchic  and  Eleusinian  Mysteries.     Sym- 
bol of  the  dual  generative  power,  it  was  laid  upon  the  breast  of  the  initiate, 
after  his   "new  birth"  was  accomplished,   and  the  Mysts  had  returned 
from    their  baptism   in  the  sea.     It  was  a  mystic   sign   that  his  spiritual 
birth  had  regenerated   and  united  his  astral  soul  with  his  divine  spirit, 
and  that  he  was  ready  to  ascend  in  spirit  to  the  blessed  abodes  of  light 
and  glory — the  Eleusinia.     The  Tau  was  a  magic  talisman  at  the  same 
time  as  a  religious  emblem.     It  was  adopted  by  the  Christians  through 
the  Gnostics  and  kabalists,  wlio  used  it  largely,  as  their  numerous  gems 
testify,  and  who  had  the  Tau  (or  handled  cross)  from  the  Egyptians,  and 
the  Latin  cross  from  the  Buddhist  missionaries,  who  brought  it  from  India, 
where    it    can    be   found  until   now,    two   or   three   centuries   B.C.     The 
Assyrians,  Egyptians,  ancient  Americans,  Hindus,  and  Romans  had  it  in 
various,  but   very  slight   modifications  of  shape.     Till  very  late  in  the 
medifeval   ages,  it  was   considered  a  potent  spell  against   epilepsy  and 
demoniacal  possession  ;  and  the  "  signet  of  the  living  God,"  brought  down 
in  St.  John's  vision  by  the  angel  ascending  from  the  east  to  "  seal  the 
servants  of  our  God  in  their  foreheads,"  was  but  the  same  mystic  Tau — 
the  Egyptian  cross.     In  the  painted  glass  of  St.  Dionysus  (France),  this 
angel  is  represented  as  stamping  this  sign  on  the  forehead  of  the  elect ; 
the  legend  reads,  signvm  TAY.      In  King's  Gnostics,  the  author  reminds 
us   that  "this   mark  is   commonly  born   by  St.  Anthony,    an   Egyptian 
recluse."  f     What  the  real  meaning  of  the  Tau  was,  is  explained  to  us  by 
the  Christian  St.  John,  the  Egyptian   Hermes,  and  the  Hindu  Brahmans. 
It  is  but  too  evident  that,  with  the  apostle,  at  least,  it  meant  the  "Ineffa- 
ble  Name,"  as  he  calls  this  "  signet  of  the  living  God,"  a  few  chapters 
further  on,  J  the  "  Father's  name  written  in  their  foreheads!' 

The  Brahmdtma,  the  chief  of  the  Hindu  initiates,  had  on  his  head-gear 
two  keys,  symbol  of  the  revealed  mystery  of  life  and  death,  placed  cross- 

*  Another  untrustworthy,  untruthful,  and  iterant  writer,  and  ecclesiastical  histo- 
rian of  the  fifth  century.  His  alleged  history  of  the  strife  between  the  Pagans,  Neo- 
platonics,  and  the  Christians  of  Alexandria  and  Constantinople,  which  extends  from  the 
year  324  to  439,  dedicated  by  him  to  Theodosius,  the  younger,  is  full  of  deliberate  falsi- 
fications.     Edition  of  "  Reading,"  Cantab,  1720,  fol.      Translated.      Plon  freres,  Paris. 

\  "  Gems  of  the  Orthodox  Christians,"  vol.  i.,  p.  135.  |  Revelation  xiv.  I. 


like ;  and,  in  some  Buddhist  pagodas  of  Tartary  and  Mongolia,  the 
entrance  of  a  chamber  within  the  temple,  generally  containing  the  stair- 
case which  leads  to  the  inner  daghoba,  *  and  the  porticos  ot  some  Pra- 
chida  f  are  ornamented  with  a  cross  formed  of  two  fishes,  and  as  found 
on  some  of  the  zodiacs  of  the  Buddhists.  We  should  not  wonder  at  all 
at  learning  that  the  sacred  device  in  the  tombs  in  the  Catacombs,  at  Rome, 
the  "  Vesica  piscis,"  was  derived  from  the  said  Buddhist  zodiacal  sign. 
How  general  must  have  been  that  geometrical  figure  in  the  world-sym- 
bols, may  be  inferred  from  the  fact  that  there  is  a  Masonic  tradition  that 
Solomon's  temple  was  built  on  three  foundations,  forming  the  "  triple 
Tau,"  or  three  crosses. 

In  its  mystical  sense,  the  Egyptian  cross  owes  its  origin,  as  an  em- 
blem, to  the  reahzation  by  the  earliest  philosophy  of  an  androgynous 
dualism  of  every  manifestation  in  nature,  which  proceeds  from  the  abstract 
ideal  of  a  likewise  androgynous  deity,  while  the  Christian  emblem  is 
simply  due  to  chance.  Had  the  Mosaic  law  prevailed,  Jesus  should  have 
been  lapidated.  \  The  crucifix  was  an  instrument  of  torture,  and  utterly 
common  among  Romans  as  it  was  unknown  among  Semitic  nations. 
It  was  called  the  "  Tree  of  Infamy."  It  is  but  later  that  it  was  adopted 
as  a  Christian  symbol  ;  but,  during  the  first  two  decades,  the  apostles 
looked  upon  it  with  horror.  §  It  is  certainly  not  the  Christian  Cross  that 
John  had  in  mind  when  speaking  of  the  "  signet  of  the  living  God,"  but 
the  mystic  Tau — the  Tetragrammaton,  or  mighty  name,  which,  on  the 
most  ancient  kabalistic  talismans,  was  represented  by  the  four  Hebrew 
letters  composing  the  Holj-  Word. 

The  famous  Lady  EUenborough,  known  among  the  Arabs  of  Damas- 
cus, and  in  the  desert,  after  her  last  marriage,  as  Hanoum  Medjouy'e,  had 
a  talisman  in  her  possession,  presented  to  her  by  a  Druze  from  Mount 
Lebanon.  It  was  recognized  by  a  certain  sign  on  its  left  corner,  to  be- 
long to  that  class  of  gems  which  is  known  in  Palestine  as  a  '■'■Messianic" 
amulet,  of  the  second  or  third  century,  B.C.  It  is  a  green  stone  of  a  pen- 
tagonal form  ;  at  the  bottom  is  engraved  a  fish  ;  higher,  Solomon's  seal ;  || 

*  Dagkoba  is  a  small  temple  of  globular  form,  in  which  are  preserved  the  relics  of 

f  Prachidas  are  buildings  of  all  sizes  and  forms,  like  our  mausoleums,  and  are 
sacred  to  votive  offerings  to  the  dead. 

I  The  Talmudistic  records  claim  that,  after  having  been  hung,  he  was  lapidated  and 
buried  under  the  water  at  the  junction  of  two  streams.  "  Mishna  Sanhedrin,"  voh  vi., 
p.  4;  "  Talmud,"  of  Babylon,  same  article,  43  a,  67  a. 

§  "  Coptic  Legends  of  the  Crucifixion,"  MSS.  xi. 

I  The  engraving  represents  the  talisman  as  of  twice  the  natural  size.  We  are  at  a 
loss  to  understand  why  King,  m  his  "  Gnostic  Gems,"  represents  Solomon's  seal  as 
a  five-pointed  star,  whereas  it  is  six-pointed,  and  is  the  signet  of  Vishnu,  in  India. 


and  still  higher,  the  four  Chaldaic  letters— Jod,  He,  Vau,  He,  lAHO,  which 
form  the  name  of  the  Deity.  These  are  arranged  in  quite  an  unusual 
way,  running  from  below  upward,  in  reversed  order,  and  forming  the 
Egyptian  Tau.  Around  these  there  is  a  legend  which,  as  the  gem  is 
not  our  property,  we  are  not  at  liberty  to  give.  The  Tau,  in  its  mysti- 
cal sense,  as  well  as   the  crux  atisata,  is  the  Tree  of  Life. 

It  is  well  known,  that  the  earliest  (Jnrisdan  emblems — before  it  was 
ever  attempted  to  represent  the  bodily  appearance  of  Jesus — were  the 
Lamb,  the  Good  Shepherd,  and  the  Fish.  The  origin  of  the  latter  em- 
blem, which  has  so  puzzled  the  archteologists,  thus  becomes  comprehen- 
sible. The  whole  secret  lies  in  the  easily- 
ascertained  fact  that,  while  in  the  Kabala, 
the  King  A-Iessiah  is  called  "Interpreter," 
or  Revealer  of  the  mystery,  and  shown 
to  be  the  fifth  emanation,  in  the  Talmud 
— for  reasons  we  will  now  explain  —  the 
Messiah  is  very  often  designated  as  "  Dag," 
or  the  Fish.  This  is  an  inheritance  from 
the  Chaldees,  and  relates  —  as  the  very 
name  indicates  —  to  the  Babylonian  Dag- 
on,  the  man-fish,  who  was  the  instructor  and 
interpreter  of  the  people,  to  whom  he  appeared.  Abarbanel  explains 
the  name,  by  stating  that  the  sign  of  his  (Messiah's)  coming  "is  the  con- 
junction of  Saturn  and  Jupiter  in  the  sign  Pisces."  *  Therefore,  as  the 
Christians  were  intent  upon  identifying  their  Christos  with  the  Messiah 
of  the  Old  Testament,  they  adopted  it  so  readily  as  to  forget  that  its  true 
origin  might  be  traced  still  farther  back  than  the  Babylonian  Dagon. 
How  eagerly  and  closely  the  ideal  of  Jesus  was  united,  by  the  early 
Christians,  with  every  imaginable  kabalistic  and  Pagan  tenet,  may  be 
inferred  from  the  language  of  Clemens,  of  Alexandria,  addressed  to  his 
brother  co-religionists. 

When  they  were  debating  upon  the  choice  of  the  most  appropriate 
symbol  to  remind  them  of  Jesus,  Clemens  advised  them  in  the  following 
words  :  "  Let  the  engraving  upon  the  gem  of  your  ring  be  either  a  dove, 
or  a  ship  running  before  the  wind  (the  Argha)j  or  a  fish."  Was  the  good 
father,  when  writing  this  sentence,  laboring  under  the  recollection  of 
Joshua,  son  of  Nun  (called  Jesus  in  the  Greek  and  Slavonian  versions) ; 
or  had  he   forgotten  the    real   interpretation   of  these    Pagan  symbols  ? 

*  King  {"  Gnostics")  gives  the  figure  of  a  Cliristian  symbol,  very  common  during 
the  middle  ages,  of  three  fishes  interlaced  into  a  triangle,  and  having  the  FIVE  letters  (a 
most  sacred  Pythagorean  number)  I.  X.  0T2  engi'aved  on  it.  The  number  five  relates  to 
the  same  kabalistic  computation. 


Joshua,  son  of  Nun,  or  Nave  {Navis),  could  have  with  perfect  propriety 
adopted  the  image  of  a  ship,  or  even  of  a  tish,  for  Joshua  means  Jesus,  son 
of  tfie  fish-god ;  but  it  was  really  too  hazardous  to  connect  the  emblems 
of  Venus,  Astarte,  and  all  the  Hindu  goddesses— the  argka,  dove,  and 
Jish — with  the  "  immaculate  "  birth  of  their  god  !  This  looks  very  much 
as  if  in  the  early  days  of  Christianity  but  little  difference  was  made  be- 
tween Christ,  Bacchus,  Apollo,  and  the  Hindu  Christna,  the  incarnation 
of  Vishnu,  with  whose  first  avatar  this  symbol  of  the  fish  originated. 

In  the  Hari-ptirana,  in  the  Bagaved-giita,  as  well  as  in  several  other 
books,  the  god  Vishnu  is  shown  as  having  assumed  the  form  of  a  fish  with 
a  human  head,  in  order  to  reclaim  the  VedasXaiV  during  the  deluge.  Hav- 
ing enabled  Visvamitra  to  escape  with  all  his  tribe  in  the  ark,  Vishnu, 
pitying  weak  and  ignorant  humanity,  remained  with  them  for  some  time. 
It  was  this  god  who  taught  them  to  build  houses,  cultivate  the  land,  and  to 
thank  the  unknown  Deity  whom  he  represented,  by  building  temples  and 
instituting  a  regular  worship ;  and,  as  he  remained  half  fish,  half-man,  all 
the  time,  at  every  sunset  he  used  to  return  to  the  ocean,  wherein  he  passed 
the  night. 

"  It  is  he,"  says  the  sacred  book,  "  who  taught  men,  after  the  diluvium, 
all  that  was  necessary  for  their  happiness. 

"  One  day  he  plunged  into  the  water  and  returned  no  more,  for  the 
earth  had  covered  itself  again  with  vegetation,  fruit,  and  cattle. 

"But  he  had  taught  the  Brahmas  the  secret  of  all  things"  {Hari- 

So  far,  we  see  in  this  narrative  the  double  of  the  story  given  by  the 
Babylonian  Berosus  about  Cannes,  the  fish-man,  who  is  no  other  than 
Vishnu — unless,  indeed,  we  have  to  believe  that  it  was  Chaldea  which 
civilized  India ! 

We  say  again,  we  desire  to  give  nothing  on  our  sole  authority.  There- 
fore we  cite  JacoUiot,  who,  however  criticised  and  contradicted  on  other 
points,  and  however  loose  he  may  be  in  the  matter  of  chronology  (though 
even  in  this  he  is  nearer  right  than  those  scientists  who  would  have  all 
Hindu  books  written  since  the  Council  of  Nicea),  at  least  cannot  be 
denied  the  reputation  of  a  good  Sanscrit  scholar.  And  he  says,  while 
analyzing  the  word  Oan,  or  Cannes,  that  O  in  Sanscrit  is  an  interjection 
expressing  an  invocation,  as  O,  Swayambhuva  !  O,  God!  etc;  a.nd  An 
Is  a  radical,  signifying  in  Sanscrit  a  spirit,  a  being ;  and,  we  presume,  what 
the  Greeks  meant  by  the  word  Dcetnon,  a  semi-god. 

"  What  an  extraordinary  antiquity,"  he  remarks,  "  this  fable  of  Vishnu, 
disguised  as  a  fish,  gives  to  the  sacred  books  of  the  Hindus  ;  especially 
in  presence  of  the  fact  that  the  Vedas  and  iManu  reckon  more  than  twenty- 
five  thousand  years  of  existence,  as  proved  by  the  most  serious  as  the  most 



authentic  documents.     Few  peoples,  says  the  learned  Halhed,  have  their 
annals  more  authentic  or  serious  than  the  Hindus."  * 

We  may,  perhaps,  throw  additional  light  upon  the  puzzling  question  of 
the  fish-symbol  by  reminding  the  reader  that  according  to  Genesis  the  first 
created  of  living  beings,  the  first  type  of  animal  life,  was  the  fish.  "  And 
the  Elohira  said  :  '  Let  the  waters  bring  forth  abundantly  the  moving 
creature  that  hath  life '  .  .  .  and  God  created  great  whales  .  .  .  and  the 
morning  and  the  evening  were  the  _fi/ih  dayP  Jonah  is  swallowed  by  a  - 
big  fish,  and  is  cast  out  again  three  days  later.  This  the  Christians  regard 
as  a  premonition  of  the  three  days'  sepulture  of  Jesus  which  preceded  his 
resurrection — though  the  statement  of  the  three  days  is  as  fanciful  as  much 
of  the  rest,  and  adopted  to  fit  the  well-known  threat  to  destroy  the  temple 
and  rebuild  it  again  in  three  days.  Between  his  burial  and  alleged  resur- 
rection there  intervened  but  one  day — the  Jewish  Sabbath — as  he  was 
buried  on  Friday  evening  and  rose  to  life  at  dawn  on  Sunday.  However, 
whatever  other  circumstance  may  be  regarded  as  a  prophecy,  the  story  of 
Jonah  cannot  be  made  to  answer  the  purpose. 

"  Big  Fish  "  is  Cetus,  the  latinized  form  of  Keto-io;Ta)  and  keto  is  Dag- 
on,  Poseidon,  the  female  gender  of  it  being  Keton  Atar-gatis — the  Syrian 
goddess,  and  Venus,  of  Askalon.  The  figure  or  bust  of  Der-Keto  or 
Astarte  was  generally  represented  on  the  prow  of  the  ships.  Jonah  (the 
Greek  lona,  or  dove  sacred  to  Venus)  fled  to  Jaffa,  where  the  god  Dagon, 
the  man-fish,  was  worshipped,  and  dared  not  go  to  Nineveh,  where  the 
dove  was  revered.  Hence,  some  commentators  believe  that  when  Jonah 
was  thrown  overboard  and  was  swallowed  by  a  fish,  we  must  understand 
that  he  was  picked  up  by  one  of  these  vessels,  on  the  prow  of  which  was 
the  figure  of  Keto.  But  the  kabalists  have  another  legend,  to  this  effect : 
They  say  that  Jonah  was  a  run-away  priest  from  the  temple  of  the  goddess 
where  the  dove  was  worshipped,  and  desired  to  abolish  idolatry  and  insti- 
tute monotheistic  worship.  That,  caught  near  Jaffa,  he  was  held  pris- 
oner by  the  devotees  of  Dagon  in  one  of  the  prison-cells  of  the  temple, 
and  that  it  is  the  strange  form  of  the  cell  which  gave  rise  to  the  allegory. 
In  the  collection  of  Mose  de  Garcia,  a  Portuguese  kabalist,  there  is  a  draw- 
ing representing  the  interior  of  the  temple  of  Dagon.  In  the  middle 
stands  an  immense  idol,  the  upper  portion  of  whose  body  is  human,  and 
the  lower  fish-like.  Between  the  belly  and  the  tail  is  an  aperture  which 
can  be  closed  like  the  door  of  a  closet.  In  it  the  transgressors  against 
the  local  deity  were  shut  up  until  further  disposal.  The  drawing  m 
question  was  made  from  an  old  tablet  covered  with  curious  drawings 
and  inscriptions  in  old  Phoenician    characters,  describing  this  Venetian 

*  "  La  Gendse  de  rHumanit^,"  p.  9. 


oubliette  of  biblical  days.  The  tablet  itself  was  found  in  an  excavation  a 
few  miles  from  Jaffa.  Considering  the  extraordinary  tendency  of  Orien- 
tal nations  for  puns  and  allegories,  is  it  not  barely  possible  that  the  "  big 
fish"  by  which  Jonah  was  swallowed  was  simply  the  cell  within  the  belly 
of  Dagon  ? 

It  is  significant  that  this  double  appellation  of  "  Messiah "  and 
•'  Dag "  (fish),  of  the  Talmudists,  should  so  well  apply  to  the  Hindu 
Vishnu,  the  "  Preserving "  Spirit,  and  the  second  personage  of  the 
Brahmanic  trinity.  This  deity,  having  already  manifested  itself,  is  still 
regarded  as  the  future  Saviour  of  humanity,  and  is  the  selected 
Redeemer,  who  will  appear  at  its  tenth  incarnation  or  avatar,  like  the 
Messiah  of  the  Jews,  to  lead  the  blessed  onward,  and  restore  to  them  the 
primitive  Vedas.  At  his  first  avatar,  Vishnu  is  alleged  to  have  appeared 
to  humanity,  in  form  like  a  fish.  In  the  temple  of  Rama,  there  is  a 
representation  of  this  god  which  answers  perfectly  to  that  of  Dagon,  as 
given  by  Berosus.  He  has  the  body  of  a  man  issuing  from  the  mouth 
of  a  fish,  and  holds  in  his  hands  the  lost  ViJa.  Vishnu,  moreover,  is  the 
water-god,  in  one  sense,  the  Logos  of  the  Parabrahm,  for  as  the  three 
persons  of  the  manifested  god-head  constantly  interchange  their  attri- 
butes, we  see  him  in  the  same  temple  represented  as  reclining  on  the 
seven-headed  serpent,  Ananta  (eternity),  and  moving,  like  the  Spirit  of 
God,  on  the  face  of  the  primeval  waters. 

Vishnu  is  evidently  the  Adam  Kadmon  of  the  kabalists,  for  Adam  is 
the  Logos   or  the  first  Anointed,  as  Adam  Second  is  the  King  Messiah. 

Lakmy,  or  Lakshmi,  the  passive  or  feminine  counterpart  of  Vishnu, 
the  creator  and  the  preserver,  is  also  called  Ada  Maya.  She  is  the 
"  Mother  of  the  World,"  Damatri,  the  Venus  Aphrodite  of  the  Greeks  ; 
also  Isis  and  Eve.  While  Venus  is  born  from  the  sea- foam,  Lakmy 
springs  out  from  the  water  at  the  churning  of  the  sea ;  when  born,  she  is 
so  beautiful  that  all  the  gods  fall  in  love  with  her.  The  Jews,  borrowing 
their  types  wherever  they  could  get  them,  made  their  first  woman  after  the 
pattern  of  Lakmy.  It  is  curious  that  Viracocha,  the  Supreme  Being  in 
Peru,  means,  literally  translated,  "  foam  of  the  sea." 

Eugene  Burnouf,  the  great  authority  of  the  French  school,  announces 
his  opinion  in  the  same  spirit :  "  We  must  learn  one  day,"  he  observes, 
"  that  all  ancient  traditions  disfigured  by  emigration  and  legend,  belong 
to  the  history  of  India."  Such  is  the  opinion  of  Colebrooke,  Inman, 
King,  Jacolliot,  and  many  other  Orientalists. 

We  have  said  above,  that,  according  to  the  secret  computation  pecu- 
liar to  the  students  of  the  hidden  science,  Messiah  is  the  fifth  emanation, 
or  potency.  In  the  Jewish  Kabala,  where  the  ten  Sephiroth  emanate 
firom  Adam   Kadmon  (placed   below  the  crown),  he  comes  fifth.     So  in 


the  Gnostic  system  ;  so  in  the  Buddhistic,  in  which  the  fifth  Buddha — 
Maitree,  will  appear  at  his  last  advent  to  save  mankind  before  the  final 
destruction  of  the  world.  If  Vishnu  is  represented  in  his  forthcoming 
and  last  appearance  as  the  tenth  avatar  or  incarnation,  it  is  only  because 
every  unit  held  as  an  androgyne  manifests  itself  doubly.  The  Buddhists 
who  reject  this  dual-sexed  incarnation  reckon  but  five.  Thus,  while 
Vishnu  is  to  make  his  last  appearance  in  his  tenth,  Buddha  is  said  to  do 
the  same  in  his  fifth  incarnation.  * 

The  better  to  illustrate  the  idea,  and  show  how  completely  the  real 
meaning  of  the  avatars,  known  only  to  the  students  of  the  secret 
doctrine  was  misunderstood  by  the  ignorant  masses,  we  elsewhere  give 
the  diagrams  of  the  Hindu  and  Chaldeo-Kabalistic  avatars  and  emana- 
tions, f  This  basic  and  true  fundamental  stone  of  the  secret  cycles, 
shows  on  its  very  face,  that  far  from  taking  their  revealed  Vedas  and 
Bible  literally,  the  Brahman-pundits,  and  the  Tanaim — the  scientists 
and  philosophers  of  the  pre-Christian  epochs — speculated  on  the  crea- 
tion and  development  of  the  world  quite  in  a  Darwinian  way,  both  anti- 
cipating him  and  his  school  in  the  natural  selection  of  species,  gradual 
development,  and  transformation. 

We  advise  every  one  tempted  to  entei  an  indignant  protest  against 
this  affirmation  to  read  more  carefully  the  books  of  Manu,  even  in  the 
incomplete  translation  of  Sir  William  Jones,  and  the  more  or  less  care- 
less one  of  JacoUiot.  If  we  compare  the  Sanchoniathon  Phoenician 
Cosmogony,  and  the  record  of  Berosus  with  the  Bhagavatta  and  Manu, 
we  will  find  enunciated  exactly  the  same  principles  as  those  now  offered 
as  the  latest  developments  of  modern  science.  We  have  quoted  from 
the  Chaldean  and  Phoenician  records  in  our  first  volume  ;  we  will  now 
glance  at  the  Hindu  books. 

"  When  this  world  had  issued  out  of  darkness,  the  subtile  elementary 
principles  produced  the  vegetal  seed  which  animated  first  the  plants  ; 
from  the  plants,  life  passed  into  fastastical  bodies  which  were  born  w  the 
ilus  of  the  7vaters  ;  then,  through  a  series  of  forms  and  various  animals, 
it  reached  man."  \ 

"  He  (man,  before  becoming  such)  will  pass  successively  through 
plants,  worms,  insects,  fish,  serpents,  tortoises,  cattle,  and  wild  animals ; 
such  is  the  inferior  degree." 

"  Such,  from  Brahma  down  to  the  vegetables,  are  declared  the  trans- 
migrations which  take  place  in  this  world."  § 

*  The  kabalistic  Sephiroth  are  also  ten  in  number,  or  five  pairs. 
\  An  avatar  is  a  descent  from  on   liigh  upon  earth  of  the  Deity  in  some  manifest 

\  "  Bliagavatta."  §  "  Manu,"  boolis  i.  and  xiL 


In  the  Sanchoniathonian  Cosmogony,  men  are  also  evolved  out  of 
the  ilus  of  the  chaos,  *  and  the  same  evolution  and  transformation  of 
species  are  shown. 

And  now  we  will  leave  the  rostrum  to  Mr.  Darwin  :  "  I  believe  that 
animals  have  descended  from  at  most  only  four  or  five  progenitors."  f 

Again  :  "  I  should  infer  from  analogy  that  probably  all  the  organic 
beings  which  have  ever  lived  on  this  earth,  have  descended  from  some 
one  primordial  form.  J  ...  I  view  all  beings,  not  as  special  creations,  but 
as  the  lineal  descendants  of  some  few  beings  which  lived  long  before  the 
first  bed  of  the  Silurian  system  was  deposited."  § 

In  short,  they  lived  in  the  Sanchoniathonian  chaos,  and  in  the  ilus 
of  Manu.  Vyasa  and  Kapila  go  still  farther  than  Darwin  and  Manu. 
"They  see  in  Brahma  but  the  name  of  the  universal  germ  ;  they  deny 
the  existence  of  a  First  Cause  ;  and  pretend  that  everything  in  nature 
found  itself  developed  only  in  consequence  of  material  and  fatal 
forces,"  says  Jacolliot.  || 

Correct  as  may  be  this  latter  quotation  from  Kapila,  it  demands  a 
few  words  of  explanation.  Jacolliot  repeatedly  compares  Kapila  and 
Veda  Vyasa  with  Pyrrho  and  Littre.  We  have  nothing  against  such  a 
comparison  with  the  Greek  philosopher,  but  we  must  decidedly  object  to 
any  with  the  French  Comtist ;  we  find  it  an  unmerited  fling  at  the  mem- 
ory of  the  great  Aryan  sage.  Nowhere  does  this  prolific  writer  state 
the  repudiation  by  either  ancient  or  modern  Brahmans  of  God — the 
"unknown,'''  universal  Spirit  ;  nor  does  any  other  Orientalist  accuse  the 
Hindus  of  the  same,  however  perverted  the  general  deductions  of  our 
savants  about  Buddhistic  atheism.  On  the  contrary,  Jacolliot  states  more 
than  once  that  the  learned  Pundits  and  educated  Brahmans  have  never 
shared  the  popular  superstitions  ;  and  affirms  their  unshaken  belief  in 
the  unity  of  God  and  the  soul's  immortality,  although  most  assuredly 
neither  Kapila,  nor  the  initiated  Brahmans,  nor  the  followers  of  the 
Vedanta  school  would  ever  admit  the  existence  of  an  anthropomorphic 
creator,  a  "  First  Cause"  in  the  Christian  sense.  Jacolliot,  in  his  Indo- 
European  and  African  Traditions,  is  the  first  to  make  an  onslaught  on 
Professor  Miiller,  for  remarking  that  the  Hindu  gods  were  "  masks 
without  actors  .  .  .  names  without  being,  and  not  beings  without 
names."  ^  Quoting,  in  support  of  his  argument,  numerous  verses  from 
the  sacred  Hindu  books,  he  adds  :  "  Is  it  possible  to  refuse  to  the 
author  of    these  stanzas  a  definite  and  clear  conception   of    the   divine 

*  See  Cory's  "Ancient  Fragments." 

\  "  Origin  of  Species,"  first  edition,  p.  484.  %  Ibid.,  p.  484, 

§  Ibid.,  pp.  488,  489.  B  "  La  Genese  de  I'Humanite,"  p.  339. 

%  "  T.aditions  Indo-Europeennes  et  Africaiues,"  p.  291. 


force,  of  the  Unique  Being,   master  and  Sovereign  of  the  Universe  ?  .  .  . 
Were  the  altars  then  built  to  a  metaphor  ?  "  * 

The  latter  argument  is  perfectly  just,  so  far  as  Max  Miiller's  nega- 
tion is  concerned.  But  we  doubt  whether  the  French  rationahst  under- 
stands Kapila's  and  Vyasa's  philosophy  better  than  the  German  philolo- 
gist does  the  "theological  twaddle,"  as  the  latter  terms  the  Atharva- 
Vcda.  Professor  MuUer  and  JacoUiot  may  have  ever  so  great  claims  to 
erudition,  and  be  ever  so  familiar  with  Sanscrit  and  other  ancient 
Oriental  languages,  but  both  lack  the  key  to  the  thousand  and  one  mys- 
teries of  the  old  secret  doctrine  and  its  philosophy.  Only,  while  the 
German  philologist  does  not  even  take  the  trouble  to  look  into  this  magi- 
cal and  "  theological  twaddle,"  we  find  the  French  Indianist  never  losing 
an  opportunity  to  investigate.  Moreover,  he  honestly  admits  his  incom- 
petency to  ever  fathom  this  ocean  of  mystical  learning.  In  its  existence 
he  not  only  firmly  believes,  but  throughout  his  works  he  incessantly  calls 
the  attention  of  science  to  its  unmistakable  traces  at  every  step  in 
India.  Still,  though  the  learned  Pundits  and  Brahmans — his  "revered 
masters "  of  the  pagodas  of  Villenoor  and  Chulambruni  in  the  Car- 
natic,  f  as  it  seems,  positively  refused  to  reveal  to  him  the  mysteries  of 
the  magical  part  of  the  Agrouchada-Parikshai,  \  and  of  Brahmatma's 
triangle,  §  he  persists  in  the  honest  declaration  that  everything  is  possible 
in  Hindu  metaphysics,  even  to  the  Kapila  and  Vyasa  systems  having 
been  hitherto  misunderstood. 

M.  Jacolliot  weakens  his  assertion  immediately  afterward  with  the  fol- 
lowing contradiction  : 

"We  were  one  day  inquiring  of  a  Brahman  of  the  pagoda  of  Ch^lam- 
brum,  who  belonged  to  the  skeptical  school  of  the  naturalists  of  lyasa, 
whether  he  believed  in  the  existence  of  God.  He  answered  us,  smiling: 
'  Ahatn  eva  param  Brahina' — I  am  myself  a  god. 

"  '  What  do  you  mean  by  that  ?  ' 

"  '  I  mean  that  every  being  on  earth,  however  humble,  is  an  immortal 
portion  of  the  immortal  matter.' "  || 

The  answer  is  one  which  would  suggest  itself  to  every  ancient  phil- 
osopher, Kabalist  and  Gnostic,  of  the  early  days.  It  contains  the  very 
spirit  of  the  delphic  and  kabalistic  commandment,  for  esoteric  philosophy 

solved,  ages  ago,  the  problem  of  what  man  was,  is,  and  will  be.    If  persons 


*  "Traditions  Indo-Europeennes  et  Africaines,"  pp.  294,  295. 

f  "  Les  Fils  de  Dieu,"  p.  32.     %  "  Le  Spiritisme  dans  le  Monde,"  p.  78  and  others. 

§  "  Les  Fils  de  Dieu,"  p.  272.  While  not  at  all  astonished  that  Brahmans  should 
have  refused  to  satisfy  M.  Jacolliot's  curiosity,  we  must  add  that  the  meaning  of  this 
sign  is  known  to  the  superiors  of  every  Buddhist  lamasery,  not  alone  to  the  Brahmans. 

II  "La  Geuese  de  I'Humanite,''  p.  339. 


believing  the  Bible  verse  which  teaches  that  the  "  Lord  God  formed 
man  of  the  dust  of  the  ground,  and  breathed  into  his  nostrils  the  breath 
of  life,"  reject  at  the  same  time  the  idea  that  every  atom  of  this  dust,  as 
ever}'  particle  of  this  "  living  soul,"  contains  "  God  "  within  itself,  then  we 
pity  the  logic  of  that  Christian.  He  forgets  the  verses  which  precede  the 
one  in  question.  God  blesses  equally  every  beast  of  the  field  and  every 
living  creature,  in  the  water  as  in  the  air,  and  He  endows  them  all  with 
life,  which  is  a  breath  of  His  own  Spirit,  and  the  soul  of  the  animal. 
Humanity  is  the  Adam  Kadmon  of  the  "  Unknown,"  His  microcosm,  and 
His  only  representative  on  earth,  and  every  man  is  a  god  on  earth. 

AVe  would  ask  this  French  scholar,  who  seems  so  familiar  with  every 
sloka  of  the  books  of  Manu,  and  other  Vedic  writers,  the  meaning  of  this 
sentence  so  well  known  to  him  : 

"  Plants  and  vegetation  reveal  a  multitude  of  forms  because  of  their 
precedent  actions  ;  they  are  surrounded  by  darkness,  but  are  nevertheless 
endowed  with  an  interior  soul,  and  feel  equally  pleasure  and  pain " 
[Manu,  book  i.). 

If  the  Hindu  philosophy  teach  the  presence  of  a  degree  of  soul  in 
the  lowest  forms  of  vegetable  life,  and  even  in  every  atom  in  space,  how 
is  it  possible  that  it  should  deny  the  same  immortal  principle  to  man  ? 
And  if  it  once  admit  the  immortal  spirit  in  man,  how  can  it  logically 
deny  the  existence  of  the  parent  source — I  will  not  say  the  first,  but  the 
eternal  Cause?  Neither  rationalists  nor  sensualists,  who  do  not  compre- 
hend Indian  metaphysics,  should  estimate  the  ignorance  of  Hindu  meta- 
physicians by  their  own. 

The  grand  cycle,  as  we  have  heretofore  remarked,  includes  the  pro- 
gress of  mankind  from  its  germ  in  the  primordial  man  of  spiritual  form 
to  the  deepest  depth  of  degradation  he  can  reach — each  successive  step 
in  the  descent  being  accompanied  by  a  greater  strength  and  grossness  of 
the  physical  form  than  its  precursor — and  ends  with  the  Flood.  But 
while  the  grand  cycle,  or  age,  is  running  its  course,  seven  minor  cj'cles  are 
passed,  each  marking  the  evolution  of  a  new  race  out  of  the  preceding  one, 
on  a  new  world.  And  each  of  these  races,  or  grand  types  of  humanity, 
breaks  up  into  subdivisions  of  families,  and  they  again  into  nations  and 
tribes,  as  we  see  the  earth's  inhabitants  subdivided  to-day  into  Mongols, 
Caucasians,  Indians,  etc. 

Before  proceeding  to  show  by  diagrams  the  close  resemblance  between 
the  esoteric  philosophies  of  all  the  ancient  peoples,  however  geographic- 
ally remote  from  each  other,  it  will  be  useful  to  briefly  explain  the  real 
ideas  which  underlie  all  those  symbols  and  allegorical  representations  and 
have  hitherto  so  puzzled  the  uninitiated  commentators.  Better  than  any- 
thing, it  may  show  that  religion  and  science  were  closer  knit  than  twins 


in  days  of  old  ;  that  they  were  one  in  two  and  two  in  one  from  the  very 
moment  of  their  conception.  With  mutually  convertible  attributes,  science 
was  spiritual  and  religion  was  scientific.  Like  the  androgyne  man  of  the 
first  chapter  of  Genesis — ■"  male  and  female,"  passive  and  active  ;  created 
in  the  image  of  the  Elohim.  Omniscience  developed  omnipotency,  the 
latter  called  for  the  exercise  of  the  former,  and  thus  the  giant  had 
dominion  given  him  over  all  the  four  kingdoms  of  the  world.  But,  like 
the  second  Adam,  these  androgynes  were  doomed  to  "fall  and  lose  their 
powers"  as  soon  as  the  two  halves  of  the  duality  separated.  The  fruit  of 
the  Tree  of  Knowledge  gives  death  without  the  fruit  of  the  Tree  of  Life. 
Man  must  know /izOTJ'd?^  before  he  can  hope  to  know  the  ultimate  genesis 
even  of  beings  and  powers  less  developed  in  their  inner  nature  than  him- 
self. So  with  religion  and  science  ;  united  two  in  one  they  were  infallible, 
for  the  spiritual  intuition  was  there  to  supply  the  limitations  of  physical 
senses.  Separated,  exact  science  rejects  the  help  of  the  inner  voice, 
while  religion  becomes  merely  dogmatic  theology — each  is  but  a  corpse 
without  a  soul. 

The  esoteric  doctrine,  then,  teaches,  like  Buddhism  and  Brahmanism, 
and  even  the  persecuted  Kahala,  that  the  one  infinite  and  unknown  Essence 
exists  from  all  eternity,  and  in  regular  and  harmonious  successions  is 
either  passive  or  active.  In  the  poetical  phraseology  of  Mann  these  con- 
ditions are  called  the  "  day  "  and  the  "  night "  of  Brahma.  The  latter  is 
either  "awake"  or  "asleep."  The  Svubhavikas,  or  philosophers  of  the 
oldest  school  of  Buddhism  (which  still  exists  in  Nepaul),  speculate  but 
upon  the  active  condition  of  this  "Essence,"  which  they  call  Svabhavat, 
and  deem  it  foolish  to  theorize  upon  the  abstract  and  "unknowable" 
power  in  its  passive  condition.  Hence  they  are  called  atheists  by  both 
Christian  theology  and  modern  scientists  ;  for  neither  of  the  two  are  able 
to  understand  the  profound  logic  of  their  philosophy.  The'  former  will 
allow  of  no  other  God  than  the  personified  secondary  powers  which  have 
blindly  worked  out  the  visible  universe,  and  which  became  with  them  the 
anthropomorphic  God  of  the  Christians — the  Jehovah,  roaring  amid 
thunder  and  lightning.  In  its  turn,  rationalistic  science  greets  the  Bud- 
dhists and  the  Sv&bhavikas  as  the  "  positivists  "  of  the  archaic  ages.  If 
we  take  a  one-sided  view  of  the  philosophy  of  the  latter,  our  materialists 
may  be  right  in  their  own  way.  The  Buddhists  maintain  that  there  is  no 
Creator  but  an  infinitude  of  creative  powers,  which  collectively  form  the 
one  eternal  substance,  the  essence  of  which  is  inscrutable — hence  not  a 
subject  for  speculation  for  any  true  philosopher.  Socrates  invariably 
refused  to  argue  upon  the  mystery  of  universal  being,  yet  no  one  would 
ever  have  thought  of  charging  him  with  atheism,  except  those  who  were 
bent  upon  his  destruction.     Upon  inaugurating  an  active  period,  says  the 


Secret  Doctrine,  an  expansion  of  this  Divine  essence,  from  within  out- 
wardly, occurs  in  obedience  to  eternal  and  immutable  law,  and  the  phe- 
nomenal or  visible  universe  is  the  ultimate  result  of  the  long  chain  of 
cosmical  forces  thus  progressively  set  in  motion.  In  like  manner,  when 
the  passive  condition  is  resumed,  a  contraction  of  the  Divine  essence 
takes  place,  and  the  previous  work  of  creation  is  gradually  and  progres- 
sively undone.  The  visible  universe  becomes  disintegrated,  its  material 
dispersed ;  and  "  darkness,"  solitary  and  alone,  broods  once  more  over 
the  face  of  the  "  deep."  To  use  a  metaphor  which  will  convey  the  idea 
still  more  clearly,  an  outbreathing  of  the  "unknown  essence"  produces 
the  world  ;  and  an  inhalation  causes  it  to  disappear.  This  process  has 
been  going  on  from  all  eternity,  and  our  present  universe  is  but  one  of  an 
infinite  series  which  had  ?io  beginning  and  will  have  no  end. 

Thus  we  are  enabled  to  build  our  theories  solely  on  the  visible  mani- 
festations of  the  Deity,  on  its  objective  natural  phenomena.  To  apply  to 
these  creative  principles  the  term  God  is  puerile  and  absurd.  One  might 
as  well  call  by  the  name  of  Benvenuto  Cellini  the  fire  which  fuses  the 
metal,  or  the  air  that  cools  it  when  it  is  run  in  the  mould.  If  the  inner 
and  ever-concealed  spiritual,  and  to  our  minds  abstract.  Essence  within 
these  forces  can  ever  be  connected  with  the  creation  of  the  physical  uni- 
verse, it  is  but  in  the  sense  given  to  it  by  Plato.  It  may  be  termed,  at 
best,  the  framer  of  the  abstract  universe  which  developed  gradually  in  the 
Divine  Thought  within  which  it  had  lain  dormant. 

In  Chapter  VIII.  we  will  attempt  to  show  the  esoteric  meaning  of 
Genesis,  and  its  complete  agreement  with  the  ideas  of  other  nations.  The 
six  days  of  creation  will  be  found  to  have  a  meaning  little  suspected  by 
the  .multitude  of  commentators,  who  have  exercised  their  abilities  to  the 
full  extent  in  attempting  to  reconcile  them  by  turns  with  Christian  theology 
and  un-Christian  geology.  Disfigured  as  the  Old  Testament  is,  yet  in  its 
symbolism  are  preserved  enough  of  the  original  in  its  principal  features 
to  show  the  family  likeness  to  the  cosmogonies  of  older  nations  than 
the  Jews. 

We  here  give  the  diagrams  of  the  Hindu  and  the  Chaldeo-Jewish  cos- 
mogonies. The  antiquity  of  the  diagram  of  the  former  may  be  inferred 
from  the  fact  that  many  of  the  Brahmanical  [sagodas  are  designed  and 
built  on  this  figure,  called  the  "  Sri-Iantara  "  *  And  yet  we  find  the  high- 
est honors  paid  to  it  by  the  Jewish  and  mediaeval  kabalists,  who  call  it 
"Solomon's  seal."  It  will  be  quite  an  easy  matter  to  trace  it  to  its  origin, 
once  we  are  reminded  of  the  history  of  the  king-kabalist  and  his  trans- 
actions with  King  Hiram  and  Ophir — the  country  of  peacocks,  gold,  and 
ivory — for  which  land  we  have  to  search  in  old  India. 

*  See  "  Journal  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,"  vol.  xlii.,  p.  79. 






lutionary theory  of  modern  science. 

The  Chaldean  Doctrine. 
The  Upper  Triangle 
Contains  the  Ineffable  Name.  It  is  En- 
Soph,  the  Boundless,  the  Infinite,  whose 
name  is  known  to  no  one  but  the  initiated, 
and  could  not  be  pronounced  aloud  under 
the  penalty  of  death. 

No  more  than  Para-Brahma  can  En- 
Soph  create,  for  he  is  in  the  same  condi- 
tion of  non-being  as  the  former  ;  he  is^ 
non-existent  so  long  as  he  lies  in  his  latent 
or  passive  state  witliin  Oulom  (the  bound- 
less and  termless  time)  ;  as  such  he  is  not 
the  Creator  of  the  visible  universe,  neither 
is  he  the  Aur  (Light).  He  will  become 
the  latter  when  the  period  of  creation 
shall  have  compelled  him  to  expand  the 
Force  within  himself,  according  to  the 
Law  of  which  he  is  the  embodiment  and 

*'  Whosoever  acquaints  himself  with 
T  "n  the  Mercaba  and  the  lahgash  (secret 
speech  or  incantation),*  will  learn  the 
secret  of  secrets." 

*  Lahgash  is  nearly  identical  in  meanine  with 
V&ch^  the  hidden  power  of  the  Mantras. 

The  Hindu  Doctrine. 
The  Upper  Triangle 
Contains  the  Ineffable  Name.  It  is  the 
AUM — to  be  pronounced  only  mentally, 
under  penalty  of  death.  The  Unrevealed 
Para-Brahma,  the  Passive-Principle  ;  the 
absolute  and  unconditioned  "  mukta," 
which  cannot  enter  into  the  condition  of  a 
Creator,  as  the  latter,  in  order  to  think, 
will^  and  plan,  must  be  bound  and  condi- 
tioned (baddha) ;  hence,  in  one  sense,  be  a 
finite  being.  "This  (Para-Brahma)  was 
absorbed  in  the  non-being,  imperceptible, 
without  any  distinct  attribute,  non-exist- 
ent for.  our  senses.  He  was  absorbed  in 
liis  (to  us)  eternal  (to  himself)  periodi- 
cal, sleep,"  for  it  was  one  of  the  *'  Nights 
of  Brahma."  Therefore  he  is  not  the  First 
but  the  Eternal  Cause.  He  is  the  Soul 
of  Souls,  whom  no  being  can  comprehend 
in  this  state.  But  *'  he  who  studies  the 
secret  Mantras  and  comprehends  the 
VdiV^  (the  Spirit  or  hidden  voice  of  the 
Mantras,  the  active  manifestation  of  the 
latent  Force)  will  learn  to  understand  him 
in  his  "  revealed  "   aspect. 

Both  "  This  "  and  En-Soph,  in  their  first  manifestation  of  Eight,  emerg- 
ing from  within  Darkness,  may  be  summarized  in  the  Svabhavdt,  the  Eter- 
nal and  the  uncreated  Self-existing  Substance  which  produces  all ;  while 
everything  which  is  of  its  essence  produces  itself  out  of  its  own  nature. 

The  Space  Around  the  Upper  Triangle. 
When  the  "Night  of  Brahma"  was 
ended,  and  the  time  came  for  the  Self- 
Existent  to  manifest  Itself  by  revelation, 
it  made  its  glory  visible  by  sending  forth 
from  its  Essence  an  active  Power,  which, 
female     at     first,    subsequently    becomes 

The  Space  Around  the  Upper  Triangle. 
When  the  active  period  had  arrived, 
En-Soph  sent  forth  from  within  his  own 
eternal  essence,  Sephira,  the  active 
Power,  called  the  Primordial  Point,  and 
tlie  Crown,  Kcter.  It  is  only  through  her 
that  the  "  Un-bounded    Wisdom"  could 



androgyne.  It  is  Aditi,  the  "  Infinite,"  * 
the  Boundless,  or  rather  tlie  "  Un- 
bounded." Aditi  is  the  "mother"  of  all 
the  gods,  and  Aditi  is  the  Father  and  the 
Son.f  "  Who  will  give  us  back  to  the  great 
Aditi,  that  I  may  see  father  and  mother  ?  "  :j: 
It  is  in  conjunction  with  the  latter  female. 
Force,  that  the  Divine  but  latent  Thought 
produces  the  gi"eat  "Deep" — water. 
'■  Water  is  born  from  a  transformation  of 
light  ,  .  .  and  from  a  Tnodlfication  of  the 
water  is  born  the  earth,"  says  Mann  (book 

'' Ve  are  born  of  Aditi  from  the  water, 
you  who  are  born  of  the  earth,  hear  ye  all 
my  call."  § 

In  this  water  (or  primeval  chaos)  the 
**  Infinite "  androgyne,  which,  with  the 
Eternal  Cause,  forms  the  first  abstract 
Triad,  rendered  by  Aum,  deposited  the 
germ  of  universal  life.  It  is  the  Mundane 
Egg,  in  which  took  place  the  gestation  of 
Purusha,  or  the  manifested  Brahma.  The 
germ  which  fecundated  the  Mother  Princi- 
ple (the  water)  is  called  Nara,  the  Divine 
Spirit  or  Holy  Ghost,  |  and  the  waters 
themselves,  are  an  emanation  of  the  former, 
Nari,  while  the  Spirit  which  brooded  over 
it  is  called  Narayana.*!" 

"  In  that  egg,  the  great  Power  sat  inac- 
tive a  whole  year  of  the  Creator^  at  the 
close  of  which,  by  his  thought  alone,  he 
caused  the  egg  to  divide  itself."  **  The 
upper  half  became  heaven,  the  lower,  the 

*  In  "Rig-Veda  Sanhita"  the  meaning  is  given 
by  Max  Miiller  as  the  Absolute,  "for  it  is  derived 
from  '' diti^  bond,  and  the  negative  particle  ^." 

t  "  Hymns  to  the  Maruts"  L,  89,  10. 

t  Ibid.,  I.,  24,  I. 

§  Ibid.,  X.,  63,  2. 

B  Thus  is  it  that  we  find  in  all  the  philosophical 
theogonies,  the  Holy  Ghost  female.  The  numerous 
sects  of  the  Gnostics  had  Sophia  ;  the  Jewish  kaba- 
lists  and  Talmudists,  Shekinah  (the  garment  of  the 
Highest),  which  descended  betv/een  the  two  cheru- 
bim upon  the  Mercy  Seat ;  and  we  find  even 
Jesus  made  to  say.  in  an  old  text,  '■'■Tsly  Mother, 
the  Holy  Ghost,  took  me." 

"The  waters  are  called  nara,  because  they 
were  the  production  of  Nara,  the  Spirit  of  God  " 
("Institutes  of  Manu,"  i.  10). 

T  Narayana,  or  that  which  moves  on  the 

**  "Manu,"  sloka  12. 

give  a  concrete  form  to  his  abstract 
Thought.  Two  sides  of  the  upper  trian- 
gle, the  right  side  and  the  base,  are  com- 
posed of  unbroken  lines ;  the  third,  the 
left  side,  is  dotted.  It  is  through  the  lat- 
ter that  emerges  Sephira.  Spreading  in 
every  direction,  she  finally  encompasses  the 
whole  triangle.  In  this  emanation  of  the 
female  active  principle  from  the  left  side 
of  the  mystic  triangle,  is  foreshadowed  the 
creation  of  Eve  from  Ailam's  left  rib. 
Adam  is  the  Microcosm  of  the  Macrocosm, 
and  is  created  in  the  image  of  the  Elohiin. 
In  the  Tree  of  Life  ^z'^-rm'  tl^e  triple 
triad  is  disposed  in  such  a  manner  that  the 
three  male  Sephiroth  are  on  the  right,  the 
three  female  on  the  left,  and  the  four 
uniting  principles  in  the  centre.  From  the 
Invisible  Dew  falling  from  the  Pligher 
"  Head  "  Sephira  creates  primeval  water, 
or  chaos  taking  shape.  It  is  the  first  step 
toward  the  solidification  of  Spirit,  which 
through  various  modifications  will  produce 
earth.*  "  It  requires  earth  and  water  to 
make  a  living  sotii^^'  says  Moses. 

When  Sephira  emerges  like  an  active 
power  fiom  within  the  latent  Deity,  she  is 
female  ;  when  she  assumes  the  office  of  a 
creator,  she  becomes  a  male  ;  hence,  she 
is  androgyne.  She  is  the  "Father  and 
Mother  Aditi,"  of  the  Hindu  Cosmogony. 

*  George  Smith  gives  the  first  verses  of  tlie 
Akkadian  Genesis  as  found  in  the  Cuneiform  Texts 
on  the  "Laleres  Coctiles."  There,  also,  we  find 
Attu,  the  passive  deity  or  En-Soph,  Bel,  the  Creator, 
the  Spirit  of  God  (Sephira)  moving  on  the  face  of 
the  waters,  hence  water  itself,  and  Hea  the  Univer- 
sal Soul  or  wisdom  of  the  three  combined. 

The  first  eight  verses  read  thus  : 

1.  When  above,  were  not  raised  the  heavens  ; 

2.  and  below  on  the  earth  a  plant  had  not  grown 

3.  The  abyss  had  not  broken  Its  boundaries. 

4.  I'he  chaos  (or  water)  Tiamat  (the  sea)  was  the 
producing  mother  of  the  whole  of  them,  (This  is 
the  Cosmical  Aditi  and  Sephira.) 

5.  Those  waters  at  the  beginning  were  ordained 

6.  a  tree  had  not  grown,  a  flower  had  not  un- 

7.  When  the  gods  had  not  sprung  up,  any  one 
of  them  ; 

8.  a  plant  had  not  grown,  and  order  did  not  ex- 

This  was  the  chaotic  or  ante-genesis  period. 



earth  Cboth  yet  in  their   ideal,  not   their 
manifested  form). 

Thus,   this  second  triad,    only    another 

name  for   the  first  one  (never   pronounced 

aloud),   and  which   is    the    real   pre-Vedic 

'  and  primordial  secret  Trimurti,  consisted 


Nara,        Father-Heaven, 
Nari,        Mother-Earth, 
Viradj,     the  Son^r  Universe. 

The  Trimurti,  comprising  Brahma,  the 
Creator,  Vishnu,  the  Preserver,  and  Siva, 
the  Destroyer  and  Regenerator,  belongs  to 
a  later  period.  It  is  an  anthropomorphic 
afterthought,  invented  for  the  more  popu- 
lar comprehension  of  the  uninitiated 
masses.  The  Dikshita,  tlie  initiate,  knew 
better.  Thus,  also,  the  profound  allegory 
under  the  colors  of  a  ridiculous  fable,  given 
in  the  Aytareya  Brahjnana,  *  which  re- 
sulted in  the  representations  in  some  tem- 
ples of  Brahm-Nara,  assuming  the  form 
ofa  bull,  and  his  daughter,  Aditi-Nari,  that 
of  a  heifer,  contains  the  same  metaphysical 
idea  as  the  "  fall  of  man,"  or  that  of  the 
Spirit  into  generation — matter.  The  All- 
pervading  Divine  Spirit  embodied  under 
the  symbols  of  Heaven,  the  Sun,  and 
Heat  (fire) — the  correlation  of  cosmic 
forces — fecundates  Matter  or  Nature,  the 
daughter  of  Spirit.  And  Para-Brahma 
himself  has  to  submit  to  and  bear  the 
penance  of  the  curses  of  the  other  gods 
(Elohim)  for  such  an  incest.  (See  corre- 
sponding column. )  According  to  the  im- 
mutable, and,  therefore,  fatal  law,  both 
Nara  and  Nari  are  mutually  Father  and 
Mother,  as  well  as  Father  and  Daughter,  f 
Matter,  through  infinite  transformation,  is 
the  gradual  product  of  Spirit.  The  unifi- 
cation of  one  Eternal  Supreme  Cause  re- 
quired such  a  correlation  ;  and  if  nature  be 

*  See  Hang's  "Aytareya  Brahmanam,"  of  the 

t  rhe  same  transformations  are  found  in  the 
cosmogony  of  every  important  nation.  Thus,  we 
see  in  the  Eg^'ptian  mythology,  Isis  and  Osiris, 
sister  and  brother,  man  and  wife  ;  and  Horus.  the 
Son  of  both,  becoming  the  husband  of  his  mother, 
Isis,  and  producing  a  son,  Malouli. 

After  brooding  over  the  "  Deep,"  the 
"  Spirit  of  God  "  produces  its  own  image 
in  the  water,  the  Universal  Womb,  sym- 
bolized in  Mann  by  the  Golden  Egg.  In 
the  kabalistic  Cosmogony,  Heaven  and 
Earth  are  personified  by  Adam  Kadmon 
and  the  second  Adam.  The  first  Ineffable 
Triad,  contained  in  the  abstract  idea  of  the 
"  Three  Heads,"  was  a  "  mystery  name." 
It  was  composed  of  En-Soph,  Sephira, 
and  Adam  Kadmon,  the  Protogonos,  the 
latter  being  identical  with  the  former, 
when  bisexual*  In  every  triad  there  is 
a  male,  a  female,  and  an  androgyne. 
Adam-Sephira  is  the  Crown  (Keter).  It 
sets  itself  to  the  work  of  creation,  by  first 
producing  Chochmah,  Male  Wisdom,  a 
masculine  active  potency,  represented  by 
,-;-,  jah,  or  tlie  Wheels  of  Creation,  )3-;5!<, 
from  which  proceeds  Binah,  Intelligence, 
female  and  passive  potency,  which  is  Jeho- 
vah^ -""",  whom  we  find  in  the  Bible  fig- 
uring as  the  Supreme.  But  this  Jehovah 
is  not  the  kabalistic  Jodcheva.  The 
binary  is  the  fundamental  corner-stone  of 
Gnosis.  As  the  binary  is  the  Unity  mul- 
tiplying itself  and  self-creating,  the  kaba- 
lists  show  the  "Unknown"  passive  En- 
Soph,  as  emanating  from  himself,  Sephira, 
which,  becoming  visible  light,  is  said  to 
produce  Adam  Kadmon.  But,  in  the  hid- 
den sense.  Sephira  and  Adam  are  one  and 
the  same  light,  only  latent  and  active,  in- 
visible and  visible.  The  second  Adam,  as 
the  human  tetragram,  produces  in  his 
turn  Eve,  out  of  his  side.  It  is  this  second 
triad,  with  which  the  kabalists  have 
hitherto  dealt,  hardly  hinting  at  the  Su- 
preme and  Ineffable  One,  and  never  com- 
mitting anything  to  writing.  All  knowl- 
edge concerning  the  latter  was  imparted 
orally.  It  is  the  second  Adam,  then,  who 
is  the  unity  represented  by  Jod,  emblem 
of  the  kabalistic  male  principle,  and,  at 
the  same  time,  he  is  Chochmah,  Wisdom^ 
while  Binah  or  Jehovah  is  Eve  ;  the  first 

*  When  a  female  power,  she  is  Sephira  :  when 
male,  he  is  Adam  Kadmon ,  for,  as  the  former 
contains  in  herself  the  other  nine  J^ephiroth,  so,  in 
their  totality,  the  latter,  including  Sephira,  is  cm- 
bodied  in  the  Archetypal  Kadmon,  the  rptoToyows. 



the  product  or  effect  of  that  Cause,  in  its 
turn  it  has  to  be  fecundated  by  the  came 
divine  Ray  which  produced  nature  itself. 
The  most  absurd  cosmogonical  allegories, 
if  analyzed  without  prejudice,  will  be  found 
built  on  strict  and  logical  necessarianism. 

**  Being  was  born  from  not-being,"  says 
a  verse  in  the  Rig- Veda.'*  The  first  being 
had  to  become  androgyne  and  finite,  by  the 
very  fact  of  its  creation  as  a  being.  And 
thus  even  the  sacred  Trimurti,  contain- 
ing Brahma,  Vishnu,  and  Siva  will  have  an 
end  when  the  "  night  "  of  Para-Brahma 
succeeds  the  present  *'  day,"  or  period  of 
universal  activity. 

The  second,  or  rather  the  first,  triad — 
as  the  highest  one  is  a  pure  abstraction — 
is  the  intellectual  world.  The  Vach  which 
surrounds  it  is  a  more  definite  transforma- 
tion of  Aditi.  Besides  its  occult  signifi- 
cance in  the  secret  Mantram,  Vach  is 
personified  as  the  active  power  of  Brahma 
proceeding  from  him.  In  the  Vedas  she 
is  made  to  speak  of  herself  as  the  supreme 
and  universal  soul.  ''I  bore  the  Father 
on  the  head  of  the  universal  mind,  and  my 
origin  is  in  the  midst  of  the  ocean  ;  and 
therefore  do  I  pervade  all  beings.  .  .  . 
Originating  all  beings,  I  pass  like  the  breeze 
(Holy  Ghost),  I  am  above  this  heaven, 
beyond  this  earth  ;  and  what  is  the  Great 
One  that  am  /."  f  Literally,  Vach  is 
speech,  the  power  of  awakening,  through 
the  metrical  arrangement  contained  in  the 
number  and  syllables  of  the  Mantras,  \  cor- 
responding powers  in  the  invisible  world. 
In  the  sacrificial  Mysteries  Vach  stirs  up 
the  Brahma  {Brahma  jinvati),  or  the 
power  lying  latent  at  the  bottom  of  every 
magical  operation.  It  existed  from  eter- 
nity as  the  Yajna  (its  latent  form),  lying 
dormant  in  Brahma  from  "no-beginning," 
and  proceeded  forth  from  him  as  Vach  (the 
active  power).   It  is  the  key  to  the  "  Traiv- 

♦  Mandala  I.,  SuUta  166,  Max  Miiller. 

t  "Asiatic  Researches,"  vol.  viii.,  pp.  402,  403  ; 
Colebrooke's  translation. 

X  As  in  the  Pythagorean  numerical  system  every 
number  on  earth,  or  the  world  of  the  effects,  corre- 
sponds to  its  invisible  prototype  in  the  world  of 

Chochmah  issuing  from  Keter,  or  the  an- 
drogyne, Adam  Kadmon,  and  the  second, 
Binah,  from  ChochmaH.  If  we  combine 
with  Jod  X.h&  three  letters  which  form  the 
name  of  Eve,  we  will  have  the  divine 
tetragram  pronounced  Ievo-hevah,  Adam 
and  Eve,  ,-nn"'j  Jehovah,  male  and  female, 
or  the  idealization  of  humanity  embodied 
in  the  first  man.  Thus  is  it  that  we  can 
prove  that,  while  the  Jewish  kabalists,  in 
common  with  their  initiated  masters,  the 
Chaldeans  and  the  Hindus,  adored  the 
Supreme  and  Unknown  God,  in  the  .sacred 
silence  of  their  sanctuaries,  the  ignorant 
masses  of  every  nation  were  left  to  adore 
something  which  was  certainly  less  than 
the  Eternal  Substance  of  the  Buddhists, 
the  so-called  Atheists.  As  Brahma,  the 
deity  manifested  in  the  mythical  JManu^  or 
the  first  man  (born  of  Swayanibhuva,  or 
the  Self-existent),  is  finite,  so  Jehovah, 
embodied  in  Adam  and  Eve,  it.  but  a 
human  god.  He  is  the  symbol  of  human- 
ity, a  mixture  of  good  with  a  portion  of 
unavoidable  evil ;  of  spirit  fallen  into  mat- 
ter. In  worshipping  Jehovah,  we  simply 
worship  nature,  as  embodied  in  man,  half- 
spiritual  and  half-material,  at  best  :  we 
are  Pantheists,  when  not  fetich  wor- 
shippers, like  the  idolatrous  Jews,  who 
sacrificed  on  high  places,  in  groves,  to  the 
personified  male  and  female  principle, 
ignorant  of  Iao,  the  Supreme  '*  Secret 
Name  "  of  the  Mysteries. 

Shekinah  is  the  Hindu  Vach,  and  praised 
in  the  same  terms  as  the  latter.  Though 
shown  in  the  kabalistic  Tree  of  Life  as  pro- 
ceeding from  the  ninth  Sephiroth,  yet 
Shekinah  is  the  "veil"  of  En-Soph,  and 
the  "garment"  of  Jehovah.  The  "veil," 
for  it  succeeded  for  long  ages  in  concealing 
the  real  supreme  God,  the  universal  Spirit, 
and  masking  Jehovah,  the  exoteric  deity, 
made  the  Christians  accept  him  as  the 
"father"  of  the  initiated  Jesus.  Yet  the 
kabalists,  as  well  as  the  Hindu  Dikshita^ 
know  the  power  of  the  Shekinah  or 
Vach,   and  call    it  the   "secret  wisdom," 

The  triangle  played  a  prominent  part  in 



idya,"  the  thrice  sacred  science  which 
teaches  the  Yajus  (the  sacrificial  Myste- 
ries). * 

Having  done  with  the  unrevealed  triad, 
and  the  first  triad  of  the  Sephiroth,  called 
the  **  intellectual  world,"  little  remains  to 
be  said.  In  the  great  geometrical  figure 
which  has  the  double  triangle  in  it,  the 
central  circle  represents  the  world  within 
the  universe.  The  double  triangle  belongs 
to  one  of  the  most  important,  if  it  is  not 
in  itself  the  most  important,  of  the  mystic 
figures'in  India.  It  is  the  emblem  of  the 
Trimurti  three  in  one.  The  triangle  with 
its  apex  upward  indicates  the  male  princi- 
ple, downward  the  female  ;  the  two  typify- 
ing, at  the  same  time,  spirit  and  matter. 
This  world  within  the  infinite  universe  is 
the  microcosm  within  the  macrocosm,  as 
in  the  Jewish  Kabala.  It  is  the  symbol  of 
the  womb  of  the  universe,  the  terrestrial 
^%%i  whose  archetype  is  the  golden  mun- 
dane egg.  It  is  from  within  this  spiritual 
bosom  of  mother  nature  that  proceed  all 
the  great  saviours  of  the  universe — the 
avatars  of  the  invisible  Deity. 

**  Of  him  who  is  and  yet  is  not,  from  the 
not-being,  Eternal  Cause,  is  born  the  being 
Pouroucha,"  says  Manu,  the  legislator. 
Pouroucha  is  the  *'  divine  male,'*  the  secotid 
god,  and  the  avatar,  or  the  Logos  of  Para- 
Brahma  and  his  divine  son,  who  in  his 
turn  produced  Viradj,  the  son,  or  the  ideal 
type  of  the  universe.  "  Viradj  begins  the 
work  of  creation  by  producing  the  ten 
Pradjapati,  '  the  lords  of  all  beings.'  " 

According  to  the  doctrine  of  Manu,  the 
universe. is  subjected  to  a  periodical  and 
never-ending  succession  of  creations  and 
dissolutions,  which  periods  of  creation  are 
named  Manvantara. 

'*  It  is  the  germ  (which  the  Divine  Spirit 
produced  from  its  own  substance)  which 
never  perishes  in  the  being,  for  it  be- 
comes the  soul  of  Being,  and  at  the 
period  of  pralaya  (dissolution)  it  returns 
to  al^sorb  itself  again  hito  the  Divine 
Spirit,  which  itself  rests  from  all  eternity 

*  See  initial  chap.,  vol  i.,  word  Yajna, 

the  religious  symbolism  of  every  great 
nation;  for  everywhere  it  represented  the 
thiee  great  principles— spirit,  force,  and 
matter;  or  the  active  (male),  passive  (fe- 
male), and  the  dual  or  correlative  principle 
which  partakes  of  both  and  binds  the  two 
together.  It  was  the  Arba  or  mystic 
*'four,"  *  the  mystery-gods,  the  Kabeiri, 
summarized  in  the  unity  of  one  supreme 
Deity.  It  is  found  in  the  Egyptian  pyra- 
mids, whose  equal  sides  tower  up  until 
lost  in  one  crowning  point.  In  the  kaba- 
listic  diagram  the  central  circle  of  the 
Brahmanical  figure  is  replaced  by  the  cross ; 
the  celestial  perpendicular  and  the  terres- 
trial horizontal  base  line,  \  But  the  idea 
is  the  same :  Adam  Kadmon  is  the  type 
of  humanity  as  a  collective  totality  within 
the  unity  of  the  creative  God  and  the  uni- 
versal spirit. 

*Eve  is  the  trinity  of  nature,  and  Adam  the  unity 
of  spirit ;  the  former  the  created  material